On This Day

Historical Events on April 10

  • 837 Comet 1P/837 F1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0334 AUs of Earth
  • 847 St Leo IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 879 Louis III becomes King of West Francia
  • 1407 Lama Deshin Shekpa visits the Ming Dynasty capital at Nanjing and is awarded the title Great Treasure Prince of Dharma

Victory in Battle

1500 France captures duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan

  • 1516 1st Jewish ghetto established: Venice compels Jews to live in a specific area
  • 1552 Henri II of France occupies Metz
  • 1589 Spanish troops conquer Geertruidenberg
  • 1607 The British colonial expedition that would found Jamestown departs Puerto Rico for the American mainland
  • 1656 Dutch fleet occupiers Colombo Ceylon
  • 1694 Duke Victor Amadeus of Savoye attacks Casale
  • 1710 The first law regulating copyright is issued in Great Britain
  • 1741 War of the Austrian Succession: Prussia defeats Austria in the Battle of Mollwitz
  • 1790 US Patent system forms
  • 1802 Great Trigonometrical Survey begun to survey entire Indian subcontinent, led by William Lambton and the East India Company (completed 1871)
  • 1815 Austria declares war on Kingdom of Naples

Eruption of Mount Tambora

1815 Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies experiences a cataclysmic eruption, one of the most powerful in history, killing around 71,000 people, causes global volcanic winter

  • 1816 2nd Bank of US chartered

Historic Publication

1816 Samuel Taylor Coleridge recites his poem "Kubla Khan" to fellow poet Lord Byron, who persuades him to publish it

  • 1821 Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged by the Turks from the main gate of the Patriarchate, his body thrown into the Bosphorus
  • 1825 1st hotel in Hawaii opens
  • 1825 Nicaraguan constituent assembly meets at Leon
  • 1826 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Messolonghi start leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.

Historic Event

1827 George Canning becomes British Prime Minister upon the resignation of Robert Jenkinson, lives to serve only 119 days

  • 1841 New York Tribune begins publishing under editor Horace Greeley
  • 1845 More than 1,000 buildings damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Historic Invention

1849 Safety pin patented by Walter Hunt (NYC); sold rights for $400

  • 1856 The Theta Chi Fraternity is founded at Norwich University, Vermont
  • 1858 "Big Ben", a 13.76 tonne bell, is recast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry
  • 1863 Confederate General Earl Van Dorn attacks at Franklin, Tennessee

Historic Event

1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico

Historic Event

1865 At Appomattox, Confederate General Robert E. Lee issues General Order #9, his last

  • 1866 American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms

Music Premiere

1868 1st performance of Johannes Brahms' "A German Requiem"

  • 1868 British defeat King of Abyssinia at Magdala
  • 1869 Congress increases number of Supreme Court judges from 7 to 9
  • 1869 José Martí founds the Cuban Revolutionary Party.
  • 1871 William Hammond Hall's maps & surveys of Golden Gate Park accepted
  • 1872 1st National black convention meets in New Orleans
  • 1872 1st Arbor Day celebrated in Nebraska, later changed to Apr 22
  • 1874 British Open Men's Golf, Musselburgh Links: Mungo Park wins first title by 2 strokes from Tom Morris Jr
  • 1877 Federal troops withdrawn from Columbia, SC
  • 1878 California Street Cable Car Railroad Co starts service
  • 1882 Captain William Matson founds his shipping company (San Francisco & Hawaii)
  • 1884 US Senate accepts Belgian administration of Congo

Historic Event

1887 US President Abraham Lincoln's re-buried with his wife in Springfield, Illinois

  • 1887 Soccer team Be Quick forms in Hairs Groningen

Sports History

1896 Spyridon Louis of Greece wins inaugural Olympic marathon (2:58:50) in Athens; runs last lap accompanied by Constantine I

  • 1896 High jumper Ellery Clark leads an American sweep of the placings with a leap of 1.81m at the Athens Olympics; his 2nd victory of the Games after taking out the long jump
  • 1896 American athlete Thomas Burke claims the sprint double at the Athens Olympics winning the 100m final in 12.0s; his 2nd victory of the Games after success in the 400m
  • 1898 First Navy Law is passed by the German Reichstag

Historic Event

1912 RMS Titanic sets sail from Southampton for her maiden (and final) voyage

Sports History

1913 President Woodrow Wilson throws out 1st ball, Senators beat Yankees 2-1

Sports History

1913 New York Highlanders play first MLB game as the New York Yankees; lose to the Washington Senators, 2-1 at Griffith Stadium

  • 1913 During the Montenegrin siege of Scutari, the Montenegrin coastline is blockaded
  • 1916 The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is founded in New York City
  • 1917 Munition factory explosion at Eddystone, Pennsylvania, kills 133 workers
  • 1919 Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos

Historic Event

1923 Adolf Hitler demands "hatred & more hatred" in Berlin

  • 1924 Tubular steel golf club shafts approved for championship play
  • 1925 Tsaritsyn renamed Stalingrad (now Volgograd)

Historic Publication

1925 Scribners publishes "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald

  • 1930 Brilliant West Indian cricket batsman George Headley scores patient 223 in drawn 4th Test against England at Kingston, Jamaica
  • 1930 Thiokol synthetic rubber 1st produced in Yardley, New Jersey

Election of Interest

1932 Paul von Hindenburg is re-elected President of Germany in a runoff election against Adolf Hitler

  • 1934 Stanley Cup Final, Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IL: Chicago Blackhawks beat Detroit Red Wings, 1-0 in double OT for a 3-1 series win; Black Hawks' first Stanley Cup
  • 1935 Vaughan Williams' 4th Symphony premieres in London
  • 1936 200" mirror blank arrives in Pasadena

Appointment of Interest

1938 Second government of Blum replaced by Édouard Daladier's government in France

  • 1938 Austria becomes a state of Germany
  • 1938 NY makes syphilis test mandatory in order to get a marriage license
  • 1939 Colijn's Dutch government opens camp Westerbork for German Jews
  • 1939 Grens mobilization due to Italian invasion in Albania

Historic Event

1940 Vidkun Quisling forms Norwegian "national government"

  • 1941 German troops conquer Libyan county Cyrenaica

Historic Event

1941 Independent State of Croatia led by Ante Pavelić established as fascist German puppet state

  • 1942 Cigarettes & candy rationed in Holland
  • 1943 12 Jewish patients of Herren Loo-Lozenoord escape Nazis
  • 1943 General Montgomery occupies Sfax, Tunisia
  • 1944 "Patrolling the Ether" is shown on 3 TV stations simultaneously
  • 1944 Soviet forces liberate Odessa from the Axis powers
  • 1945 Canadian troops conquer Deventer
  • 1945 General Blaskowitz becomes nazi leader of "Fort Holland"
  • 1945 German troops attack Ijsselbrug
  • 1945 NFL's Boston Yanks & Brooklyn Tigers merge
  • 1945 US troops land on Tsugen Shima Okinawa
  • 1945 William Schuman & Antony Tudor's ballet premieres in NYC
  • 1946 1st election for Japanese Parliament
  • 1947 King Frederik IX of Denmark crowned

Contract of Interest

1947 Jackie Robinson becomes first black player of the 20th century to sign a MLB contract; Brooklyn GM, Branch Rickey announces Dodgers had bought Robinson’s contract from Montreal Royals

  • 1948 Jewish Hagana repels an Arab attack on Mishmar HaEmek

US Masters Golf

1949 13th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Sam Snead wins his first of 3 green jackets by 3 strokes over Johnny Bulla and Lloyd Mangrum

Historic Event

1953 Dag Hammarskjöld becomes the 2nd Secretary-General of the United Nations

  • 1953 "House of Wax" 1st color 3-D movie, premieres in New York
  • 1953 NBA Championship Finals, Minneapolis Auditorium, Minnesota, MN: Minneapolis Lakers beat NY Knicks, 91-84 for a 4-1 series victory; Lakers' 5th title in 6 years
  • 1954 KRGV TV channel 5 in Weslaco, TX (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1954 108th Grand National: Bryan Marshall wins aboard Royal Tan at 8/1; second consecutive GN victory for both Marshall and trainer Vincent O'Brien
  • 1954 Wales beats Scotland, 15-3 at the St. Helen's Ground, Swansea to share Five Nations Rugby Championship with France and England; France's first title
  • 1955 19th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Cary Middlecoff wins by a record 7 strokes ahead of Ben Hogan
  • 1955 9th NBA Championship: Syrac Nats beat Ft Wayne Pistons, 4 games to 3
  • 1955 Ruth Ellis shoots jilting lover David Blakely (last woman to be executed in the UK)
  • 1956 Philips broadcasts 1st Dutch color TV programs

Sports History

1956 Stanley Cup Final, Montreal Forum, Montreal, Quebec: Jean Béliveau has a goal and 2 assists as Montreal Canadiens beat Detroit Red Wings, 3-2 for a 4-1 series win

  • 1957 John Osborne's "Entertainer" premieres in London
  • 1957 Jordanian government of Naboelsi resigns
  • 1957 USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test

Film Release

1957 "12 Angry Men", directed by Sidney Lumet, starring Henry Fonda and Lee J. Cobb, is released

  • 1958 Northern strip of Spanish Sahara ceded to Morocco
  • 1959 Chicago White Sox second baseman Nellie Fox gets a MLB Opening Day record tying 5 hits in 7 at-bats in a 14-inning, 9–7 win in Detroit
  • 1960 24th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: 1958 champion Arnold Palmer birdies the final 2 holes to win by 1 stroke over runner-up Ken Venturi
  • 1960 Senate passes landmark Civil Rights Bill
  • 1961 25th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: South African Gary Player beats defending champion Arnold Palmer and amateur Charles Coe by 1 stroke to become first international champion; Monday finish because of rain

Historic Event

1961 Dutch foreign minister Luns talks to JFK about New Guinea

  • 1961 Washington Senators play first game in franchise history with President John F. Kennedy in attendance; lose a 4-3 decision to the Chicago White Sox
  • 1962 52,564 fans attend first MLB game at LA's Dodger Stadium at Chavez Ravine, a 6-3 loss to the Cincinnati Reds
  • 1962 Houston Colt .45s make their MLB debut with an 11-2 win over the Chicago Cubs at Colt Stadium; outfielder Román Mejías hits a pair of 3-run homers
  • 1963 USS Thresher, a nuclear powered submarine, sinks 220 miles east of Boston killing 129 men, including 17 civilians
  • 1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1964 Demolition begins in Upper Manhattan, New York City on Polo Grounds sports stadium (home to MLB Giants, 1891-1957, Mets, 1962-63, and NFL Jets, 1960-63) to clear way for housing project
  • 1964 Iranian motor launch catches fire & sinks killing 113 (Persian Gulf)

Academy Awards

1967 39th Academy Awards: "A Man For All Seasons," Best Picture, Elizabeth Taylor & Paul Scofield best actress/actor

  • 1968 Ferry Wahine sinks in Wellington harbour, New Zealand on route from Lyttelton (51 killed)

Music Premiere

1968 Musical "George M!", based on the life of Broadway star George M. Cohan, opens at Palace Theater NYC for 435 performances

Academy Awards

1968 40th Academy Awards: "In the Heat of the Night", Rod Steiger & Katherine Hepburn win

  • 1968 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Music History

1970 Paul McCartney officially announces the split of The Beatles

  • 1971 US table tennis team arrives in People's Republic of China
  • 1971 Philadelphia Phillies open their new home, Veterans Stadium, with a 4-1 win over the Montreal Expos; 55,352, largest ever crowd to watch a MLB game in Pennsylvania
  • 1971 The Republican commemorations is held in Belfast of the Easter Rising (in 1916 in Dublin), revealing conflicts between the two wings of the Irish Republican Army

Academy Awards

1972 44th Academy Awards: "The French Connection", Gene Hackman & Jane Fonda win

  • 1972 7.0 earthquake kills 1/5 of population of Iranian province of Fars
  • 1972 US, USSR & 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons
  • 1972 20 days after he was kidnapped in Buenos Aires, Oberdan Sallustro is executed by communist guerrillas
  • 1972 Two British soldiers are killed in a bomb attack in Derry
  • 1973 BEA flight to Basel Switzerland, crashes on landing, killing 104 of 143
  • 1973 Kansas City Royals open their new park, Royals Stadium with 12-1 rout of the Texas Rangers; attendance 39,476
  • 1973 Pakistan suspends constitution

Historic Event

1974 Golda Meir resigns as Israel's Prime Minister

  • 1974 American Boccaccio Association forms
  • 1975 Rangers score 8 goals against Islanders in playoffs
  • 1976 Brewers' Don Money's grand slammer disallowed-Yanks win 9-7
  • 1976 Cleveland Cavaliers win their 1st NBA Central Division title
  • 1977 41st US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Tom Watson wins the first of his 2 green jackets, 2 strokes ahead of runner-up Jack Nicklaus
  • 1977 Cleveland Indians set club record for longest, 9 inn game (3:17)
  • 1978 Formation of Major Indoor Soccer League announced
  • 1979 J. R. Richard of the Houston Astros pitches a complete game but sets a MLB record by throwing 6 wild pitches in 2-1 win over the LA Dodgers at the Astrodome
  • 1979 Soyuz 33 launched with a Russian & a Bulgarian
  • 1979 Red River Valley Tornado Outbreak: A tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
  • 1981 Computer glitch keeps Space Shuttle Columbia grounded
  • 1981 France performs nuclear test
  • 1981 Imprisoned Provisional IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands elected to British Parliament for Northern Ireland county of Fermanagh and South Tyrone
  • 1982 LA Kings losing 5-0 to Edmonton in 3rd period, win in OT 6-5

Sports History

1983 Baltimore's Eddie Murray hits his 1,000 career hit

  • 1983 Hennie Kuiper (Neth) wins Paris-Roubaix cycle race
  • 1983 Jordan king Hussein ceases negotiations with PLO
  • 1984 Damaged Solar Max satellite snared by Challenger shuttle
  • 1984 US Senate condemns CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors
  • 1985 At 80 Leo Sites becomes oldest bowler to score a 300 game
  • 1985 Challenger moves to Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (Florida) for mating of STS 51-B mission
  • 1986 "Big Deal" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 70 performances
  • 1986 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1988 52nd US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Scotsman Sandy Lyle claims his second major title with a birdie on the 72nd hole to win by 1 stroke over Mark Calcavecchia
  • 1988 8th Golden Raspberry Awards: "Leonard Part 6" wins
  • 1988 Herschel Walker performs Fort Worth Ballet
  • 1988 Islanders beat Devils 5-4 (OT) 1st round tied at 2-2

Music Awards

1989 24th Academy of Country Music Awards: Hank Williams Jr, George Strait, and K.T. Oslin win

Historic Event

1989 Intel corp announces shipment of 80-486 chip

  • 1990 CUNY/Lehman College, Bronx, opens a branch campus in Hiroshma, Japan
  • 1990 Curtly Ambrose takes 8-45 in cricket vs England at Bridgetown
  • 1991 Boat rams a tanker in Livorno Italy fog, killing about 138

NHL Record

1991 LA King Wayne Gretzky scores NHL record 93rd playoff goal

  • 1991 Last automat (coin operated cafeteria) closes (3rd & 42nd St, NYC)
  • 1991 Martin Zubero swims world record 200m backstroke (1:52.51)
  • 1991 Rare tropical storm develops in the Southern Hemisphere near Angola; first to be documented by satellites
  • 1992 25 die in a bus bombing in Sri Lanka
  • 1992 Floriade (Flower Show) opens at The Hague, Netherlands
  • 1992 NHL strike ends after 10 days
  • 1993 BPAA US Open by Del Ballard Jr
  • 1993 Ottawa Senators win 1st road game (Islanders) after 38 straight loses
  • 1993 Pittsburgh Penguins win their NHL record 17 game winning streak
  • 1994 "Les Miserables" opens at Hiten Theatre, Osaka
  • 1994 58th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: José María Olazábal wins the first of 2 Masters titles, 2 strokes ahead of Tom Lehman; 6th winner from Europe in the past 7 years
  • 1995 "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" opens at Lyceum Theater NYC for 24 performances
  • 1995 NYC bans smoking in all restaurants that seat 35 or more
  • 1996 Fastest wind speed ever recorded (not a tornado) 408 km/h (220 kn; 253 mph; 113 m/s) during tropical cyclone Olivia on Barrow Island, Australia
  • 1998 The Good Friday Agreement [Belfast Agreement] for Northern Ireland is signed by the British and Irish governments
  • 1999 152nd Grand National: Irish 10/1 shot Bobbyjo, ridden by jockey Paul Carberry wins by 10 lengths from Blue Charm
  • 2005 69th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Tiger Woods wins his 4th green jacket on the 1st hole of a playoff with Chris DiMarco
  • 2005 Cricket Women's World Cup: Australia defeats India by 98 runs
  • 2005 At 16 years, 271 days James Vaughan scores for Everton in a 4-0 win against Crystal Palace at Goodison Park; becomes youngest goalscorer in EPL history
  • 2006 Hundreds of thousands protest H.R. 4437 (aka the "Sensenbrenner Bill") in the United States.
  • 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154M crashes near Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board including President Lech Kaczyński
  • 2010 163rd Grand National: Tony McCoy wins aboard 10/1 joint-favourite Don't Push It by 5 lengths ahead of Black Apalachi
  • 2011 75th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Charl Schwartzel of South Africa birdies the final 4 holes to win his first major title, 2 strokes ahead of Australian pair Adam Scott and Jason Day
  • 2012 United Nations deadline for Syrian troop withdrawal passes as violence continues
  • 2012 Apple Inc claims a value of $600 billion making it the largest company by market capitalization in the world

Election of Interest

2012 Rick Santorum suspends his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination making Mitt Romney the overwhelming favourite