Turkish History (Part 3)

Historical Events

Events 201 - 300 of 474

  • 1911-02-06 Great fire destroys downtown Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)
  • 1911-11-05 Italian forces take Tripoli & Cyrenaica, declaring suzerainty over Ottoman-controlled Libya
  • 1912-03-05 Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines.
  • 1912-03-13 Bulgaria and Serbia conclude an alliance pact ostensibly against Austria, but it secretly provides for a possible war against Turkey
  • 1912-04-18 Tripolitan War: in continuing hostilities, Turkey closes the Dardanelles Straits after an Italian naval bombardment of the coastline
  • 1912-05-04 Italian mariners occupy Turkish Island of Rhodes
  • 1912-05-29 15 young women are fired by Curtis Publishing in Philadelphia for dancing the "Turkey Trot" during their lunch break
  • 1912-09-15 War between Turkey & Montenegro breaks out in Albania
  • 1912-10-08 Montenegro declares war on Turkey, beginning 1st Balkan War
  • 1912-10-14 Cretan representatives are admitted to the Greek assembly; in doing so the Greek Government challenges the Turkish Government
  • 1912-10-17 Bulgaria, Greece & Serbia declares war on Turkey
  • 1912-10-18 The First Balkan War breaks out, with Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece opposed to Turkey
  • 1912-10-18 The Treaty of Lausanne ends the Italo-Turkish War; Italy annexes Libya
  • 1912-10-19 Tripoli (Libya) passes from Turkish to Italian control
  • 1912-11-18 Cholera breaks out in Constantinople, in the Ottoman Empire
  • 1912-11-28 Ismail Qemali declares Albania independent from Turkey in Vlorë
  • 1912-12-03 Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria sign weapons pact
  • 1912-12-16 First Balkan War: The Ottoman Navy is defeated by the Royal Hellenic Navy at the Battle of Eli
  • 1912-12-17 Albania's de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire is recognized at the London Conference of Ambassadors
  • 1913-01-06 Attempting to end hostilities in the Balkans, the London Peace Conference breaks down because Turkey refuses to cede Adrianpole, the Aegean island, and Crete
  • 1913-01-18 Turkish-Greek sea battle near Troy

Coup d'état

1913-01-23 The 'Young Turks' lead a coup d'etat against the Turkish Government, assassinating Minister of War Nazim Pasha

  • 1913-04-16 Bulgarians and the Turks agree to an armistice that will be accepted by the other nations involved
  • 1913-05-30 Treaty of London signed by the Great Powers, the Ottoman Empire and the victorious Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Kingdom of Bulgaria, and Montenegro) bringing an end to the First Balkan War
  • 1913-07-20 Turkish troops take Adrianopel & Erdine from Bulgaria
  • 1913-09-21 Turkey and Bulgaria sign peace treaty in Constantinople
  • 1913-09-29 The Treaty of Constantinople between Turkey and Bulgaria restores peace; the Turks recover Adrianople and Maritza River line
  • 1914-02-21 In a secret meeting of civil and military leaders, Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov convinces them to support a plan for seizing the straits, controlled by Turkey, that block access to the Mediterranean
  • 1914-03-14 Serbia & Turkey sign peace treaty

Historic Event

1914-06-13 Eleftherios Venizelos announces that Greece intends to annex Chios and Mytilene, two large islands off the Turkish coast; Greece and Turkey have been heading towards conflict for months over claims to Aegean islands

  • 1914-08-02 Germany and Turkey sign secret treaty of alliance
  • 1914-08-10 German battle cruiser Goeben reaches Dardanellen/Turkey joins Germany
  • 1914-10-01 The Prince of Asir, the southern region of Arabia, rises in revolt against the Turks; his actions will inspire other Arab leaders to revolt
  • 1914-10-04 Dardanelles: French & British fleet bombards Turkish forts
  • 1914-10-29 Turkish warships storm Black Sea
  • 1914-10-31 Great Britain & France declare war on Turkey
  • 1914-11-02 Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire
  • 1914-11-05 Britain declares war on Turkey and annexes Cyprus, occupied since 1878; the immediate reason is to keep it from being taken by Turkey
  • 1914-11-06 The British land troops (mostly from the Indian Army) at the head of the Persian Gulf in Mesopotamia, and will begin to move westward in an attempt to draw Turkish troops from other fronts
  • 1914-11-12 Turks sultan Jamal Pasja declares a German holy war
  • 1914-12-17 Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities
  • 1914-12-28 Turks are repulsed by the Russians after fighting in Armenia for weeks
  • 1915-01-04 Trans-Caucausus Russian defeat Turkish troops
  • 1915-02-03 Turkish & German army reach Suez Canal
  • 1915-04-14 Turkey invades Armenia
  • 1915-04-20 The Armenians rise and seize the Turkish town of Van, which they hold until Russians relieve them on 19 May; thousands of Armenians are killed
  • 1915-04-24 Leaders of the Armenian community in Constantinople (now Istanbul) are arrested by Ottoman authorities, and many later killed, marking the start of the Armenian Genocide

Historic Event

1915-04-27 Counterattack launched by Turkish forces under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against allied troops

  • 1915-08-07 WWI: Assault against Russell's Top at Gallipolis, Turkey - 232 Australians are killed
  • 1915-08-21 Italy declares war on Turkey in World War One
  • 1915-09-28 Battle of Kut-el-Amara: British defeat Turks in Mesopotamia
  • 1915-11-23 On the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, the Battle of Ctesiphon between Allied and Turkish forces enters its second day

Gallipoli: Guts, Glory and Defeat

1915-12-15 WWI: ANZAC forces begin their withdrawal from the Gallipoli Peninsula after Ottoman forces successfully defend access to Constantinople

  • 1916-01-09 The Ottoman Empire prevails in the Battle of Çanakkale, as the last British troops evacuated
  • 1916-02-16 Russian troops conquer the Ottoman Empire city of Erzurum during WWI
  • 1916-05-09 British-France Sykes-Picot conference over division of Turkey
  • 1916-06-05 The Sherif Hussein proclaims a revolt of the Arabs in the province of Hejaz, an action that undermines the Turkish Empire
  • 1916-06-10 Great Arab Revolt begins against ruling Ottoman turks
  • 1916-08-04 The Turks attack the British line at Romani in the northern Sinai (WWI)
  • 1916-08-10 Turks annex Persian city Hamadan from Russia
  • 1916-12-23 World War I: Battle of Magdhaba - Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt's Sinai peninsula
  • 1917-03-11 British forces occupy Baghdad, the capital of Mesopotamia, after Turkish forces evacuated
  • 1917-03-26 British win a battle against Turks at Gaza
  • 1917-03-28 Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv & Jaffa by Turkish authorities
  • 1917-05-20 Turkish government authorizes Jews to return to Tel Aviv & Jaffa

Victory in Battle

1917-07-06 T. E. Lawrence captures port of Aqaba from Turks

  • 1917-08-17 Italy declares war on Turkey
  • 1917-11-07 British capture Gaza, Palestine, from Turks
  • 1918-02-21 Australians chase Turkish troop out of Jericho, Dutch Palestine
  • 1918-05-26 Armenia defeats the Ottoman Army in the Battle of Sardarapat
  • 1918-06-25 Baku-Turkish communist party forms
  • 1918-08-17 Turkish troops overthrow Caukasus
  • 1918-10-30 WWI: Turkey signs an armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon on 31 October
  • 1919-05-19 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, beginning the Turkish War of Independence
  • 1919-06-19 Opposed to dismemberment of Turkey by the Allies, Mustafa Kemal declares his Turkish Nationalist Congress, headquartered in Ankara, independent of Constantinople
  • 1919-09-04 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey, gathers a congress in Sivas to make decisions as to the future of Anatolia and Thrace.
  • 1920-04-23 Turkish Grand National Assembly 1st meets in Ankara, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI and announces a temporary constitution
  • 1920-08-10 Treaty of Sèvres (Allies & Turkey)
  • 1920-08-10 Turkish government renounces its claim to Israel, recognizes British mandate
  • 1920-08-24 With British approval, Greece is encouraged to take offensive action against Turkish nationalists in Asia Minor
  • 1920-12-03 Turkey & Armenia agree to peace treaty
  • 1921-01-03 Turkey makes peace with Armenia
  • 1921-01-20 Republic of Turkey declared out of remnants of Ottoman Empire
  • 1921-02-21 The London Conference on the Near East begins: the issue is the Allies' 1920 Treaty of Sevres, which had given part of Turkish Asia Minor to Greece
  • 1921-06-19 Turks and Christians of Palestine sign a friendship treaty against Jews
  • 1921-08-24 Battle of Sakaray Valley begins between Turkey & Greece
  • 1922-07-29 Greek troops defeat Turkish forces and are on their way to Constantinople, but the Allies forbid them taking the city
  • 1922-09-07 In Aydin, Turkey, independence of Aydin, from Greek occupation
  • 1922-09-09 Turkish troops conquer Smyrna/murder Greek citizens
  • 1922-09-16 Turkish troops chase Greeks out of Asia
  • 1922-10-11 Turkey & Greece sign cease fire
  • 1922-11-01 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk takes Constantinople from Mehmed VI, proclaiming the Republic of Turkey and bringing an end to the Ottoman Empire
  • 1922-11-16 Ottoman Caliph, Sultan Mehmed VI asks the British army for help
  • 1922-11-17 The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, is expelled to Malta on a British warship
  • 1922-11-18 Turkish National Assembly nominates Abdul Medjid kalief
  • 1923-07-24 Allied Powers and Turkey sign peace treaty, Lausanne
  • 1923-08-13 Turkish National Congress selects Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Pasja as 1st President of Turkey
  • 1923-10-13 Angora (Ankara) becomes Turkey's capital

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