# Introduction of Geographic Coordinate System: Geographical Latitude & Geographical Longitude (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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Coordinate Systems are ways of splitting up the world in order to form transferable units that relate to points on a map. Different coordinate systems have different methods of splitting up the earth. There are two major global coordinate systems, knows as the “Geographic Coordinate System” (i.e.. Latitude and Longitude) and the “Universal Transverse Mercator System” (i.e.. UTM coordinates) .

A geographical coordinate system enables every location on Earth to be specified in three coordinates (latitude, longitude, height) . It based on spherical coordinate system (coordinates are angular values) .

A geographic coordinate system is a three-dimensional reference system that locates points on the Earth՚s surface. The geographic coordinate system measure the unit is decimal degrees.

A point has two coordinate values: 1) Latitude and 2) Longitude. Latitude and longitude measure angles.

## Geographical Latitude

Latitude lines run east-west and are parallel to each other. Latitude values are measure relative to the equator and range from at the South Pole to at the North Pole.

Latitude (abbreviation: Latitude, or phi) is the angle between the equatorial plane and normal that passes through user location point.

## Geographical Longitude

Longitude lines run north-south. Longitude values are measured relative to the prime meridian. They range from when traveling west to when traveling east.

Longitude (abbreviation: Longitude, or lambda) is the angle between reference meridian (Greenwich) and another meridian that passes through user location point.