Oakland in History

Historical Events

  • 1849-09-19 1st commercial laundry established, in Oakland, California
  • 1863-09-01 Rail & ferry connection between San Francisco & Oakland inaugurated
  • 1868-03-23 University of California founded in Oakland, California
  • 1870-03-18 1st US National Wildlife Preserve (Lake Meritt in Oakland California)
  • 1874-02-21 Oakland Daily Tribune begins publication
  • 1912-01-13 -40°F (-40°C), Oakland, Maryland (state record)

Sport awardUS Golf Open

1924-06-06 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Unknown Englishman Cyril Walker wins his only major title, 3 strokes ahead of runner-up and defending champion Bobby Jones

Golfer Bobby Jones
Golfer
Bobby Jones
  • 1928-05-31 1st aerial crossing of Pacific takes off from Oakland
  • 1929-07-15 1st airport hotel opens at Oakland, California
  • 1931-02-20 Congress allows California to build Oakland-Bay Bridge
  • 1933-07-04 Work begins on Oakland Bay Bridge

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1935-01-11 Amelia Earhart flies from Honolulu to Oakland Ca (non-stop, of course)

  • 1936-11-12 Oakland Bay Bridge opens
  • 1937-06-12 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Ralph Guldahl wins first of his 2 consecutive US titles, 2 strokes ahead of Sam Snead
  • 1938-08-17 1st aircraft owned by US Forest Service in service (Oakland)
  • 1945-09-10 KLS-AM in Oakland Ca changes call letters to KWBR (now KDIA)

  • 1951-06-16 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Ben Hogan wins his second consecutive US Open title, 2 strokes ahead of runner-up Clayton Heafner.
  • 1958-03-03 KTVU TV channel 2 in Oakland-San Francisco, California (IND) 1st broadcast
  • 1959-06-07 KLX-AM in Oakland California changes call letters to KEWB (now KNEW)
  • 1960-01-26 Oakland Raiders enter the American Football League
  • 1961-06-17 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Gene Littler wins his sole major title, 1 stroke ahead of runners-up Bob Goalby and Doug Sanders
  • 1963-07-08 Reports of Charlie Finley's intention to move KC A's to Oakland
  • 1963-10-12 San Francisco's Oakland Bay Bridge converted to 1-way on each deck
  • 1964-10-16 Indians' directors vote to keep franchise in Cleveland, rejecting bids by Seattle, Oakland & Dallas
  • 1966-08-27 Oakland Pitcher Paul Lindblad begins a 385 cons errorless streak
  • 1966-11-09 Oakland Coliseum Arena opens
  • 1967-10-13 First American Basketball Association (ABA) game is played with Oakland Oaks beating Anaheim Amigos, 132-129; red, white & blue ball and 3-point field goal introduced
  • 1967-10-16 Joean Baez and 123 other anti-draft protesters are arrested in Oakland, California
  • 1967-10-18 AL votes to allow Athletics to move from KC to Oakland & expand league to 12 teams in 1971 with KC & Seattle teams
  • 1967-12-08 NHL California Seals change name to Oakland Seals
  • 1968-01-15 Minnesota North Stars forward Bill Masterton dies 2 days after suffering a head injury in a game against the Oakland Seals; the only death as a result of a game injury in NHL history
  • 1968-04-17 A's 1st game in Oakland-Alameda Stadium, lose 4-1 to Baltimore Orioles
  • 1968-05-08 Jim (Catfish) Hunter of Oakland pitches perfect game vs Twins (4-0)
  • 1969-05-07 2nd ABA championship: Oakland Oaks beat Indiana Pacers, 4 games to 1
  • 1969-10-02 Seattle Pilots' last game in Seattle; crash to 98th season loss, 3-1 to Oakland in front of just 5,473; move to Milwaukee as the Brewers next season
  • 1969-10-19 Oakland Darryle Lamonica passes for 6 touchdowns vs Buffalo (50-21)

  • 1970-04-13 Oakland uses gold-colored bases during the club's home opener: Rules Committee subsequently bans this innovation
  • 1972-09-11 BART begins service with a 26-mi (42-km) line from Oakland to Fremont
  • 1972-09-24 Jack Tatum, Oakland, returns a fumble 104 yds vs Green Bay (rec)
  • 1973-07-30 Texas Rangers Jim Bibby no-hits 1st-place Oakland, 6-0
  • 1973-10-11 Oakland beats Baltimore 3 games to 2 to win AL pennant
  • 1976-11-09 Oakland A's release Billy Williams, ending his Hall of Fame baseball career
  • 1977-08-12 For 2nd straight day, Oakland's Manny Sanguillen foils a no-hit bid

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1978-04-02 Czech tennis star Martina Navratilova wins her first WTA Tour Championship; beats Evonne Goolagong Cawley of Australia 7-6, 6-4 at Oakland Coliseum Arena

Tennis Player Martina Navratilova
Tennis Player
Martina Navratilova
  • 1979-05-07 Gary Roenicke hits into Orioles 13th triple play (Oakland)

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1979-06-24 Rickey Henderson debuts for Oakland & steals his 1st base

MLB Outfielder Rickey Henderson
MLB Outfielder
Rickey Henderson
  • 1981-01-04 "Red Right 88", trailing 14–12 Clevelands Browns attempt an end zone pass play (Red Right 88) and a game-winning field goal in the final minute, but pass intercepted by Raiders safety Mike Davis and Oakland wins

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1981-07-12 US Senior Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Arnold Palmer comfortably wins 18-hole playoff against Billy Casper and Bob Stone

  • 1981-10-15 Professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson leads what is thought to be the first audience wave in Oakland, California.
  • 1981-11-22 SD Charger Dan Fouts passes for 6 touchdowns vs Oakland (55-21)
  • 1982-08-02 Oakland outfielder Rickey Henderson steals his 100th MLB base of the season in 6-5 win v Seattle, first to steal 100 twice in modern era
  • 1983-07-03 Texas Rangers explode for MLB single extra innings record 12 runs in 15th inning of 16-4 win v Oakland
  • 1983-09-13 Oakland's Rickey Henderson 3rd straight 100 steals for season

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1984-01-15 Martina Navratilova’s 54-match winning streak ends when beaten by Hana Mandlíková 7-6, 3-6, 6-4 in the final of the Virginia Slims of California tennis event in Oakland; after loss Navratilova wins next 74 matches for new record

Tennis Player and Four-Time Major Champion Hana Mandlikova
Tennis Player and Four-Time Major Champion
Hana Mandlikova
Tennis Player Martina Navratilova
Tennis Player
Martina Navratilova
  • 1985-06-16 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: 1978 champion Andy North wins by 1 stroke ahead of runners-up Dave Barr, T C Chen and Denis Watson
  • 1985-07-14 Last USFL game-Baltimore Stars defeats Oakland Invaders, 28-24

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1987-07-05 A's 1st baseman Mark McGwire becomes first rookie to hit 30 HRs before the MLB All-Star Game as Oakland beats Red Sox, 6-2

MLB First Baseman Mark McGwire
MLB First Baseman
Mark McGwire
  • 1987-07-14 58th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 2-0 in 13 at Oakland-Alameda Stad
  • 1987-08-14 Oakland's Mark McGwire sets rookie HR record at 39, en route to 49
  • 1987-11-03 Oakland A's first baseman Mark McGwire wins American League Rookie of the Year with 49 home runs, 118 RBI; second to win AL award unanimously; first Carlton Fisk 1972
  • 1988-05-18 In just Oakland's 39th of the season, pitcher Dave Stewart breaks record with his 12th balk en route to 16
  • 1989-09-27 Oakland wins AL West & SF wins NL West title
  • 1989-10-08 Oakland beats Toronto, 4-3 in Game 5, to advance to the World Series
  • 1990-03-12 LA Raiders announce their return to Oakland
  • 1990-05-24 A car carrying American Earth First! activists Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney explodes in Oakland, California, critically injuring both

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1990-06-11 Nolan Ryan pitches his 6th no-hitter beating Oakland, in 9th he retires Ken Phelps, Rickey Henderson & Willie Randolph (all ex Yanks)

MLB Pitching Legend Nolan Ryan
MLB Pitching Legend
Nolan Ryan
MLB Outfielder Rickey Henderson
MLB Outfielder
Rickey Henderson
MLB Second Baseman and Manager Willie Randolph
MLB Second Baseman and Manager
Willie Randolph

Sport awardUS Senior Golf Open

1991-07-28 US Senior Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Jack Nicklaus matches course record of 65 to beat Chi Chi Rodriguez by 4 strokes in an 18-hole Monday playoff

  • 1991-10-21 24 die in a fire in Oakland Calif
  • 1992-03-29 Ice Dance Championship at Oakland won by Klimova & Ponomarenko (CIS)
  • 1992-03-29 Ice Pairs Championship at Oakland won by Mishuktienok & Dmitriev (CIS)
  • 1992-03-29 Men's Figure Skating Championship in Oakland won by Viktor Petrenko (CIS)
  • 1992-05-01 Oakland outfielder Rickey Henderson steals his 1,000th MLB career base in A's 7-6 win at Detroit
  • 1993-07-05 As' outfielder Rickey Henderson leads off both games of Oakland's doubleheader vs Cleveland with homers (first time since 1913)
  • 1993-07-31 Toronto Blue Jays obtain future Baseball Hall of Fame OF Rickey Henderson from Oakland in exchange for minor leaguers Steve Karsay and Jose Herrera

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1994-10-31 American tennis star Venus Williams makes her professional debut as a 14 year old with a 6-3, 6-4 win over former NCAA champion and world No. 58 Shaun Stafford in the Bank of the West Classic in Oakland, California

Tennis Player Venus Williams
Tennis Player
Venus Williams
  • 1996-06-16 US Open Men's Golf, Oakland Hills GC: Steve Jones wins his lone major title, 1 stroke ahead of runners-up Tom Lehman and Davis Love III
  • 1996-12-18 The Oakland, California school board passes a resolution officially declaring "Ebonics" a language or dialect.
  • 1997-07-31 A's first baseman Mark McGwire becomes MLB's top home run hitter to be traded in the middle of a season when he moves from Oakland to St. Louis Cardinals (34 home runs and 81 RBI)
  • 2004-09-19 Ryder Cup Golf, Oakland Hills CC: Europe retains Cup wins 18½-9½; victory margin largest by a European team in history of the event
  • 2007-06-01 Jack Kevorkian is released from prison after serving eight years of his 10-25 year prison term for the 1998 second-degree murder of Thomas Youk
  • 2012-04-02 Oikos University, Oakland shooting kills seven people and injures 3
  • 2014-02-01 Ray Guy (Oakland/LA Raiders) becomes second pure kicker, and first pure punter to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame
  • 2016-12-02 Fire during a dance party at an Oakland warehouse kills 36
  • 2018-06-25 Oakland pitcher Edwin Jackson takes the mound in a 5-4 win at Detroit; A's are his 13th MLB club, tying Octavio Dotel's record

Famous Birthdays

  • 1869-06-27 Kate Carew [Mary Williams], American caricaturist, born in Oakland, California (d. 1961)
  • 1874-10-08 Nance O'Neil, American actor (Cimarron), born in Oakland, California (d. 1965)
  • 1877-01-10 Frederick Gardner Cottrell, American inventor (electrostatic precipitator), born in Oakland, California (d. 1948)
  • 1878-05-24 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, American psychologist and industrial engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954), born in Oakland, California (d. 1972)
  • 1884-10-17 Lewis Bennison, American actor (The Road Called Straight), born in Oakland, California (d. 1929)
  • 1891-06-26 Sidney Coe Howard, American dramatist (Swords, Pulitzer 1925), born in Oakland, California (d. 1939)
  • 1896-02-08 Orville Caldwell, American actor (Patsy, French Doll, Last Warning), born in Oakland, California (d. 1967)
  • 1901-06-24 Harry Partch, American composer (Oedipus), born in Oakland, California (d. 1974)
  • 1905-09-18 Eddie "Rochester" Anderson, American comedian and actor (The Jack Benny Program), born in Oakland, California (d. 1977)
  • 1905-12-08 Charles Cushing, American composer, born in Oakland, California (d. 1982)
  • 1908-02-07 Clarence "Buster" Crabbe, American swimmer (Olympic gold 1932) and actor (Tarzan the Fearless, Flash Gordon), born in Oakland, California (d. 1983)
  • 1912-04-11 John Larkin, American actor (Saints & Sinners, The Satan Bug, 12 O'Clock High), born in Oakland, California (d. 1965)
  • 1912-12-01 Cookie Lavagetto, American baseball third baseman, manager and coach (MLB All Star 1938-41; Brooklyn Dodgers; Washington Senators), born in Oakland, California (d. 1990)
  • 1915-05-01 Archie Williams, American athlete (Olympic gold 400m 1936), born in Oakland, California (d. 1993)
  • 1915-06-13 Don Budge, American tennis player (6 Grand Slam singles titles, Grand Slam 1938), born in Oakland, California (d. 2000)
  • 1915-12-29 Jo Van Fleet, American actress (Cool Hand Luke, Cinderella, East of Eden), born in Oakland, California (d. 1996)
  • 1917-03-23 Kenneth Tobey, American actor (The Thing from Another World, Innerspace, Whirlybirds), born in Oakland, California (d. 2002)
  • 1917-03-30 Herbert Anderson, American character actor (Dennis The Menace, Battleground), born in Oakland, California (d. 1994)
  • 1917-10-28 Jack Soo [Goro Suzuki], Japanese-American actor (Flower Drum Song, Barney Miller), born in Oakland, California (d. 1979)
  • 1920-12-25 Jerome Richardson, American jazz musician, born in Oakland, California (d. 2000)
  • 1921-04-01 William L Bergsma, American composer (Fortunate Island), born in Oakland, California
  • 1921-04-14 Thomas Schelling, American economist, (Nobel Prize 2005 - game-theory analysis), born in Oakland, California (d. 2016)
  • 1921-12-05 Peter Hansen, American actor (General Hospital, The War of the Roses), born in Oakland, California (d. 2017)
  • 1922-01-31 William Sylvester, American actor (2001: A Space Odyssey, Gemini Man), born in Oakland, California (d. 1995)
  • 1923-06-26 Barbara Graham, American criminal convicted of murder, born in Oakland, California (d. 1955)
  • 1925-01-23 Marty Paich, American musician, conductor, producer and arranger (Frank Sinatra, Barbra Streisand, Ella Fitzgerald, Aretha Franklin, Michael Jackson), born in Oakland, California (d. 1995)
  • 1925-08-06 Leland Smith, American composer, bassoonist and computer coder who led music publishing into the digital age (SCORE), born in Oakland, California (d. 2013)
  • 1925-10-27 Jane Connell, American actress (Jane-Stanley, Bridget-Dumpling), born in Oakland, California (d. 2013)
  • 1927-04-26 John Ralston, American College Football Hall of Fame linebacker, coach and executive (Cal, Stanford, Denver Broncos), born in Oakland, California (d. 2019)
  • 1929-10-04 Scotty Beckett, American actor (Our Gang, Listen Darling, Battleground), born in Oakland, California (d. 1968)
  • 1930-08-16 Robert Culp, American actor, screenwriter, voice actor, and director (I Spy, Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice), born in Oakland, California (d. 2010)
  • 1931-12-02 Edwin Meese, American author and 75th United States Attorney General (1985-88), born in Oakland, California
  • 1931-12-04 Wally George, American conservative TV commentator, born in Oakland, California (d. 2003)
  • 1933-04-24 Patricia Bosworth, American actor, journalist, writer, and biographer, born in Oakland, California (d. 2020)
  • 1933-04-29 Rodney "Rod" McKuen, American poet, singer-songwriter and actor (Jean, Alone, Beatsville), born in Oakland, California (d. 2015)
  • 1934-02-25 Tony Lema, American golfer (British Open 1964), born in Oakland, California (d. 1966)
  • 1935-11-24 Ron Dellums, American politician (D-House representative from California, 1971-1998), born in Oakland, California (d. 2018)
  • 1937-12-04 Max Baer Jr, American actor (Jethro-Beverly Hillbillies), born in Oakland, California
  • 1938-05-03 Chris Cannizzaro, American baseball player, born in Oakland, California (d. 2016)
  • 1938-05-11 Carla Bley [Carla Borg], American musician (Escalator Over the Hill), born in Oakland, California
  • 1940-06-14 William P. Baker, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California), born in Oakland, California
  • 1940-07-10 Mills Watson, American actor (Harper Valley PTA, BJ & Bear), born in Oakland, California
  • 1941-02-20 Clyde Wright, American MLB pitcher (no-hitter v Oakland 1970), born in Jefferson City, Tennessee
  • 1941-10-02 Ron Meagher, American rock bassist (The Beau Brummels), born in Oakland, California
  • 1942-01-05 Dany Sava [Danielle Savalle], French actress (Moon Pilot), born in Paris, France
  • 1943-02-09 Squire Fridell, American actor (Rosetti & Ryan), born in Oakland, California
  • 1943-08-19 Edwin Hawkins, American gospel musician, choir master and composer (Oh Happy Day), born in Oakland, California (d. 2018)
  • 1944-09-22 Roger Nichols, American recording engineer, producer and inventor (Steely Dan, John Denver), born in Oakland, California (d. 2011)
  • 1945-04-25 Stu Cook, American rock bassist (Creedence Clearwater Revival-Proud Mary), born in Oakland, California
  • 1947-01-05 Ted Lange, American actor (Isaac-Love Boat, Mr T & Tina), born in Oakland, California
  • 1947-05-21 William "Bill" Champlin, American Grammy Award winning singer-songwriter and producer (Chicago, Sons of Champlin), born in Oakland, California
  • 1947-10-30 Timothy B. Schmit, American bass player and singer (Eagles, Poco), born in Oakland, California
  • 1948-01-23 Anita Pointer, American rock vocalist (Pointer Sisters-She's So Shy), born in Oakland, California
  • 1949-10-11 Greg Douglass, American rock guitarist and vocalist (Steve Miller Band-Abracadabra), born in Oakland, California
  • 1951-05-07 Mic Gillette, American brass player (Tower of Power, Cold Blood, The Sons of Champlin), born in Oakland, California (d. 2016)

Person of interestMark Hamill

1951-09-25 Mark Hamill, American actor (Luke Skywalker-Star Wars), born in Oakland, California

  • 1953-02-26 Bree Walker, American news anchor (WNBC TV, KNBC TV), born in Oakland, California
  • 1953-07-24 Jon Faddis, American jazz trumpeter and educator, born in Oakland, California
  • 1954-10-03 Dennis Eckersley, American Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher (AL Cy Young Award 1992; AL MVP 1992; Oakland A's), born in Oakland, California
  • 1956-11-03 Bob Welch, American baseball pitcher (AL Cy Young Award 1990; Oakland A's; World Series 1981, 89, 2001), born in Seal Beach, California (d. 2014)
  • 1957-12-12 Sheila E.[scovedo], American singer, drummer and percussionist (Krush Grove, Holly Rock), born in Oakland, California
  • 1961-07-21 Jim Martin, rock guitarist (Faith No More-Real Thing), born in Oakland, California
  • 1961-08-09 Brad Gilbert, tennis star, born in Oakland, California
  • 1962-03-30 M C Hammer, [Stanley Kirk Burrell], rapper (Hammer Time), born in Oakland, California
  • 1962-08-02 Cynthia Stevenson, American actress (Bob, Hope & Gloria), born in Oakland, California
  • 1963-02-14 D'Wayne Wiggins, American musician (Tony! Toni! Tone!), born in Oakland, California
  • 1963-12-18 Lori McNeil, tennis star (1995 Oakland doubles), born in San Diego, California
  • 1964-01-31 Jeff Hanneman, American musician (Slayer), born in Oakland, California (d. 2013)
  • 1964-06-28 Tommy Lynn Sells, American serial killer, born in Oakland, California (d. 2014)
  • 1964-08-24 Pebbles, American rock vocalist (Girlfriend), born in Oakland, California
  • 1964-10-20 Kamala Harris, American lawyer and politician, 1st African-American, Asian-American attorney general of California, born in Oakland, California
  • 1965-02-01 Brandon Lee, American actor (Showdown in Little Tokyo), born in Oakland, California (d. 1993)
  • 1966-01-17 Don Myrah, American cyclist (Olympics 20th-96), born in Oakland, California
  • 1966-05-14 Raphael Saadiq, American musician (Tony! Toni! Toné!), born in Oakland California
  • 1966-08-31 Jeff Frye, infielder (Boston Red Sox), born in Oakland, California
  • 1966-09-29 Jill Whelan, actress (Vicki-Love Boat, Young & Restless), born in Oakland, California
  • 1967-01-05 J. H. Wyman, American film producer & director (Almost Human), born in Oakland, California
  • 1968-01-08 Brian Johnson, American catcher (San Diego Padres), born in Oakland, California
  • 1968-05-22 Mike Harbold, sprint kayaker (Olympics 1996), born in Oakland, California
  • 1968-07-19 Robert Flynn, American musician (Machine Head), born in Oakland, California
  • 1969-08-09 Divine Brown [Estelle Marie Thompson], American prostitute (Hugh Grant), born in Oakland, California
  • 1970-02-05 Forey Duckett, American football cornerback (Saints, Scot Claymores), born in Oakland, California
  • 1970-04-20 Shemar Moore, American actor (Malcolm-Young & Restless), born in Oakland, California
  • 1970-07-05 Mac Dre [Andre Louis Hicks], American rapper and hip hop pioneer, born in Oakland, California (d. 2004)
  • 1970-07-14 Thomas Lauderdale, American musician (Pink Martini), born in Oakland, California
  • 1970-08-14 Kevin Rene Cadogan, American singer-songwriter (Third Eye Blind), born in Oakland, California
  • 1971-05-14 Raphael Wiggins, rapper (Lifelines), born in Oakland, California

Person of interestBillie Joe Armstrong

1972-02-17 Billie Joe Armstrong, American singer and musician (Green Day), born in Oakland, California

  • 1972-07-12 Brett Reed, American rock drummer (Rancid), born in Oakland, California
  • 1972-08-12 Del The Funky Homosapien [Teren Delvon Jones], American rapper (Mistadobalina), born in Oakland, California
  • 1972-12-14 Marcus Jensen, American baseball player, born in Oakland, California
  • 1972-12-20 Scott Slutzker, American football tight end (Indianapolis Colts), born in Oakland, California
  • 1974-01-28 Jermaine Dye, outfielder (Atlanta Braves), born in Oakland, California

Person of interestMahershala Ali

1974-02-16 Mahershala Ali [Mahershalalhashbaz George], American actor (Moonlight, Green Book), born in Oakland, California

  • 1977-10-13 Paul Pierce, American basketball player, born in Oakland, California
  • 1978-02-20 Chelsea Peretti, American comedian and actress (Brooklyn Nine-Nine), born in Oakland, California
  • 1982-01-12 Dontrelle Willis, American baseball player, born in Oakland, California
  • 1984-01-22 Leon Powe, American basketball player, born in Oakland, California
  • 1986-05-23 Ryan Coogler, American director and screenwriter (Fruitvale Station, The Black Panther), born in Oakland, California
  • 1990-07-15 Damian Lillard, American basketball player (Portland Trail Blazers), born in Oakland, Californai

Famous Weddings


LoveWedding of Interest

2005-06-18 Politician Jerry Brown (67) weds businesswoman Anne Gust (47) in Oakland, California

Governor of California Jerry Brown
Governor of California
Jerry Brown

Famous Deaths

  • 1934-08-18 Delilah L Beasley, American author/columnist (Oakland Tribune), dies at 61
  • 1968-04-06 Robert "Bobby" Hutton, American Black Panther leader and treasurer, shot to death by Oakland police at 17
  • 1983-08-29 Simon Oakland, American actor (Toma, Kolchak), dies at 61
  • 1989-08-22 Huey P. Newton, African-American activist, revolutionary and co-founder of the Black Panther Party, shot and murdered by Tyrone Robinson in the streets of Lower Bottoms, Oakland, California at 47
  • 1993-08-17 Robert C Maynard, CEO (Oakland Tribune), dies at 56
  • 2003-02-07 John Reading, Mayor of Oakland, California (b. 1917)