History of the Roman Empire

Historical Events

  • 0753-04-21 BC Romulus and Remus found Rome (traditional date)
  • 0752-03-01 BC Romulus, first king of Rome, celebrates the first Roman triumph after his victory over the Caeninenses, following the Rape of the Sabine Women
  • 0509-09-13 BC The temple of Jupiter on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September
  • 0390-07-18 BC Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia - Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leads to subsequent sacking of Rome
  • 0293-08-18 BC The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded, starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica (grape harvest festival)
  • 0241-03-10 BC First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing the First Punic War to an end
  • 0218-12-18 BC Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal's Carthaginian army heavily defeat Roman forces on Italian soil
  • 0216-08-02 BC Second Punic War: Battle of Cannae - Carthaginian army lead by Hannibal defeats numerically superior Roman army under command consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro
  • 0215-04-23 BC A temple, built on the Capitoline Hill, is dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene
  • 0202-10-19 BC Battle of Zama: Hannibal Barca and the Carthaginian army are defeated by Roman legions under Scipio Africanus, ending 2nd Punic War
  • 0168-06-22 BC Battle of Pydna: Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeat and capture Macedonian King Perseus, ending the Third Macedonian War
  • 0153-01-01 BC Roman consuls begin their year in office
  • 0105-10-06 BC Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus.

Victory in Battle

0101-07-30 BC Battle of Vercellae: Roman army under Gaius Marius defeats the Cimbri in Cisalpine Gaul, ending the Celto-Germanic threat on Italy's border with over 100,000 Cimbri killed

  • 0086-03-01 BC Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army, enters Athens, removing the tyrant Aristion who was supported by troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus

Victory in Battle

0052-10-03 BC Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and battle of Alesia

Julius Caesar Crosses the Rubicon

0049-01-10 BC Julius Caesar defies the Roman Senate and crosses the Rubicon, uttering "alea iacta est" (the die is cast), signaling the start of civil war which would lead to his appointment as Roman dictator for life

  • 0046-09-21 BC Julius Caesar celebrates first of four triumphal processions in Rome - over Gaul, Egypt, Pontus and Africa with leader of the Gauls Vercingetorix led in chains

Assassination of Julius Caesar

0044-03-15 BC Julius Caesar is stabbed to death by Brutus, Cassius and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March in Rome

  • 0043-12-07 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman orator and politician is assassinated in Formiae

Historic Event

0043-11-26 BC Second Triumvirate alliance of Roman leader Octavian (later Caesar Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony formed

  • 0043-08-19 BC Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul
  • 0042-10-23 BC Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.

Victory in Battle

0031-09-02 BC Battle of Actium: decisive naval battle that effectively ends the Roman Republic. Octavian's forces defeat those under Mark Antony and Cleopatra off the western coast of Greece.

  • 0030-08-01 BC Octavian (later known as Augustus) enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic
  • 0027-01-16 BC The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate

Roman Empire

0008-08-03 Roman Empire general Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus

  • 0013-11-16 General Tiberius' (later Emperor) triumphant procession through Rome after siege of Germany
  • 0028-06-12 Roman General Gaius Carrinas' triumphant procession through Rome, awarded for fighting in Gaul
  • 0030-04-07 Scholars' estimate for Jesus' crucifixion by Roman troops in Jerusalem [or April 3]

Historic Event

0037-03-18 Roman Senate annuls Tiberius' will and proclaims Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (aka Caligula = Little Boots) emperor

  • 0037-03-28 Roman Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, better known as Caligula (which means "little soldier's boots"), accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate

Assassination

0041-01-24 Claudius succeeds his nephew Caligula as Roman Emperor after the latter's assassination by officers of the Praetorian Guard

  • 0041-01-25 After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate

Roman Empire

0051-03-04 Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth)

  • 0054-10-13 Nero succeeds Claudius as Roman Emperor
  • 0055-02-11 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman Emperorship, dies under mysterious circumstances in Rome. This clears the way for Nero to become Emperor.
  • 0064-07-18 Great Fire of Rome begins under the Emperor Nero
  • 0064-07-19 Circus Maximus in Rome catches fire
  • 0065-06-08 Jews revolt against Rome, capturing fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem
  • 0068-06-08 Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba
  • 0068-06-09 Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide, imploring his secretary Epaphroditos to slit his throat to evade a Senate-imposed death by flogging

Victory in Battle

0068-06-21 Roman General Vespasian conquers Jericho during the Great Jewish Revolt

  • 0069-01-01 Roman garrison of Mainz uprising
  • 0069-01-02 Roman Lower Rhine army proclaims its commander, Vitellius, Emperor
  • 0069-01-10 Roman emperor Galba adopts Marcus Piso Licinianus as Caesar
  • 0069-01-15 Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaiming himself Emperor, only rules for three months before committing suicide
  • 0069-07-01 Roman General Vespasian is first proclaimed Emperor by troops in Egypt, during year of the four emperors
  • 0069-12-20 General Vespasian's troops occupy Rome after defeating the Emperor Vitellius
  • 0070-05-31 Rome captures 1st wall of the city of Jerusalem

Historic Event

0070-06-05 Titus and his Roman legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem

  • 0070-07-01 Roman General Titus and his forces set up battering rams to assault the walls of Jerusalem
  • 0070-08-08 Tower of Antonia destroyed by Romans
  • 0070-08-10 Second Temple in Jerusalem set on fire by Roman army under Titus during the capture of the city (approx)
  • 0070-09-07 Roman army under General Titus occupies and plunders Jerusalem
  • 0070-09-27 Walls of upper city of Jerusalem battered down by Roman army
  • 0073-04-16 Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Jewish Revolt

The 17 Year-Old Witness to the Eruption of Vesuvius

0079-08-23 Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on feast day of Vulcan, Roman god of fire (goes on to destroy Pompeii) [approx date] [1] [2]

Roman Empire

0081-09-14 Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus

  • 0089-01-01 Governor Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes emperor of Rome

Assassination

0096-09-18 Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated

Roman Empire

0098-01-27 Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva.

  • 0104-01-01 Triumphal procession for the Roman General Gaius Marius with the defeated Numidian King Jugurtha led in chains though Rome
  • 0161-03-07 Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, an unprecedented political arrangement in the Roman Empire

Roman Empire

0176-11-27 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius grants his son Commodus the rank of Imperator

  • 0177-01-01 Commodus, son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius becomes consul for the first time - at 15 then youngest ever in Roman history
  • 0180-03-17 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius dies leaving his son Commodus aged 18 as sole emperor
  • 0192-12-31 Roman Emperor Commodus survives poisoning attempt by his mistress only to be strangled in the bath in assassination plot
  • 0193-03-28 Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.

Roman Empire

0193-04-09 Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum

Assassination

0217-04-08 Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus

Historic Event

0218-06-08 Elagabalus becomes the emperor of Rome

  • 0235-09-28 Bishop of Rome Pontianus steps down
  • 0238-03-22 Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor
  • 0251-07-01 The Battle of Abrittus in the Balkans won by the Goths against the Romans. Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed
  • 0258-08-06 Pope St Sixtus II beheaded in Rome under persecutions by Roman Emperor Valerian
  • 0268-12-26 Saint Dionysius, Roman Pope (259-260), dies

Roman Empire

0274-12-25 Roman Emperor Aurelian dedicates a temple to Sol Invictus on the supposed day of the winter solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun.

Historic Event

0284-11-20 Roman soldier Diocletian proclaimed Emperor by the army

  • 0293-03-01 Roman emperor Maximianus introduces tetrarchy (rule of four people) elevating Galerius and Constantius Chlorus to Caesar
  • 0303-02-23 Roman Emperor Diocletian begins his policy of persecuting Christians, razing the church at Nicomedia
  • 0303-02-24 1st official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued by Emperor Diocletian
  • 0305-05-01 Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor

Roman Empire

0306-07-25 Constantine I is proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops

Historic Event

0306-10-28 Maxentius proclaimed Emperor of Rome

  • 0308-11-11 The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius and Licinius to be Augusti, while rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
  • 0311-04-30 Roman Emperor Galerius issues Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire
  • 0313-01-01 Start of Roman (Pontifical) Indiction
  • 0314-10-08 Battle at Cibalae: Roman emperor in the west Constantine beats emperor in the east Licinius
  • 0317-03-01 Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius the younger, son of Emperor Licinius, raised to rank of Caesar
  • 0321-03-07 Roman Emperor Constantine I decrees that the dies Solis Invicti (sun-day) is the day of rest in the Empire
  • 0324-07-03 Battle of Adrianople: Roman Emperor Constantine I defeats his co-emperor Licinius, who flees to Byzantium
  • 0324-12-19 Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor.
  • 0326-11-18 Old St. Peter's Basilica consecrated in Rome (stood 4th - 16th century), later replaced by current Basilica
  • 0330-05-11 Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes the capital of the Roman Empire

Famous Birthdays

  • 0236-06-20 BC Scipio Africanus, Roman statesman and general of the Second Punic War, born in Rome, Italia, Roman Republic (d. 183 BC)

Aurelia Cotta

0120-05-21 BC Aurelia Cotta, Mother of Julius Caesar, born in Rome (d. 54 BC)

Pompey the Great

0106-09-29 BC Pompey the Great [Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus], Roman political and military leader (1st Triumvirate and Consul), born in Picenum, Italy (d. 48 BC)

Cicero

0106-01-03 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher, born in Arpinum (d. 43 BC)

Julius Caesar

0100-07-13 BC Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader, born in Rome (d. 44 BC), (or July 12)

Mark Antony

0083-01-14 BC Mark Antony [Marcus Antonius], Roman politician and general (Battle of Actium), born in Rome (d. 30 BC)

Virgil

0070-10-15 BC Virgil [Publius Vergilius Maro], Roman poet of the Augustan period (Aeneid), born in Andes, Cisalpine Gaul (d. 19 BC)

Horace

0065-12-08 BC Horace, Roman Republican poet (Odes), born in Venosa, Italy (d. 8 BC)

Marcus Agrippa

0063-10-23 BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Roman general (Battle of Actium) (or 64 BC), born in an uncertain location but possibly in Arpino, Istria or Asisium (d. 12 BC)

Augustus Caesar

0063-09-23 BC Augustus Caesar [Gaius Octavius], First Roman Emperor (27 BC-14 AD), born in Rome, Roman Republic (d. 14 AD)

Livia

0058-01-30 BC Livia Drusilla [Julia Augusta], Wife and adviser of Roman Emperor Augustus and mother of Emperor Tiberius, probably born in Rome (d. 29)

  • 0043-03-20 BC Ovid [Publius Ovidius Naso], Roman poet (Metamorphoses)(d. 17)

Tiberius

0042-11-16 BC Tiberius Claudius Nero, Roman emperor (14 AD-37 AD), born in Rome (d. 37 AD)

  • 0015-05-24 BC Julius Caesar Germanicus, Roman commander, born in Roma, Italia, Roman Empire (d. 19)

Claudius

0010-08-01 BC Claudius, Roman Emperor (41-54), born in Lugdunum, Gaul (d. 54AD)

  • 0003-12-24 Galba, Roman Emperor, born in Terracina, Italy (d. 69)

Vespasian

0009-11-17 Vespasian, Roman Emperor (AD 69-79), born in Falacrina, Italy (d. AD 79)

Caligula

0012-08-31 Caligula [Gaius Caesar], 3rd Roman Emperor (37-41 AD), born in Anzio, Italy (d. 41)

  • 0015-09-24 Aulus Vitellius, Roman Emperor for a few months in 69AD, born in Rome (d. 69)

Agrippina the Younger

0015-11-06 Agrippina the Younger [Julia Agrippina], Roman Empress (sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero), born in Oppidum Ubiorum (Cologne) (d. 59)

Messalina

0017-01-25 Messalina, Roman Empress (wife of Claudius, infamous for her promiscuity) (born either 17 or 20 AD), born in Rome (d. 48)

Nerva

0030-11-08 Nerva, Roman Emperor (96-98), born in Narni, Italy (d. 98)

  • 0032-04-28 Marcus Salvius Otho, Roman Emperor, born in Ferentium, Italy (d. 69)

Nero

0037-12-15 Nero, 5th Emperor of Rome (54-68), born in Antium, Italy (d. 68)

Titus

0039-12-30 Titus, 10th Roman Emperor (79-81) and conqueror of Jerusalem, born in Rome (d. 81)

  • 0040-06-13 Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general and Governor of Britain, conquered Wales and Northern England, born in Gallia Narbonensis (Roman province in Southern France) (d. 93)

Trajan

0053-09-18 Trajan, XIII Roman Emperor (98 - 117 AD) famous for Trajan's Forum, born in Italica, Ancient Hispania (d. 117)

  • 0064-09-08 Julia Flavia, daughter of Roman Emperor Titus and lover of Domitian, born in Rome (d. 91)

Hadrian

0076-01-24 Hadrian, Roman Emperor (117-138, builder of Hadrian's Wall), born in Italica (d. 138)

Antoninus Pius

0086-09-19 Antoninus Pius [Titus Aurelius], 15th Emperor of Rome (138-161 AD), born in Lanuvium, Italy (d. 161)

Marcus Aurelius

0121-04-26 Antonius Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome (161-180), born in Rome (d. 180)

  • 0126-08-01 Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman Emperor (Year of the Five Emperors), born in Alba Pompeia, Italia (d. 193)
  • 0133-01-30 Didius Julianus [Marcus Severus Didius Julianus], Roman Emperor, born in Milan, Italy (d. 193)

Septimius Severus

0146-04-11 Lucius Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211), born in Leptis Magna, modern day Libya (d. 211)

Lucilla

0148-03-07 Lucilla, Rome, Roman noblewoman (daughter of Marcus Aurelius and sister of Commodus) (between 148-150 AD), born in Rome

Commodus

0161-08-31 Commodus, Roman Emperor (180-192 AD), born in Lanuvium, Italy (d. 192)

Caracalla

0188-04-04 Caracalla, Roman emperor (198-217), born in Lugdunum, Gaul (d. 217)

  • 0189-03-07 Publius Septimius Geta, Roman Emperor, born in Rome (d. 211)

Aurelian

0214-09-09 Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270-275), born in Serdica (d. 275)

  • 0225-01-20 Gordian III, Roman Emperor (d. 244)
  • 0250-03-31 Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor (305-306 AD), born in Dacia Ripensis, Northen Balkans (d. 306)
  • 0270-11-20 Maximinus II, Emperor of the Roman Empire (308-313), born in Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) (d. 313)
  • 0347-01-11 Emperor Theodosius I "The Great" of Rome, last emperor to rule the east and west empire, born in Hispania (d. 395)
  • 0419-07-02 Valentinian III, Roman emperor (425-55), born in Ravenna (d. 455)
  • 0472-08-18 Flavius Ricimer, general of the Western Roman Empire, kingmaker

Gregory of Tours

0538-11-30 St Gregory of Tours, Gallo-Roman chronicler and bishop (Historia Francorum), born in Auvergne, Gaul (d. 594)

Edward Gibbon

1737-05-08 Edward Gibbon, English historian (The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire), born in Putney, England (d. 1794)


Famous Weddings

Wedding of Interest

0038-01-17 BC Roman Republican Leader Octavian, later Augustus 1st Roman Emperor, marries Livia Drusilla

Wedding of Interest

0049-01-01 Roman Emperor Claudius marries his fourth wife and niece Agrippina the Younger

Constantine the Great

0307-03-31 Roman Emperor Constantine marries Fausta, daughter of the Emperor Maximian, later murdering her in 326


Famous Deaths

Gaius Marius

0086-01-13 BC Gaius Marius, Roman general and politician (held the office of consul seven times), dies at 70

  • 0063-12-05 BC Publius Cornelius Lentulus (Sura), Roman statesman
  • 0052-01-18 BC Publius Clodius Pulcher, Roman politician known for his involvement in various scandals, murdered by a rival's bodyguards (b. 93 BC)

Pompey the Great

0048-09-28 BC Pompey the Great [Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus], Roman general and politician, dies at 59

  • 0045-04-12 BC Gnaeus Pompeius, the Younger, Roman general
  • 0045-03-17 BC Titus Labienus, Roman leader (Lieutenant of Julius Caesar who later opposed him), killed in the Battle of Munda

Murder of InterestJulius Caesar

0044-03-15 BC Julius Caesar, Roman military and political figure, stabbed to death at 55

Cicero

0043-12-07 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher, killed as part of the proscriptions at 63

Marcus Junius Brutus

0042-10-23 BC Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman senator and the most famous of the assassins of Julius Caesar, commits suicide at about 42/43 (b. 85 BC)

Gaius Cassius

0042-10-03 BC Gaius Cassius Longinus, Roman senator and conspirator against Julius Caesar, dies during the Battle of Philippi

Mark Antony

0030-08-01 BC Mark Antony [Marcus Antonius], Roman politician and general, commits suicide after he is defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium at 53

Virgil

0019-09-21 BC Virgil [Publius Vergilius Maro], Roman poet of the Augustan period (Aeneid), dies at 50

Horace

0008-11-27 BC Horace, Roman Republican poet (Odes), dies at 56

  • 0009-09-15 Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman viceroy of Syria, suicide at 59
  • 0017-01-02 Ovid, Roman poet (Metamorphoses), dies at ~59
  • 0019-10-10 Julius Caesar Germanicus, Roman commandant of Rijnleger, dies at 33
  • 0031-09-18 Sejanus, Roman head of praetorian guard, executed

Agrippina the Elder

0033-10-17 Agrippina the Elder, Roman noblewoman (mother of Caligula), dies of starvation at 47

Tiberius

0037-03-10 Tiberius Claudius Nero, Roman emperor (14 AD-37 AD), dies at 78

AssassinationCaligula

0041-01-24 Caligula [Gaius Caesar], 3rd Roman Emperor (37-41 AD) who was known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, assassinated at 28 by Praetorian Guards

Murder of InterestAgrippina the Younger

0059-03-23 Agrippina the Younger, Roman Empress, dies at 43 (circumstances of her death vary, but suggest she was murdered by her son, the Emperor Nero)

  • 0062-06-09 Claudia Octavia, wife of Roman Emperor Nero and daughter of Emperor Claudius, killed on Nero's orders at 22
  • 0065-04-12 Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 0065-04-30 Lucan, Roman poet (b. 39)

Nero

0068-06-09 Claudius Nero, Roman emperor (54-68), commits suicide at 31

  • 0069-01-15 Galba [Servius Sulpicius Galba], 6th emperor of Rome (68-69), lynched by his successor Otho at 70
  • 0069-04-16 Marcus Salvius Otho, Roman Emperor, dies at 36
  • 0069-12-22 Aulus Vitellius, Roman Emperor for 8 months, executed by the troops of his successor Vespasian in Rome at 54
  • 0079-09-23 Pope Linus, second Bishop of Rome after St Peter
  • 0079-10-25 Gaius Plinius Secundus [Pliny the Elder], Roman admiral and writer, dies during eruption of Mount Vesuvius [approx date, month of eruption disputed] [1] [2]

Titus

0081-09-13 Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor of Rome (69-81), dies of a fever at about 42

  • 0093-08-23 Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general and Governor of Britain, conquered Wales and Northern England, dies at 53

Nerva

0098-01-27 Marius Cocceius Nerva, emperor of Rome (96-98), dies of a stroke at about 67

Trajan

0117-08-09 Trajan, Roman Emperor (98-117 AD) who rebuilt Rome and expanded the empire, dies from edema at 63

  • 0155-07-11 Pius I, bishop of Rome (approx 140-155) saint and martyr, dies

Antoninus Pius

0161-03-07 Antoninus Pius [Titus Aurelius], 15th Emperor of Rome (138-161 AD), dies at 74

Marcus Aurelius

0180-03-17 Antonius Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome (161-180AD), dies at 58

Murder of InterestCommodus

0192-12-31 Commodus, Emperor of Rome (180-192), murdered at 31

  • 0193-03-28 Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman Emperor (Year of the Five Emperors), assassinated at 66
  • 0193-06-01 Didius Julianus [Marcus Severus Didius Julianus], Roman Emperor, murdered at 61
  • 0197-02-19 Clodius Albinus, Roman General serving in England who proclaimed himself Emperor, dies in the Battle of Lugdunum [Lyon] fighting Septimius Severus
  • 0217-12-20 Pope Zephyrinus, Bishop of Rome (199-217)
  • 0218-06-08 Opellius Macrinus, emperor of Rome (217-8), dies in battle at 54

Murder of InterestElagabalus

0222-03-11 Elagabalus, Roman Emperor (218-22), murdered by the Praetorian Guard at 18

  • 0235-03-18 Marcus Aurelius Alexander, Syrian emperor of Rome (222-235), murdered
  • 0238-04-12 Gordian II, Roman co-Emperor with his father Gordian I, killed in battle at Carthage
  • 0238-04-12 Gordian I, Roman Emperor, suicide, after losing battle at Carthage and death of son Gordian I
  • 0238-05-10 Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, the Thracian, Roman Emperor, murdered
  • 0238-07-29 Pupienus, Roman Emperor ruled 3 months with Balbinus
  • 0238-07-29 Balbinus, Roman Emperor, ruled 3 months with Pupienus
  • 0251-07-01 Decius, Roman Emperor (249-251), 1st Roman Emperor to be killed by a foreign enemy, dies in the Battle of Abritus at about 50 (b. 201)
  • 0251-07-01 Herennius Etruscus, joint Roman Emperor with his father Decius, dies fighting in the Battle of Abritus (b. ca. 227)
  • 0254-03-05 St Lucius I, Pope and Bishop of Rome (253-54), dies
  • 0257-08-02 St Stephen I, bishop of Rome (Pope) (254-57) and heretic fighter, dies
  • 0258-08-06 Saint Sixtus II, bishop of Rome (257-58), beheaded under orders of Emperor Valerian
  • 0276-07-16 Mark Annius Florianus, emperor of Rome (276), murdered
  • 0290-10-01 [Christian] Bacchus, roman soldier/martyred saint, killed
  • 0290-10-07 [Christian] Sergius, Roman soldier and martyred saint, decapitated
  • 0296-04-22 Pope Caius, Bishop of Rome (283-296), dies at 51
  • 0303-04-23 Saint George, Greek officer in the Roman army, beheaded. Patron saint of many lands including England
  • 0304-10-25 Marcellinus, bishop of Rome, dies
  • 0306-07-25 Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor (305-306 AD), dies at around 56
  • 0307-11-11 Severus II [Flavius Valerius Severus], Emperor of Rome (306-07), dies at an unknown age [approximate date]
  • 0311-05-05 Galerius, Emperor of Rome (305-311) ended persecution of Christianity in the East, dies of disease

Maxentius

0312-10-28 Maxentius, Roman emperor (306-312), drowns at the Battle of Milvian Bridge at 34

  • 0313-04-30 Galerius Valerius Maximinus [Daia], Emperor of Rome (310-313), commits suicide after a military defeat
  • 0314-01-10 Pope St. Miltiades, Bishop of Rome (311-314)
  • 0336-10-07 Pope Saint Mark, bishop of Rome (336), dies of natural causes
  • 0350-06-30 Nepotianus, Roman usurper (ruled Rome for 28 days), killed on orders of rival Magnentius
  • 0353-08-11 Magnentius, Roman usurper (b. 303)
  • 0353-08-18 Decentius, Roman usurper against Western Emperor Constantius II
  • 0355-09-07 Claudius Silvanus, Roman usurper
  • 0363-06-26 Julian the Apostate, Roman Emperor (361-63)
  • 0364-02-17 Jovian (Flavius Jovianus), Christian emperor of Rome (363-64), dies at about 32
  • 0366-05-27 Procopius, Roman usurper (b. 326)
  • 0375-11-17 Valentinian I "The Great", Roman Co-Emperor and Ruler of Western Roman Empire (336-75), dies at 54
  • 0383-08-25 Gratian (Flavius Gratianus), Emperor of Rome (375-383), murdered at 25
  • 0388-08-28 Magnus Maximus, Spanish West Roman Emperor (383-88), executed
  • 0392-05-15 Valentinianus II, emperor of Rome (375-392), murdered at 21
  • 0394-09-06 Eugenius, linguistic/anti emperor of Rome (392-94), dies in battle
  • 0395-01-17 Theodosius I, "the Great", Spanish-born Emperor of Rome, last emperor to rule the east and west empire, dies at 49
  • 0397-11-11 Martinus, (St Maarten), Roman bishop of Tours, dies at about 81
  • 0401-12-19 Anastasius I, Bishop of Rome (399-401), dies
  • 0404-01-01 Telemachus, Roman monk, dies trying to stop a gladitorial fight

ExecutionStilicho

0408-08-22 Flavius Stilicho, West Roman field leader (395-408), executed at 48

  • 0418-12-26 Saint Zosimus, Roman Pope (417-418), dies
  • 0421-09-02 Flavius Constantine III, Emperor of Western Roman Empire, dies at about 51
  • 0422-09-04 St Boniface I, Italian Bishop of Rome, dies
  • 0439-12-31 Melania the Younger, Roman monastery founder/saint, dies at about 56

AssassinationFlavius Aetius

0454-09-21 Flavius Aetius, Roman general (Battle of the Catalaunian Plains), assassinated by Valentinian