- Jan 5 Sudden extreme cold kills thousands of Europeans
- Jan 11 Colley Cibber's play "Rival Fools" premieres in London
- Feb 2 British sailor Alexander Selkirk is rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years, his story inspires "Robinson Crusoe"
- Mar 27 Dike at Hardinxveld breaks (Alblasserwaard flooded)
- Jun 27 Peter the Great of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava.
- Jul 8 Battle of Poltava; Russians defeat Swedes, end of Swedish empire as a major power
- Aug 8 1st known ascent in hot-air balloon, Bartolomeu de Gusmao (indoors)
- Sep 3 1st major group of Swiss/German colonists reaches NC/SC
- Sep 11 Battle at Malplaquet during War of the Spanish Succession: English, Austrian and Dutch Great Alliance defeat France
- Oct 29 England & Netherlands sign anti-French "Barrieretraktaat"
British sailor Alexander Selkirk is rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years, his story inspires "Robinson Crusoe"
On February 2, 1709
- Jan 20 François de la Chaise, French confessor of Louis XIV of France, dies at 84
- Jan 24 George Rooke, English admiral (b. 1650)
- Feb 8 Giuseppe Torelli, Italian composer, dies at 50
- Feb 9 François Louis, Prince of Conti, French general (b. 1664)
- Feb 19 Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese shogun (b. 1646)