Nicaraguan History

Historical Events

  • 1821-09-15 Act of Independence of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras & Nicaragua declare their independence from the Spanish Empire
  • 1824-07-25 Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.
  • 1825-04-10 Nicaraguan constituent assembly meets at Leon
  • 1838-04-30 Nicaragua declares independence from Central American federation
  • 1848-01-01 Britain takes Mosquito Coast from Nicaragua
  • 1849-03-12 1st gold seekers arrive in Nicaragua en route to California
  • 1854-07-13 US forces shell and burn San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua
  • 1855-06-01 US adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua, reestablishes slavery
  • 1856-04-11 Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Nicaraguans
  • 1856-09-14 Battle of San Jacinto at Hacienda San Jacinto, Nicaraguan forces defeat American filibusters
  • 1857-05-01 William Walker, conqueror of Nicaragua, surrenders to US Navy
  • 1860-01-28 Britain formally returns Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua
  • 1893-07-11 A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua
  • 1894-02-24 Nicaragua captures Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • 1894-11-20 US intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua
  • 1895-06-20 Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras form a short-lived confederation

  • 1895-06-28 El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form Central American Union
  • 1896-03-20 Marines land in Nicaragua to protect US citizens
  • 1900-11-30 The First Isthmian Canal Commission, appointed by the President having examined possible routes for a canal, issues its report favoring that through Nicaragua over the Panama route
  • 1902-01-18 Despite reports that favor the US building a route through Nicaragua for a canal, a 'supplementary report' recommends the route through Panama
  • 1907-03-21 US sends troops to Honduras to halt the Nicaraguan army takeover
  • 1907-11-13 The Conference of Central American States, convoked in response to the war between Honduras and Nicaragua, meets in Washington, D.C. to promote unification
  • 1909-11-18 US invades Nicaragua, later overthrows President Zelaya
  • 1909-12-16 A conservative revolution and US pressure forces Nicaraguan President Jose Santos from office
  • 1910-08-20 US supported opposition brings down Madriz in Nicaragua
  • 1911-06-06 Nicaragua signs treaty turning over customs to US (not ratified)
  • 1912-05-30 US Marines sent to Nicaragua
  • 1912-08-14 2,500 US marines invade Nicaragua; US remains until 1925
  • 1913-12-15 Nicaragua becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty
  • 1914-08-05 US and Nicaragua sign treaty granting canal rights to US
  • 1925-08-03 Last US troops leave Nicaragua (there since 1912)
  • 1925-08-04 US marines leave Nicaragua after 13-year occupation
  • 1926-05-02 US military intervenes in Nicaragua
  • 1926-05-03 US Marines land in Nicaragua (9 months after leaving), stay until 1933
  • 1927-01-06 US marines return to Nicaragua
  • 1927-05-04 Nicaragua agrees to a US supervised presidential election in 1928

  • 1927-07-16 Augusto Sandino begins 5½ year war against US occupation of Nicaragua
  • 1928-11-04 Jose Moncada elected president of Nicaragua
  • 1931-04-01 Earthquake devastate Managua Nicaragua, kills 2,000
  • 1933-01-02 US troops leave Nicaragua
  • 1934-02-21 Nicaraguan patriot Augusto Cesar Sandino assassinated by National Guard
  • 1936-06-02 General Anastasio Somoza García takes over as dictator of Nicaragua
  • 1936-12-08 Anastasio Somoza García elected President of Nicaragua
  • 1937-01-01 Anastasio Somoza García becomes President of Nicaragua

United NationsUnited Nations Charter

1945-07-06 Nicaragua becomes 1st nation to ratify the Charter of the United Nations

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Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

1953-07-07 Che Guevara sets out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador

Argentine Revolutionary Che Guevara
Argentine Revolutionary
Che Guevara

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1955-11-03 Argentine ex-president Juan Perón arrives in Nicaragua

General and President of Argentina Juan Perón
General and President of Argentina
Juan Perón
  • 1959-05-30 President Luis Somoza Debayle ends emergency crisis in Nicaragua
  • 1961-04-14 Cuban-American invasion army departs Nicaragua
  • 1967-02-05 Anastasio Somoza Debayle elected President of Nicaragua
  • 1967-05-01 Anastasio Somoza Debayle becomes President of Nicaragua
  • 1971-04-25 US canal rights in Nicaragua & rights to Corn Islands expire
  • 1972-12-22 6.25 earthquake strikes Managua Nicaragua, 12,000+ killed
  • 1972-12-23 6.25 Earthquake destroys central Managua Nicaragua, 10,000 die
  • 1978-08-22 Sandinistas occupy National Palace in Managua, Nicaragua
  • 1979-07-17 Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle flees to Miami

  • 1979-07-19 Nicaragua Liberation Day; Sandinistas take over from Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1981-11-16 President Reagan decides on a covert plan to block the Cuban aid to Nicaragua and El Salvador

US President & Actor Ronald Reagan
US President & Actor
Ronald Reagan
  • 1982-03-15 Nicaragua suspends their citizens rights for 30 days
  • 1983-06-06 Nicaragua expels 3 US diplomats
  • 1984-03-07 The United States attacks San Juan del Sur in Nicaragua.
  • 1984-04-10 US Senate condemns CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors
  • 1984-05-10 Intl Court of Justice rules on US blockade of Nicaragua
  • 1984-05-30 Bomb explodes in rebel leader Eden Pastora's headquarters in Nicaragua
  • 1984-11-04 Nicaragua holds first free elections in 56 years; Sandinistas win 63%

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1985-01-10 Daniel Ortega inaugurated as President of Nicaragua for the first time

President of Nicaragua and Revolutionary Leader Daniel Ortega
President of Nicaragua and Revolutionary Leader
Daniel Ortega
  • 1985-05-01 US President Reagan ends embargo against Nicaragua
  • 1986-06-27 World Court rules US aid to Nicaraguan contras illegal
  • 1987-01-09 New Nicaraguan constitution takes effect
  • 1987-04-28 American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U.S.-funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
  • 1988-03-16 US sends 3,000 soldiers to Nicaragua's neighbor Honduras
  • 1988-03-29 US Congress discontinues aid to Nicaraguan contras
  • 1989-08-05 General elections are held in Nicaragua with the Sandinista Front winning a majority.
  • 1990-02-25 Nicaraguans votes out Sandinistas
  • 1990-02-26 The Sandinistas are defeated in Nicaraguan elections.
  • 1990-04-25 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro begins a 6-year term as Nicaragua's president
  • 1991-08-06 American softball pitcher Debbie Doom strikes out 17 in her 2nd consecutive perfect game at the Pan American Games in Havana, Cuba; beats Nicaragua, 8-0
  • 1992-09-02 Nicaragua struck by earthquake/floodings; 118 die

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1997-01-10 Arnoldo Aleman sworn in as president of Nicaragua

President of Nicaragua Arnoldo Aleman
President of Nicaragua
Arnoldo Aleman
  • 2000-08-23 Nicaragua becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty. This essentially deprecated the Buenos Aires Convention treaty, because as of this date, all members of the BA Convention were also signatories to Berne.

Famous Birthdays

  • 1824-05-08 William Walker, American physician and president of Nicaragua (1856-57), born in Nashville, Tennessee (d. 1860)
  • 1853-11-01 José Santos Zelaya, President of Nicaragua (1893-1910), born in Managua, Nicaragua (d. 1919)
  • 1867-01-18 Rubén Darío, Nicaraguan Journalist, Diplomat, Poet (d. 1916)
  • 1874-12-21 Juan Bautista Sacasa, President of Nicaragua (1932-36), born in León, Nicaragua
  • 1895-03-03 Matthew B Ridgway, US gen (WW II/China/Nicaragua/Korea/NATO)
  • 1896-02-01 Anastasio Somoza García [Tacho], General, dictator and President of Nicaragua (1937-56), born in San Marcos, Nicaragua (d. 1956)
  • 1922-11-18 Luis Somoza Debayle, President of Nicaragua (1956-63), born in León, Nicaragua (d. 1967)
  • 1925-01-20 Ernesto Cardenal, Nicaraguan Catholic priest, politician and writer, born in Granada, Nicaragua
  • 1925-12-05 Anastasio Somoza Debayle [Tachito], President of Nicaragua (1967-72 and 1974-79), born in León, Nicaragua (d. 1980)
  • 1926-02-02 Miguel Cardinal Obando y Bravo, 1st Cent American cardinal (Nicaragua)
  • 1928-05-13 Enrique Bolaños, President of Nicaragua
  • 1929-10-18 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, president of Nicaragua (1990- )
  • 1937-01-22 Edén Pastora, Nicaraguan rebel leader
  • 1945-05-02 Bianca Jagger [Blanca Pérez-Mora Macías], Nicaraguan model and socialite who married Mike Jagger, born in Managua, Nicaragua

Person of interestDaniel Ortega

1945-11-11 Daniel Ortega, Nicaraguan politician (President of Nicaragua, 1985-90, 2007-), born in La Libertad, Nicaragua

President of Nicaragua and Revolutionary Leader Daniel Ortega
President of Nicaragua and Revolutionary Leader
Daniel Ortega
  • 1945-12-31 Barbara Carrera, Nicaraguan actress (Angelica-Dallas), born in Bluefields, Nicaragua

Person of interestArnoldo Aleman

1946-01-23 Arnoldo Aleman, 81st President of Nicaragua (1997-2002), born in Managua, Nicaragua

President of Nicaragua Arnoldo Aleman
President of Nicaragua
Arnoldo Aleman
  • 1952-04-12 Alexis Argüello, Nicaraguan boxer (3-weight world champion), born in Managua, Nicaragua (d. 2009)
  • 1953-08-29 James Quesada, Nicaraguan-American anthropologist
  • 1954-08-14 Monica Baltodano, Nicaraguan Sandinista Revolution commander, born in Leon, Nicaragua

Person of interestDennis Martínez

1955-05-14 [Jose] Dennis Martínez, Nicaraguan baseball pitcher (Orioles, Expos, Indians), born in Granada, Nicaragua

MLB Pitcher Dennis Martínez
MLB Pitcher
Dennis Martínez
  • 1970-01-20 Marvin Benard, American baseball outfielder (SF Giants), born in Bluefields, Nicaragua

Famous Deaths

  • 1912-10-04 Gen Zeledon, Nicaraguan opponent of US occupation, is executed
  • 1916-02-06 Rubén Darío, Nicaraguan writer (b. 1867)
  • 1934-02-23 Augusto Sandino, Nicaraguan patriot, assassinated by National Guard
  • 1956-09-21 Anastasio Somoza García [Tacho], General, dictator and President of Nicaragua (1937-56), assassinated by Roliberto Lopez at 60
  • 1967-04-13 Luis Somoza Debayle, President of Nicaragua (1956-63), dies at 44
  • 1980-09-17 Anastasio Somoza Debayle [Tachito], President of Nicaragua (1967-72 and 1974-79), assassinated in Paraguay at 54
  • 1987-04-28 Ben Linder, American engineer, murdered by Contras in Nicaragua at 27
  • 1991-02-16 Enrique B Varela, commandant Nicaragua contra's, dies
  • 2008-01-04 Xavier Chamorro Cardenal, Nicaraguan print editor (b. 1932)
  • 2009-07-01 Alexis Argüello, Nicaraguan boxer (3-weight world champion), dies of self inflicted gun wound at 57