Historical Events on April 1

  • 374 Comet 1P/374 E1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0884 AUs of Earth

Appointment of Interest

527 Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne

  • 705 Greek pope John VII chosen as successor to John VI
  • 1064 Body of bishop Eleutherius of Blandain moved to Doornik
  • 1318 Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
  • 1340 Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
  • 1504 English guilds/corp goes under state control

Victory in Battle

1515 Portuguese fleet under Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Persian fortress of Ormuz, renaming it the Fort of Our Lady of the Conception

  • 1572 Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, during the Eighty Years' War, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.

Historic Event

1581 Portuguese Cortes subjects himself on Philip II

  • 1663 Gemert fines unwed motherhood (50 guilder penalty)

Historic Event

1693 Cotton Mather's four-day-old son dies, and witchcraft is blamed

Historic Event

1724 Henry Pelham becomes English minister of War

Historic Publication

1724 Jonathan Swift publishes Drapier's letters

Ruins of Pompeii

1748 Ruins of Pompeii rediscovered by Spaniard Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre

  • 1776 Friedrich von Klinger's "Sturm und Drang" premieres in Leipzig
  • 1778 New Orleans businessman Oliver Pollock creates the "$" symbol
  • 1792 Gronings feminist Etta Palm demands women's right to divorce
  • 1803 French law rules the use of intention
  • 1822 Italian composer Luigi Cherubini becomes director of the Conservatoire de Paris music college, holds position for nearly 20 years
  • 1826 Samuel Morey is issued the first U.S. patent for an internal-combustion engine, which he calls a “Gas or Vapour Engine"
  • 1850 San Francisco County government established
  • 1853 Cincinnati becomes 1st US city to employ fulltime professional firefighters

Historic Publication

1854 "Hard Times" begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, "Household Words"

Historic Publication

1857 Herman Melville publishes The Confidence-Man

  • 1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, Virginia
  • 1863 1st wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
  • 1865 -9] Battle at Blakely Alabama

Victory in Battle

1865 Battle of 5 Forks Virginia: Union forces defeat Confederates and capture important railway supply line for General Robert E. Lee's army

  • 1866 US Congress rejects presidential veto giving all equal rights in US
  • 1867 Blacks vote in municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama
  • 1867 International Exhibition opens in Paris
  • 1867 Singapore, Penang & Malacca become British crown colonies
  • 1868 Hampton Institute opens
  • 1871 New Constitution adopted by the German Empire
  • 1872 1st edition of The Standard
  • 1873 British White Star steamship Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, 547 die
  • 1873 Mehmed Kemals play "Vatan" premeres in Constantinople
  • 1881 Anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem
  • 1881 Kingdom post office in Netherlands opens
  • 1888 Students from Rotterdam, Netherlands establish a cricket club called Rotterdamsche Cricket & Football Club Sparta which evolves into Sparta Rotterdam
  • 1889 1st dishwashing machine marketed (Chicago)

Historic Event

1891 French painter Paul Gauguin leaves Marseille for Tahiti

  • 1891 London-Paris telephone connection opens
  • 1891 The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1899 NC Mutual opens doors for business
  • 1900 1st edition of Dutch newspaper "The People"
  • 1905 "SOS" first adopted as a morse distress signal (· · · – – – · · ·) by German government
  • 1905 British East African Protectorate becomes colony of Kenya
  • 1910 Dumitru Dan (Romania) completes a 62,137 mile (100,000 m) walk

Historic Event

1918 Henry Miller's Theater opens at 124 W 43rd St NYC

  • 1918 United Kingdom: the Royal Air Force is created from the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps.
  • 1919 Stanley Cup Final, Seattle Ice Arena, Seattle, WA: With Montreal Canadiens (NHL) & Seattle Metropolitans (PCHA) tied at 2-2-1, trophy not awarded due to worldwide flu epidemic
  • 1920 Stanley Cup Final, Mutual Street Arena, Toronto, ON: Jack Darragh scores a hat-trick as Ottawa Senators (NHL) beat Seattle Metropolitans (PCHA), 6-1 for a 3-2 series win
  • 1920 The (Anglican) Church in Wales disestablished

Coup d'état

1924 Adolf Hitler sentenced to 5 years labor for "Beer Hall Putsch" but General Ludendorff acquitted

  • 1924 Crown takes over Northern Rhodesia from British South Africa Co
  • 1924 Imperial Airways forms in Britain
  • 1924 The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1925 1st transmission of Danish state radio
  • 1925 Hebrew University, Jerusalem dedicated [see May 9, 1925]
  • 1926 Montreal Maroons' Clint Benedict becomes first NHL goalie to record 3 straight playoff shutouts, in a 3-0 win against the visiting Victoria Cougars in Game 2 of the Stanley Cup Championship series
  • 1927 1st automatic record changer introduced by His Master's Voice
  • 1929 Austrian government of Ignaz Seipel falls
  • 1929 Doorne's trailer factory in Eindhoven Netherlands opens
  • 1929 Louie Marx introduces Yo-Yo
  • 1929 Luis Buñuel releases "Un Chien Andalou" 24-minute film
  • 1929 Morehouse College, Spellman College & Atlanta University affiliate

Film Premiere

1930 "The Blue Angel" starring Marlene Dietrich in her breakthrough role premieres in Germany

Sports History

1930 American golfer Bobby Jones starts his Grand Slam season by winning the Southeastern Open by 13 strokes over Horton Smith at the Forest Hills-Ricker Golf Course in Atlanta, Georgia

  • 1930 Chicago Cubs catcher Leo Hartnett breaks the altitude record for a catch by gloving a baseball dropped from the Goodyear blimp 800 feet over Los Angeles, California
  • 1931 Earthquake devastate Managua Nicaragua, kills 2,000
  • 1931 Jackie Mitchell becomes the second female (after Lizzie Arlington 1898) in organised baseball when she signs with the Chattanooga Lookouts Baseball Club
  • 1933 England cricket batsman Wally Hammond smashes 34 fours, 10 sixes in a Test record unbeaten 336 in the drawn 2nd Test against New Zealand in Auckland

Historic Event

1933 Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany

  • 1933 Nazi Germany begins persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses
  • 1933 Scotland beats Ireland, 8-6 at Lansdowne Road, Dublin to win the Home Nations Rugby Championship and Triple Crown

Murder of Interest

1934 Clyde Barrow kills two young highway patrolmen, H. D. Murphy and Edward Bryant Wheeler, at the intersection of Route 114 near Grapevine, Texas. Bonnie Parker's role in the murders helps turn public perception against the gang for good

  • 1935 1st radio tube made of metal announced, Schenectady, NY

Historic Event

1936 Charles "Lucky" Luciano" is arrested in Arkansas on a criminal warrant from New York

  • 1936 Orissa constituted a province of British India
  • 1937 Aden becomes a British crown colony
  • 1938 Nescafé introduces their flagship brand in Switzerland

Boxing Title Fight

1938 World heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis KOs Harry Thomas in 5th round of their title bout in Chicago; 3rd defence by Louis

Historic Event

1939 US recognizes Francisco Franco's government in Spain at end of Spanish civil war. Pope Pius XII congratulates Generalissimo Franco's victory in Spain

Historic Publication

1940 Filipino President Quezon officially authorizes the printing and publication of the grammar and dictionary prepared by the Institute of the National Language.

Historic Event

1941 Lillian Hellman's "Watch on the Rhine" premieres in NYC

  • 1941 Nazis forbid Jews access to cafés
  • 1941 Pro-German Rashid Ali al-Ghailani grabs power in Iraq
  • 1941 The Blockade Runner Badge for German Kriegsmarine is instituted.
  • 1941 US Navy takes over Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay
  • 1942 Allied air raid on Japanese occupied harbor city Kupang, Timor, Indonesia
  • 1942 Mexico changes from 3 time zones to 2
  • 1943 Jan Dieters, Dutch politician and resistance fighter who was the head of the Communist Party of the Netherlands, is arrested by the Nazis
  • 1944 Japanese troops conquer Jessami, Eastern India

Battle of Okinawa

1945 Battle of Okinawa: US ground forces invade Okinawa during World War II in the largest amphibious assault of the Pacific theatre

  • 1945 World War II: Canadian troops free the Dutch cities of Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo and Eibergen
  • 1945 World War II: The Ruhr Pocket of German forces are encircled by the US Ninth Army and US First Army, eventually leading to the capture of 317,000 German troops
  • 1946 400,000 US mine workers strike
  • 1946 The Malayan Union is formed as a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca
  • 1946 Tsunamis generated by a quake in Aleutian Trench strike Hilo, Hawaii
  • 1946 Van Acker forms Belgian government (without CVP)
  • 1947 1st Jewish immigrants to Israel disembark at Port of Eilat
  • 1947 Shin Takarajima (New Treasure Island) by Osamu Tezuka published, first manga cartoon in tankōbon form
  • 1948 Faroe Islands receive autonomy from Denmark
  • 1948 Fast bowler Hines Johnson has match figures of 10-96 on debut in West Indies 4th cricket Test win v England in Kingston, Jamaica; first fast bowler to take 10 wickets in a single Test for West Indies
  • 1952 Big Bang theory proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe & George Gamow
  • 1952 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1953 J van Bale appointed governor of New Guinea
  • 1953 KXMC TV channel 13 in Minot, ND (CBS/ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 West Indian cricket batsmen Frank Worrell (237), Clyde Walcott (118) and Everton Weekes (109) all make centuries in 1st innings of drawn 5th Test v India in Kingston, Jamaica
  • 1954 1st Dutch motorway, Amsterdam-Utrecht, opens
  • 1954 1st US Army helicopter battalion forms, Fort Bragg, NC

Sports History

1954 Detroit Red Wings right wing Gordie Howe scores 2 goals and an assist, and sets a Stanley Cup playoff record for fastest goal from the start of a game (:09) in a 4-3 2OT win over Toronto in Game 5 of the Semi-Finals

  • 1954 Earthquake/tsunami ravage Aleutians, 200 killed
  • 1954 US Air Force Academy established
  • 1954 WQED TV channel 13 in Pittsburgh, PA (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 Armed military action taken against bureaucratic strike in Amsterdam
  • 1955 EOKA-bomb attacks against British government buildings in Cyprus
  • 1955 WTVT TV channel 13 in Tampa-St Petersburg, FL (CBS) 1st broadcast
  • 1956 10th Tony Awards: Diary of Anne Frank & Damn Yankees win
  • 1956 KPIC TV channel 4 in Roseburg, OR (CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1956 Violent clashes in Algeria, kills at least 380
  • 1957 Trial begins in Budapest against participants of the Hungarian Uprising of October 1956
  • 1957 World's biggest glass oven used
  • 1957 WYES-TV channel 12 in New Orleans, Louisiana (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1958 KVIQ TV channel 6 in Eureka, CA (NBC/ABC/CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1958 Marshal Nikolai Bulganin becomes director of Soviet State Bank
  • 1960 1st weather satellite launched (TIROS 1)
  • 1960 2nd French atom bomb explodes (Sahara)
  • 1960 Census determines the resident population of the United States to be 179,245,000
  • 1960 France performs nuclear test at Reggane Proving Grounds, Algeria
  • 1960 U Nu elected premier of Burma
  • 1963 American television soap opera premieres: "General Hospital" (ABC) & "Doctors" (NBC)
  • 1963 NY Mets purchase future Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder Duke Snider from the LA Dodgers for $40,000; Snider had starred for the Brooklyn Dodgers 1947-57
  • 1963 NYC's newspapers resume publishing after a 114 day strike
  • 1964 10°F lowest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in April

Music History

1964 John Lennon is reunited with his father Freddie after 17 years

  • 1964 Robert Lowell's "Benito Cereno" premieres in NYC
  • 1965 South Africa worker's union leader Henry Fazzie sentenced to 10 years
  • 1965 Syncom 3, 1st geosynchronous communications satellite, passes from civilian to military control
  • 1966 "Hold On, I'm Comin'" single released by Sam & Dave
  • 1966 1st world festival of black art (Dakar Senegal)

Historic Event

1966 Loyalist led by Ian Paisley, a Protestant fundamentalist preacher, founded the Ulster Constitution Defence Committee to challenge the civil rights movement; it set up a paramilitary-style wing called the Ulster Protestant Volunteers

  • 1967 1st British ombudsman Sir Edward Compton begins work
  • 1967 The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
  • 1968 KEMO (now KOFY) TV channel 20 in San Francisco, California (IND) 1st broadcast
  • 1969 Royal Canadian Mint formally forms as a Crown Corporation
  • 1969 Seattle Pilots trade little-known minor league outfielder Lou Piniella to KC Royals for 2 prospects; hits .282 with 11 HRs & 68 RBI to win AL Rookie of the Year; becomes leading MLB manager
  • 1969 The Hawker Siddeley Harrier (vertical take-off fighter) enters service with the RAF.
  • 1970 Federal Bankruptcy Referee Sidney Volinn declares MLB's Seattle Pilots bankrupt; car dealer Bud Selig buys franchise for $10.8 million and moves club to Milwaukee (Brewers)
  • 1970 John Lennon and Yoko Ono release hoax they are having dual sex change operations
  • 1970 Serious riots continue in the Ballymurphy estate in Belfast between Catholic residents and the British Army

Historic Event

1970 US President Richard Nixon signs bill limiting cigarette advertisements from 1st Jan 1971

  • 1971 United Kingdom lifts all restrictions on gold ownership
  • 1971 US/Canada ISIS 2 launched to study ionosphere
  • 1972 30,000 attend Mar Y Sol rock concert, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico
  • 1972 MLB players stage first ever collective strike; play resumes (13/4/72) when owners and players agree to $500,000 increase in pension fund payments

NBA Record

1973 Boston Celtics captain John Havlicek scores career high 54 points in 134-109 rout of Atlanta Hawks in Game 1 of 1st round Eastern Conference playoffs; hits NBA playoff record 24-of-36 field-goal attempts

Sports History

1973 Despite a final round, 5-3 loss to Montreal, Boston Bruins center Phil Esposito wins his third consecutive NHL scoring title with 130 points from 55 goals and 75 assists in the 78-game season

  • 1973 Japan allows its citizens to own gold
  • 1973 John Lennon and Yoko Ono form a new country with no laws or boundaries, called Nutopia, its national anthem is silence
  • 1973 OPEC increases price of petroleum by 5.7 percent

Historic Event

1974 Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran

  • 1974 In England, "Local Government Act 1972" redraws the administrative map and creates six new Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; Newport and Monmouthshire transferred from England to Wales
  • 1974 Pioneer Hall opens at Disney’s Fort Wilderness Resort & Campground, Florida
  • 1974 Yourdon Inc consulting formed by Edward Yourdon
  • 1975 Cambodia President Lon Nol flees for Red Khmer

Television Premiere

1976 "Helter Skelter", detailing Charles Manson's cult "family", their capture, trial, conviction and aftermath, premieres on CBS

  • 1976 Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S..
  • 1976 Jovian-Plutonian gravitational effect is first reported by the astronomer Patrick Moore.

Apple Macintosh Personal Computer

1976 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs found Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs' parents house in Cupertino, California

  • 1977 Attempt for Muslim state in Chad fails

Television Finale

1978 "The Bob Newhart Show" last airs on NBC-TV

  • 1978 132nd Grand National: Bob Davies aboard 14/1 chance Lucius wins by half a length from Sebastian V

Sports History

1978 New York Islanders right wing Mike Bossy becomes first NHL rookie to score 50 goals in a season after scoring #50 and #51 in the closing moments in a 3-2 win over Washington

  • 1978 Philippine College of Commerce becomes the Polytechnic University of the Philippines by presidential decree
  • 1979 Iran proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of Shah
  • 1980 Failed assassination attempt on Iraqi vice-premier Tariq Aziz
  • 1980 France performs nuclear test
  • 1980 New York City's Transit Worker Union 100 begins a strike lasting 11 days.

Film & TV History

1981 CNN airs a videotape that shows that Tamara Rand predicted that Reagan is in danger from someone named Jack Humley (a hoax)

  • 1981 Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.

Sports History

1981 Edmonton center Wayne Gretzky has an assist (his 103rd) in the Oilers 4-4 tie with Colorado Rockies to break Bobby Orr's 10-year mark for most assists in a single NHL season

  • 1982 Anguilla (dependent territory of UK) adopts constitution

NHL Record

1982 Quebec center Peter Šťastný scores 4th career hat trick and 4 assists, and his brother Marián adds 5 assists to lead the Nordiques to an 8-5 win at Boston

  • 1982 US formally transfers Canal Zone to Panama
  • 1983 Anti-nuclear demonstrators link arms in 14-mile human chain in England
  • 1983 Iraq increases missile attacks on Iran
  • 1984 14th Easter Seal Telethon raises $24,600,000
  • 1984 3rd NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: USC goes back-to-back; beats Tennessee, 72-61; Cheryl Miller 2nd consecutive MOP award
  • 1984 8 men record longest distance (13 miles) rowed in 24 hours

PGA Players Championship

1984 PGA Tournament Players Championship, TPC at Sawgrass: 24-year old Fred Couples finishes at 277 (-11), 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Lee Trevino

  • 1985 47th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Villanova beats Georgetown, 66-64; Wildcats lowest-seeded team (8th) to win tournament
  • 1986 Ranji Trophy Men's Cricket, Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi: Delhi beats Haryana by innings & 141; Manoj Prabhakar 113, Kirti Azad 107, Mohinder Amarnath 194, Ajay Sharma 110
  • 1986 US submarine Nathaniel Green runs aground in Irish Sea
  • 1986 World oil prices dip below $10 a barrel

Sports History

1989 A. Bartlett Giamatti replaces Peter Ueberroth as 7th commissioner of Major League Baseball; dies suddenly of a heart attack 5 months later

  • 1990 "Ha!" comedy Channel on cable TV begins transmitting