- 1534 Jacques Cartier lands in Canada, claims it for France
- 1567 Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate; her 1-year-old son becomes King James VI of Scots
- 1832 Benjamin Bonneville leads the first wagon train across the Rocky Mountains by Wyoming's South Pass
- 1911 American explorer Hiram Bingham discovers Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas
- 1943 Operation Gomorrah: RAF begins bombing Hamburg (till 3rd August), creating a firestorm and killing 42,600 people
Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, is sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming the first monarch in history to regain political power through democratic election to a different office.
On July 24, 2001