- 30 BC Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves minor victory over Octavian, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to Octavian's invasion of Egypt
- 1620 Pilgrim Fathers depart Leiden for England before heading to America
- 1937 Politburo enables Operative Order 00447: execute 193,000 Russians
- 1961 Israel welcomes its one millionth immigrant
- 2007 Operation Banner, the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland, and longest-running British Army operation ever, comes to an end.
Black Tot Day: the last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy (started 1740)
On July 31, 1970