Mongolian History

Historical Events

Battle of Interest

1215-06-01 Peking [Beijing], then a city of over one million, under control of Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured and looted for a month by the Mongols under Genghis Khan

  • 1238-03-04 Battle of the Sit River: Mongol forces of Batu Khan overcome Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal near Yaroslavl in Russia, ending Russian resistance
  • 1240-12-06 Mongols under Batu Khan occupy and destroy Kiev; out of 50,000 people in the city only 2,000 survive
  • 1241-03-18 Mongolian armies rout the forces of Boleslaw IV at Chmielnik and sack and burn the city of Kraków to the ground
  • 1241-04-09 Battle of Liegnitz - Mongolian armies inflict one of the largest defeats in Polish history on Polish and Germans force led by Henry of Silesia with 20-25,000 killed or massacred, including Henry
  • 1241-04-11 Battle of Mohi: Mongols led by Batu and Subedei defeat Hungarian King Béla IV in the major battle in during Mongolian invasion of Hungary, with 30,000 Hungarians slain
  • 1249-02-16 Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols
  • 1250-04-15 Kublai is acclaimed the Great Khan by a Mongol Great Council
  • 1256-12-15 Hulagu Khan captures and destroys Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut, in present-day Iran, part of the Mongol offensive on Islamic southwest Asia
  • 1258-01-29 Mongols defeated by Dai Viet at the battle of Dong Bo Dau

Abbasid-Era Baghdad

1258-02-13 Baghdad, then a city of 1 million, falls to the Mongols as the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed, tens of thousands slaughtered, ending the Islamic Golden Age

Historic Event

1260-05-05 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes ruler of the Mongol Empire

  • 1260-05-21 Hao Jing, envoy of Mongol leader Kublai Khan imprisoned by order of the high Chancellor of China, Jia Sidao at the Song Dynasty court of Emperor Lizong while attempting to negotiate with the Song
  • 1260-09-03 Battle of Ain Jalut: Bahr: Mamluk of Egypt defeat Mongol army led by Kitbuqa in the Levant - often labelled a turning point in world history, saving the Arabic-Islamic civilization from destruction
  • 1264-08-21 Kublai Khan accepts the surrender of his younger brother Ariq Böke at Xanadu, at the end of the Mongol civil war

Letter from Kublai Khan to the Japanese Emperor

1274-10-05 Around 1,000 soldiers of the Mongol army land on the Japanese island of Tsushima, the first attack of Kublai Khan's Mongol invasion of Japan

  • 1274-11-19 Mongol army lands at Hakata Bay in Japan during their first invasion attempt and are defeated; a typhoon destroys most of their fleet as they withdraw
  • 1276-06-14 While taking exile in Fuzhou, southern China, from advancing Mongol invaders, remnants of the Song Dynasty court hold coronation ceremony for young prince Zhao Shi, making him Emperor Duanzong of Song
  • 1279-03-19 A Mongolian victory at the naval Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China
  • 1279-07-29 Five emissaries dispatched by Kublai Khan from the Mongol Yuan dynasty are beheaded by Japan
  • 1280-02-20 Japanese Imperial Court orders all temples and shrines to pray for victory in the impending second Mongol invasion
  • 1281-08-14 During Kublai Khan's second Mongol invasion of Japan his invading Chinese fleet of 3,500 vessels disappears in a typhoon near Japan
  • 1363-08-30 Beginning of the Battle of Lake Poyang; two Chinese rebel leaders Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang are pitted against each other in what was one of the largest naval battles in history during Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty
  • 1380-09-08 Battle on Kulikovo: Moscow's great monarch Dimitri defeats the Mongols beginning the decline of the Tatars

Historic Event

1401-07-09 Turko-Mongol ruler Tamerlane (Timur) destroys Baghdad, killing 20,000

  • 1449-09-08 Battle of Tumu Fortress - Mongolians capture the Chinese Emperor Yingzong of Ming

The Great Stand on the Ugra River

1480-10-08 Great Stand on the Ugra river: Standoff between forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde and Ivan III, Grand Prince of all Rus. Ends with a Tatar-Mongol retreat, leading to the disintegration of the Horde.

  • 1658-07-31 Aurangzeb appoints himself Mongol emperor
  • 1911-12-29 Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty
  • 1921-02-25 The Living Buddha, Hutuktu, is crowned King of Mongolia as the country declares independence from China
  • 1921-03-13 Mongolia (formerly Outer Mongolia) declares independence from China
  • 1921-07-11 Mongolia gains independence from China (National Day)
  • 1921-11-05 Soviet Russia signs a treaty with Mongolia, temporarily supporting the new government against China and Japanese incursions
  • 1923-07-13 American explorer Roy Chapman Andrews discovers the first recognised dinosaur eggs, in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia
  • 1924-11-26 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed
  • 1939-08-20 Russian offensive under General Zjoekov against Japanese invasion in Mongolia
  • 1939-08-31 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
  • 1960-07-05 Mongolia adopts constitution
  • 1961-10-27 Outer Mongolia & Mauritania become 102nd & 103rd members of United Nations
  • 1981-03-22 Soyuz 39 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Mongolian) to Salyut 6
  • 1993-06-06 Punsalmaagiyn Otsjirbat recognized as President of Mongolia
  • 1998-01-01 Mongolia switches from a 46 hour to 40 hour work week
  • 2001-12-19 A record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) is recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia.
  • 2013-06-27 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj is re-elected President of Mongolia
  • 2015-10-31 Breeders' Cup Horse Racing, Keeneland Racetrack; Day 2 winners: Songbird, Mongolian Saturday, Wavell Avenue, Stephanie's Kitten, Runhappy, Tepin, Nyquist, Found, American Pharoah
  • 2020-09-01 Rare protests in Mongolia against moves to teach school subjects in Mandarin instead of Mongolian

Famous Birthdays

Kublai Khan

1215-09-23 Kublai Khan, Mongol Emperor (1260-94) and founder of the Yuan dynasty in China (1271-94), born in Mongolia (d. 1294)

Temür Khan

1265-10-15 Temür Khan, Second Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (1294-1307), grandson and successor of Kublai Khan, born in Khanbaliq (Dadu or modern day Beijing), Mongol Empire (d. 1307)

  • 1271-11-05 Maḥmūd Ghāzān, 7th Mongol Empire ruler in Iran, born in Abaskun, Iran (d. 1304)
  • 1902-02-08 Demchugdongrub, Mongolian politician (d. 1966)
  • 1946-05-20 Bakhaavaa Buidaa, Mongolia, wrestler (Olympic silver 1972) disqualified
  • 1947-12-05 Jugderdemidjin Gurragcha, Mongolian cosmonaut (Soyuz 39), born in Gurvanbulag, Bulgan, Mongolia
  • 1949-02-05 Maidarjabyn Ganzorig, Mongolian scientist & cosmonaut (Soyuz 39 backup), born in Tsetserleg, Mongolia
  • 1952-01-31 Nadya Rusheva, Russian painter, born in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (d. 1969)
  • 1968-02-02 Simon Wickham-Smith, British composer and Mongolist, born in England
  • 1980-09-17 Asashoryu Akinori, Mongolian sumo wrestler (born as Dolgorsuren Dagvador)
  • 1984-06-01 Naidangiin Tüvshinbayar, Mongolian judoka (Olympic gold -100kg 2008; silver 2012; first Mongolian Olympic gold medallist), born in Saikhan sum, Bulgan Province, Mongolia

Famous Weddings

  • 2007-07-12 World's tallest man who measures 7'9" Bao Xishun (56) weds Xia Shujian (28) in a traditional Mongolian ceremony at the tomb of Kublai Khan in Beijing, China

Famous Deaths

Genghis Khan

1227-08-18 Genghis Khan [Temüjin Borjigin], Mongolian warlord who founded the Mongol Empire, dies at around 65

  • 1265-02-08 Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler, grandson of Genghis Khan (besieged and pillaged Baghdad) (b. 1217)
  • 1286-01-05 Zhenjin, Crown Prince of the Mongol Empire, son of Kublai Khan and father of his successor Temür, dies at about 43

Kublai Khan

1294-02-18 Kublai Khan, Mongol Emperor (1260-94) and founder of the Yuan dynasty in China (1271-94), dies at 78

  • 1304-05-11 Maḥmūd Ghāzān, 7th Mongol Empire ruler in Iran, dies at 32


1405-02-19 Timur [Amir Timur, Tamerlane], Turko-Mongol ruler who founded the Timurid Empire, dies at about 68

  • 1900-07-24 Ferdinand Hamet, Dutch missionary in Mongolia, murdered at 59
  • 1952-01-26 Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of Mongolia (b. 1895)
  • 1966-05-23 Demchugdongrub, Mongolian politician (b. 1902)
  • 1991-04-20 Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Mongolian politician (Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural (President), 1974-84; Prime Minister, 1952-74; General Secretary of the Mongolian People's Party, 1940-54), dies at 74