On This Day

What Happened in July 1881

Historical Events

  • Jul 1 1st international telephone conversation, Calais, Maine to St Stephen, New Brunswick
  • Jul 1 US Assay Office in St Louis, Missouri opens
  • Jul 1 General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell-Childers reforms of the British Army's organisation, comes into effect

Historic Event

Jul 2 US President James Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau a disappointed office-seeker; Garfield dies 79 days later

Historic Event

Jul 4 Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute (Alabama)

  • Jul 13 Wimbledon Men's Tennis: William Renshaw beats defending champion John Hartley 6-0, 6-1, 6-1 for first of his 7 Wimbledon singles titles

Victory in Battle

Jul 20 Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull, surrenders to US federal troops

  • Jul 26 French marines occupy Tunisian harbor city Sfax

Famous Birthdays

  • Jul 1 Piet[er] L. Kramer, Influential Dutch architect (Amsterdam School), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1961)
  • Jul 2 Royal H. Weller, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York), born in Manhattan, New York (d. 1929)
  • Jul 3 Leon Errol, Australian actor (Ziegfeld Follies, What a Blonde!), born in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (d. 1951)
  • Jul 4 Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1968)
  • Jul 5 August Hlond, Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, born in BrzÄ™czkowice, German Empire (d. 1948)
  • Jul 6 Josef Winckler, German dentist and writer (Quadriga, Pumpernickel), born in Bentlage, Rheine (d. 1966)
  • Jul 9 Richard Hageman, Dutch born American pianist, composer and conductor (Caponsacchi), born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands (d. 1966)
  • Jul 12 Ludwig Rubiner, German poet and essayist, born in Berlin (d. 1920)
  • Jul 19 Friedrich Dessauer, German physicist (radiologist), born in Aschaffenburg, Germany (d. 1963)
  • Jul 20 Leon de Smet, Flemish painter
  • Jul 21 Johnny Evers, American Baseball HOF 2nd baseman (World Series 1907, 08 Chicago Orphans/Cubs; WS & NL MVP 1914 Boston Braves) and manager (Chicago Cubs/WS), born in Troy, New York (d. 1947)
  • Jul 26 Alexander J. Kropholler, Dutch architect and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1973)
  • Jul 26 James Cecil Parke, Irish tennis player (Australasian C'ship singles & doubles, Davis Cup 1912; Wimbledon doubles 1914) and rugby union centre (20 caps; Leinster Rugby), born in Clones, Ireland (d. 1946)

Hans Fischer

Jul 27 Hans Fischer, German organic chemist (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1930), born in Hoechst, Germany (d. 1945)

  • Jul 30 Smedley Butler, American Marine general, born in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1940)

Famous Deaths

  • Jul 4 Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Finnish statesman (b. 1806)
  • Jul 10 Georg Hermann Nicolai, German architect (b. 1812)

Billy the Kid

Jul 14 Billy the Kid [William H Bonney], American frontier outlaw, shot by sheriff Pat Garrett and dies of gunshot wounds at 21

  • Jul 17 James Bridger, American scout, fur trader and mountain man par excellence, dies at 77
  • Jul 19 Isaac Baumann, Jewish pioneer and trader in Bloemfontein, South Africa, dies at 67
  • Jul 20 Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, English 1st baron of Hesketh, dies
  • Jul 26 George Borrow, writer, dies
  • Jul 27 Johann Christian Lobe, German composer, dies at 84