On This Day

Historical Events on April 11

  • 491 Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, as Anastasius I - often called the first Byzantine Emperor
  • 672 Deusdedit II begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1079 Bishop Stanislaus of Krakow is executed by order of Bolesław II of Poland
  • 1241 Battle of Mohi: Mongols led by Batu and Subedei defeat Hungarian King Béla IV in the major battle in during Mongolian invasion of Hungary, with 30,000 Hungarians slain

Historic Event

1471 Wars of the Roses: King Edward IV of England seizes London from Henry VI

Battle of Ravenna

1512 Battle of Ravenna: French forces under Gaston de Foix defeat the Holy League in a major battle of the Italian Wars

  • 1551 English premier John Dudley appointed Duke of Northumberland
  • 1564 England & France sign Peace of Troyes
  • 1564 Liege prince-bishop Robert van Bergen resigns
  • 1567 Dutch prince William of Orange flees from Antwerp to Breda
  • 1579 Venlo joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1580 Drenthe joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1612 Last public burning at the stake in England - Edward Wrightman for heresy in Lichfield

Victory in Battle

1677 Battle at Montcassel, French troops beat Prince William III

  • 1689 King William III and Queen Mary II crowned as joint rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland
  • 1713 Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Prussia, Savoy, Portugal & France agree the Treaty of Utrecht; France cedes Maritime provinces in North America to Britain
  • 1750 Jack Slack retains Champion of England boxing title, beats Frenchman Jean Petit in 7 rounds in Harlston, England; acknowledged as first international prize fight
  • 1783 Hostilities formally cease in the American Revolutionary War [1]
  • 1801 Johann von Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans" premieres in Leipzig

Historic Event

1814 Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates unconditionally and he is exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean

  • 1828 Foundation of Bahia Blanca, Argentina

Music History

1830 Robert Schumann hears the violinist Paganini play in Frankfurt

The Lewis Chess Pieces

1831 The 12th century Lewis chess pieces are exhibited at the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, shortly after their rediscovery in a sand bank on the Scottish Isle of Lewis

  • 1848 Hungary becomes constitutional monarchy under King Ferdinand of Austria
  • 1853 Steamboat ferry 'Jenny Lind' boiler explosion kills at least 31 passengers in San Francisco Bay, California
  • 1856 Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Nicaraguans
  • 1862 Confederates surrender at Fort Pulaski, Georgia
  • 1863 Battle of Suffolk, Virginia (Norfleet House)
  • 1865 Battle of Mobile, Alamaba evacuated by Confederates

Historic Event

1865 Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction

  • 1868 The Shogunate is abolished in Japan
  • 1876 Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks organizes in New York City
  • 1876 Sir Charles Gordon ends religious tolerance in Sudan
  • 1881 Spelman College founded as Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary in basement of Friendship Baptist Church, Atlanta
  • 1888 The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam is inaugurated
  • 1890 Ellis Island, New York, designated as an immigration station
  • 1891 8-year old Jewish tailor's daughter disappears in Greece, rumor spreads that she was a Christian girl ritually killed by Jews
  • 1895 Anaheim completes its new electric light system
  • 1896 Hungarian swimmer Alfréd Hajós beats Otto Herschmann of Austria by 0.6s to win the inaugural Olympic 100m freestyle final in 1:22.2 at the Athens Games; also takes out the 1,200m on the same day
  • 1896 Irish tennis player John Boland, representing Great Britain wins both the men's singles and doubles finals at the Athens Olympics; Dionysios Kasdaglis of Greece loses both matches
  • 1899 Treaty of Paris ratifies ends war; Spain cedes Puerto Rico to US

Historic Event

1900 The first modern submarine designed and built by John Philip Holland is purchased by the U.S. Navy

  • 1902 Second Boer War: British forces defeat Boer commandos in Battle of Rooiwal, South Africa
  • 1907 New York Giants future Baseball Hall of Fame backstop Roger Bresnahan becomes first catcher to wear shin guards
  • 1909 Establishment of Tel Aviv by Jewish settlers (named 1910)

Historic Event

1912 RMS Titanic leaves Queenstown, Ireland, for NY

  • 1912 Cornerstone of Technion laid in Haifa, Palestine
  • 1912 The UK Parliament introduce a Irish home rule bill, granting Ireland its own bicameral parliament and be required to send a representative to the British House of Commons; Protestants in Ulster resist
  • 1914 Mexican President Huerta breaks off diplomatic relations with the US
  • 1919 The International Labour Organization is founded.
  • 1921 Iowa imposes 1st state cigarette tax
  • 1921 KDKA broadcast 1st radio sporting event, a boxing match (Ray-Dundee)
  • 1921 Turkestan ASSR forms in Russian SFSR
  • 1921 The Emirate of Transjordan created
  • 1924 1st men's college swimming championships begin
  • 1924 Socialists win Danish parliamentary elections
  • 1924 WLS-AM in Chicago IL begins radio transmissions
  • 1925 Abd el-Krims Rifkabylen beats French army in Morocco
  • 1926 Flemish Economic Covenant (VEV) forms in Ghent
  • 1927 Chilean general Carlos Ibáñez names himself president
  • 1929 KLO-AM in Ogden UT begins radio transmissions
  • 1929 Loetafoon celluloid film system demonstrated in Amsterdam

Historic Event

1933 Hermann Goering becomes Premier of Prussia

  • 1936 Rodgers & Hart's musical "On Your Toes" premieres in NYC

Sports History

1936 Stanley Cup Final, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, ON: Detroit Red Wings beat Toronto Maple Leafs, 3-2 for a 3-1 series win; Red Wings first SC Championship

  • 1936 First Butlins holiday camp opens in the UK at Ingoldmells, near Skegness
  • 1939 Hungary leaves League of Nations
  • 1941 Jewish Weekly newspaper taken control by Nazis
  • 1941 Nazi occupiers in Netherlands confiscate Jewish assets
  • 1942 US Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal established
  • 1943 Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his 1st (single-rotor) craft
  • 1944 RAF bombs census bureau in The Hague
  • 1945 Allied troops liberate Basket-Compascuum
  • 1945 SS burns & shoots 1,100 at Gardelegen
  • 1945 US captures Tsugen Shima
  • 1945 Four soldiers in the Sixth Armored Division of the US Third Army liberate the Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald
  • 1945 US troops conquers Mulheim, Oberhausen, Bochum, Unna, Essen
  • 1948 12th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Claude Harmon shoots a record-tying 279 (−9) to finish 5 strokes ahead of runner-up Cary Middlecoff

Historic Event

1950 Prince Rainier III becomes ruler of Monaco

  • 1950 US B-29 bomber shot down over Latvia

Historic Event

1951 US President Harry Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command in Korea

  • 1952 The Battle of Nanri island takes place.
  • 1953 Oveta Culp Hobby becomes 1st at Health, Education, & Welfare
  • 1953 US Department of Health, Education and Welfare created
  • 1955 Gary Sobers starts run of 85 Test Cricket appearances for WI uninterrupted

Assassination Attempt

1955 Chartered Air India plane the "Kashmir Princess" is bombed and crashes into the South China Sea in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by a Kuomintang secret agent

Film Premiere

1955 "Marty" directed by Delbert Mann and starring Ernest Borgnine and Betsy Blair premieres in New York (Best Picture 1956)

  • 1956 French government decides to send 200,000 reservists to Algeria
  • 1956 Singer Nat Cole attacked on stage of Birmingham theater in racial incident

Historic Event

1957 Pablo Neruda arrested in Buenos Aires

  • 1957 Ryan X-13 Vertijet becomes 1st jet to take-off & land vertically
  • 1957 Britain agrees to Singaporean self-rule.
  • 1958 Brooks Hall in Civic Center dedicated in San Francisco
  • 1959 Yip Harburg, Fred Saidy, and Harold Arlen's musical "Jamaica", starring Lena Horne, closes at Imperial Theater NYC after 558 performances

Sports History

1959 Dodger pitcher Don Drysdale hits his 2nd Opening Day HR

  • 1959 Dutch Prince Bernhard visits Lockheed factory

Music History

1961 Bob Dylan makes his 1st appearance at Folk City, Greenwich Village, New York City

  • 1961 15th NBA Championship: Bos Celtics beat St Louis Hawks, 4 games to 1
  • 1961 Austrian 4th & last government of Raab resigns
  • 1962 New York Mets make a losing debut

Catholic Encyclical

1963 Pope John XXIII publishes encyclical "Pacem in terris", that peace between all peoples must be based on truth, justice, love and freedom

  • 1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Sports History

1963 Milwaukee Braves future Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Warren Spahn beats NY Mets, 6-1 for his 328th win; most by a left-hander in MLB history

Musical Finale

1964 Stephen Sondheim's musical "Anyone Can Whistle" closes at Majestic Theater, NYC, after 9 performances

US Masters Golf

1965 29th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Jack Nicklaus wins the 2nd of his 6 Masters titles with a tournament record 271 (−17); beats Gary Player and Arnold Palmer by a record 9 strokes

  • 1965 40 tornadoes strike US midwest killing 272 & injuring 5,000
  • 1966 30th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Jack Nicklaus becomes first back-to-back champion winning an 18-hole Monday playoff with Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer
  • 1966 Emmett Ashford becomes first African American major league baseball umpire in Washington Senators’ game against the Cleveland Indians at D.C. Stadium

Music Recording

1966 Frank Sinatra records "Strangers in the Night" single for his album of the same name. Later reaches #1 Billboard charts

  • 1967 "Illya Darling" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC for 320 performances

Election of Interest

1967 Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress and reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

Theater Premiere

1967 Tom Stoppard's play "Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead" debuts in London at the Old Vic

  • 1968 Polish Marshal Spychalski succeeds Ochab as president

Historic Event

1968 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs 1968 Civil Rights Act

  • 1968 W Berlin student Rudi Dutschke seriously wounded at demonstration
  • 1968 WHED TV channel 15 in Hanover, NH (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1970 Apollo 13 launched to Moon; unable to land, returns in 6 days
  • 1970 Beatles' "Let It Be" single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks
  • 1970 San Francisco beats Cincinnati 2-1, only day Reds aren't in 1st place in 1970
  • 1971 "Johnny Johnson" opens/closes at Edison Theater NYC for 1 performance
  • 1971 35th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Charles Coody wins his only major title by 2 strokes ahead of runners-up Johnny Miller and Jack Nicklaus
  • 1971 WBFF TV channel 45 in Baltimore, MD (IND) begins broadcasting
  • 1972 Benjamin L Hooks named to FCC
  • 1972 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1974 WW II war criminal JP Philippa arrested

Sports History

1975 Hank Aaron returns to County Stadium as a Milwaukee player after his off-season trade from the Atlanta Braves; Brewers beat Cleveland Indians, 6-2

  • 1975 J. P. Parisé scores an 11 sec OT goal, to see the NY Islanders eliminate the NY Rangers in their ever 1st playoff advance
  • 1976 40th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Raymond Floyd wins his only Masters title, 8 strokes ahead of runner-up Ben Crenshaw

Historic Event

1976 The Apple I computer, created by Steve Wozniak is released

  • 1977 Ireland sets fishing zone at 50 mile
  • 1977 "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)" single released by Waylon Jennings (Billboard Song of the Year, 1977)

Victory in Battle

1979 Tanzanian army captures Kampala, the capital of Uganda forcing Ugandan dictator Idi Amin to flee into exile in Libya

  • 1980 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulates sexual harassment

Music Single

1980 Paul McCartney releases single "Coming Up"

Boxing Title Fight

1981 Larry Holmes beats Trevor Berbick by unanimous decision in Las Vegas to retain his WBC heavyweight boxing title

  • 1981 Race riot in London area of Brixton

Historic Event

1981 Ronald Reagan arrives home from hospital after Hinkley shot him

  • 1982 46th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Craig Stadler wins his only major title by defeating Dan Pohl on the 1st hole of a sudden-death playoff
  • 1983 3rd Golden Raspberry Awards: "Inchon!" wins
  • 1983 47th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Seve Ballesteros of Spain wins his 2nd Masters and 3rd major title, 4 strokes ahead of Ben Crenshaw and Tom Kite; Monday finish because of torrential rain
  • 1983 NASA launches RCA-F
  • 1983 In the first 'supergrass' trial in Northern Ireland, fourteen Ulster Volunteer Force members are jailed for a total of two hundred years
  • 1984 Challenger astronauts complete 1st in space satellite repair
  • 1984 Chinese troops invade Vietnam

Appointment of Interest

1984 General Secretary Konstantin Chernenko named President of the Soviet Union

  • 1984 Soyuz T-11 returns to Earth
  • 1986 A 1921 Canadian 50 cent coin is auctioned in New York for $22,000
  • 1986 Dodge Morgan sailed solo nonstop around world in 150 days
  • 1986 Halley's Comet makes closest approach to Earth this trip, 63 M km
  • 1986 KXA-AM in Seattle WA changes call letters to KRPM
  • 1987 Yankees score 12 runs in 7th inning vs KC Royals
  • 1987 Zoja Ivanova wins 2nd female World Cup marathon (2:30:39)
  • 1988 Royal Concert building in Amsterdam reopens

Sports History

1989 1st playoff goal scored by a goalie, Ron Hextall of Philadelphia

  • 1989 Flyers, scores short-handed into an empty net beating Caps 8-5
  • 1990 MLB California Angels Mark Langston & Mike Witt, no-hit Seattle, 1-0
  • 1990 NY Lotto pays $35 million to two winner (#s are 6-14-24-32-34-51)
  • 1990 NY Rangers beat NY Islanders 6-1, Rangers lead 3-1 in preliminary playoffs
  • 1990 Customs officers in Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, say they have seized what they believe to be the barrel of a massive gun on a ship bound for Iraq.

Music Premiere

1991 Musical "Miss Saigon" created by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil opens at Broadway Theater NYC

  • 1991 NYC's Museum of Broadcasting becomes "Museum of Radio & Television"
  • 1991 Space Shuttle STS 37 (Atlantis 8) lands at Edwards Air Force Base, California
  • 1991 UN Security Council issues formal cease fire with Iraq declaration
  • 1992 BPAA US Open by Robert Lawrence
  • 1992 MLB Cleveland Indians set team record for long game loss to Boston Red Sox (19 innings - 6½ hr)
  • 1992 Irish Republican Army bombs London financial district, killing 3
  • 1993 57th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Bernhard Langer of Germany wins his second green jacket by 4 strokes from Chip Beck
  • 1993 Kirsan Ilumzjinov installed as president of Kalmukkie
  • 1993 450 prisoners riot at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio, and continue for ten days, citing grievances about prison conditions and the forced vaccination of Nation of Islam prisoners (for tuberculosis)
  • 1996 Revival of Rodgers & Hammerstein's musical "The King & I", starring Lou Diamond Phillips and Donna Murphy, premieres at Neil Simon Theater, NYC; runs for 781 performances
  • 1996 Detroit Red Wings become 2nd NHL team to win 60 games in a season
  • 1999 63rd US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: José María Olazábal of Spain wins his second Masters title, 2 strokes ahead of Davis Love III and 3 from of Greg Norman
  • 1999 52nd British Film and Television Awards (BAFTAs): "Shakespeare in Love" Best Film, Peter Weir Best Director
  • 1999 Neil Jenkins converts a Scott Gibbs try to give Wales a famous, 32-31 win over England at Wembley Stadium; allows Scotland to win final Five Nations Rugby Championship; reverts to 6 teams in 2000
  • 2000 AT&T Park in San Francisco, Minute Maid Park in Houston, and Comerica Park in Detroit open.
  • 2000 South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje is sacked after admitting dishonesty following match-fixing allegations in India
  • 2001 Detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, People's Republic of China after a collision with an J-8 fighter are released
  • 2002 The Ghriba synagogue bombing by Al Qaeda kills 21 in Tunisia

Coup d'état

2002 An attempted coup d'état takes place in Venezuela against President Hugo Chávez.

  • 2004 68th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Phil Mickelson claims his first major title with a birdie on the final hole to win by 1 stroke over Ernie Els of South Africa

CMT Music Awards

2005 39th CMT Music Awards: Keith Urban, Gretchen Wilson & Kenny Chesney wins

Historic Event

2006 Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran has successfully enriched uranium

  • 2007 Two bombings in the Algerian capital of Algiers kill 33 people and wounds a further 222
  • 2010 74th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Phil Mickelson wins his 3rd green jacket by 3 strokes from England's Lee Westwood
  • 2010 "The night of Sora Aoi", Japanese porn actress Sora Aoi joins twitter prompting many Chinese fans to try and circumnavigate Chinese censorship
  • 2011 Minsk Metro bombing in Belarus kills at least 15 and injures over 200
  • 2012 8.6 magnitude earthquake and 8.2 aftershock occurs off the coast of Indonesia
  • 2012 2011 London riot looter is jailed for 11 years after starting a fire at a furniture retailer
  • 2012 South Korean legislative elections result in the governing Saenuri Party retaining governance
  • 2012 Prime Minister of Greece, Lucas Papademos, resigns and calls an election for May 6

Historic Event

2012 Billionaire Warren Buffett is diagnosed with prostate cancer

Film Premiere

2012 "The Avengers", directed by Joss Whedon and starring Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson, Mark Ruffalo and Jeremy Renner, premieres in Los Angeles

  • 2013 14 people are killed in clashes between drug traffickers and police in Michoacán, Mexico
  • 2013 57 people are killed by the Syrian Army in Daraa Governorate, Syria
  • 2013 Two women are beheaded for sorcery in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea