Historical Events on April 13

  • 837 Best view of Halley's Comet in 2,000 years
  • 989 Battle at Abydos: Byzantine emperor Basilius II beats Bardas Phocas
  • 1055 Bishop Gebhard van Eichstattt named Pope Victor II
  • 1059 Papal bull "In nomine Domini" (In the Name of the Lord) issued by Pope Nicholas II establishing popes elected by Bishops and Cardinals not appointed by their predecessor
  • 1111 After months of controversy Pope Paschal II crowns Henry V, the King of Germany and Italy, as the Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1180 Diet of Gelnhausen; Henry the Lion deprived of the Duchy of Saxony
  • 1204 Crusaders occupy Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade
  • 1250 The Seventh Crusade is defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France captured
  • 1256 The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae
  • 1346 Pope Clemens VI declares German emperor Louis of Bavaria, envoy
  • 1517 Ottoman army occupies Cairo
  • 1520 Raphaels' final influential masterpiece "The Transfiguration" is put on display a week after the artist's death
  • 1556 Portuguese Marranos who revert back to Judaism burned by order of Pope

Execution

1560 Giovanni, son of Italian mathematician Girolamo Cardano is executed for poisoning his wife, despite his father's efforts to save him

  • 1598 Edict of Nantes grants political rights to French Huguenots
  • 1640 English Short Parliament forms (till May 5)

Appointment of Interest

1668 John Dryden (36) appointed first English poet laureate by Charles II

  • 1741 Dutch people protest poor quality of bread
  • 1741 Royal Military Academy forms at Woolwich, England

Music History

1742 George Frideric Handel's oratorio "Messiah" performed for the 1st time at New Music Hall in Dublin

  • 1759 French beat European Allies in Battle of Bergen

Historic Event

1769 British ship Endeavour captained by James Cook, arrives in Matavia Bay, Tahiti, with botanist Joseph Banks on board

Victory in Battle

1796 Battle of Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon's forces defeat allied armies of Austria and of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont.

  • 1796 First elephant arrives in US from India
  • 1829 The Roman Catholic Relief Act passed by the British Parliament; it was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.
  • 1834 HMS Beagle anchors at river mouth of Rio Santa Cruz, Patagonia
  • 1840 William Henry Lane ("Juda") perfects tap dance
  • 1842 Lord Rosse successfully casts 72" (183-cm) mirror for a telescope

Pony Express

1860 1st Pony Express reaches Sacramento, California

Battle of Fort Sumter

1861 After 34 hours of bombardment, Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederates (US Civil War)

  • 1863 Battle of Irish Bend, Louisiana (Fort Bisland)
  • 1863 Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled is incorporated in the State of New York
  • 1865 Raleigh, North Carolina, captured by Union forces

Ethiopian Emperor Commits Suicide

1868 Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala and Ethiopian Emperor Tewodros II commits suicide

Historic Invention

1869 Steam power brake patented (George Westinghouse)

  • 1870 Metropolitan Museum of Art forms in NYC
  • 1873 Colfax Massacre in Grant Parish, Louisiana (60 blacks killed)
  • 1882 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia
  • 1883 US prospector Alfred Packer convicted of manslaughter though accused of cannibalism

Music History

1896 John Philip Sousa's "El Capitan" premieres at the Tremont Theatre in Boston

  • 1904 A squadron of the Russian fleet is decoyed out of Port Arthur by Japanese maneuvers, when they realize they are sailing into a trap; their battleship Petropavlovsk hits a mine and sinks, with a loss of 700 men
  • 1904 Battle of Oviumbo (in modern Namibia): Herero tribesmen rise up against German colonists
  • 1906 Mutiny on Portuguese battleships Dom Carlos & Vasco da Gama
  • 1908 Groundbreaking for Philadelphia's Shibe Park, home of MLB Athletics (AL), 1909-54, MLB Phillies (NL), 1938-70, and NFL Eagles, 1940-57
  • 1909 In Constantinople the primarily Albanian First Army Corps seizes the parliament building and telegraphs offices, forcing the Ottoman statesman Hilmi Pasha to resign

Election of Interest

1910 Australian General Election: the Commonwealth Liberal Party is defeated by the Australian Labor Party, headed by Andrew Fisher, who is able to form a majority government

  • 1911 Polo Grounds grandstand & left field bleachers go up in flames in Manhattan, New York City
  • 1911 The US House of Representatives votes to institute direct elections of senators to Congress, a step towards direct democracy
  • 1912 Royal Flying Corps forms (later Royal Air Force)
  • 1914 1st Federal League Game: Baltimore Terrapins beat Buffalo Blues 3-2
  • 1918 Electrical fire kills 38 mental patients at Oklahoma State Hospital
  • 1919 British troops open fire on demonstrators in Amritsar, India, killing 350
  • 1919 Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
  • 1920 1st woman US Civil Service Commissioner, Helen Hamilton appointed
  • 1921 Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers' Party.
  • 1923 US Army wins 1st college three-weapon fencing championships
  • 1924 Greek plebiscite for a republic
  • 1925 Virginia Theater (ANTA, Guild) opens at 245 W 52nd St NYC

Sports History

1926 At 38, Walter Johnson pitches his 7th opening day shutout

  • 1926 Cyclists without bicycle-tax-stamp rounded up in Amsterdam
  • 1927 Stanley Cup Final, Ottawa Auditorium, Ottawa, ON: Ottawa Senators beat Boston Bruins, 3-1 for a 2-0-2 series win
  • 1928 1st trans atlantic flight Europe-US (Fitzmaurice-von Hunefeld-Köhl)
  • 1933 1st flight over Mount Everest (Lord Clydesdale)

Sports History

1933 Stanley Cup Final, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, ON: New York Rangers beat Toronto Maple Leafs, 1-0 in OT for a 3-1 series win; first best-of-4 Finals series

  • 1934 4.7 million US families report receiving welfare payments
  • 1934 US Congress passes Johnson Debt Default Act
  • 1936 Ioannis Metaxas proclaims himself dictator of Greece
  • 1938 Clifford Goldsmith's play "What a Life" premieres at The Biltmore Theater, NYC
  • 1939 The Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.
  • 1939 W Saroyan's "My Heart's in the Highlands" premieres in NYC
  • 1940 American athlete Cornelius "Dutch" Warmerdam, using a bamboo pole, becomes 1st man to pole vault 15 ft, at University of California, Berkeley
  • 1940 Second battle of Narvik; 3 German destroyers and one U-boat sunk by the Royal Navy, 5 more German destroyers scuttled
  • 1940 Stanley Cup Final, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, Ontario: New York Rangers beat Toronto Maple Leafs, 3-2 for 4-2 series victory; Rangers last Cup win for 54 years
  • 1941 Heavy German assault on Tobruk
  • 1941 Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.

US Masters Golf

1942 9th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Byron Nelson wins an 18-hole playoff by 1 stroke over runner-up Ben Hogan

  • 1943 Catholic University Nijegen closes

Historic Event

1943 FDR dedicates Jefferson Memorial

  • 1943 Nazis discover mass grave of Polish officers near Katyn
  • 1944 New Zealand and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations
  • 1944 South Carolina rejects black suffrage
  • 1944 Stanley Cup Final, Montreal Forum, Montreal, Quebec: Montreal Canadiens beat Chicago Blackhawks, 5-4 in overtime for a 4-0 series sweep; Canadiens' first SC triumph since 1931

Historic Event

1944 Transport #71 departs Drancy (France) internment camp, taking 1,500 French Jews to Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi German occupied Poland; an estimated 91 survived

  • 1945 Canadian soldier Léo Major single-handedly liberates Dutch town of Zwolle by fooling Germans into thinking a raid had begun
  • 1945 WWII: Canadian army liberates Teuge & Assen, Netherlands, from Nazis
  • 1945 WWII: Russian Red Army occupies Vienna, Austria
  • 1945 WWII: US Marines conquer Minna Shima off Okinawa, Japan
  • 1946 Belgian premier Acker proclaims wage & price freeze over
  • 1946 Eddie Klepp, a white pitcher signed by defending Negro League champ Cleveland Buckeyes, is barred from field in Birmingham, Alabama
  • 1948 Hadassah Convoy Massacre: Vehicles bringing Jewish staff and medical supplies to Hadassah Hospital and University on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem attacked by Arab forces; 79 killed by bombs, grenades, and sniper fire
  • 1949 Basketball Association of America Finals: Minneapolis Lakers beat Washington Capitols, 77-56 to take series, 4 games to 2; BAA and National Basketball League merge later that year to create the NBA
  • 1949 Philip S. Hench at Mayo Clinc announces discovery of cortisone to treat rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1953 1st game of Milwaukee Braves, they beat Cincinnati Reds 2-0
  • 1954 Baltimore Orioles 1st game, loses to Tigers in Detroit 3-0

Sports History

1954 Milwaukee Braves' Hank Aaron's 1st game

  • 1955 20.33" (51.64 cm) of rainfall, Axis, Alabama (state record)
  • 1956 KETA TV channel 13 in Oklahoma City, OK (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1957 11th NBA Championship: Bost Celtics beat St Louis Hawks, 4 games to 3
  • 1957 11th Tony Awards: "Long Days Journey into the Night" & "My Fair Lady" win
  • 1957 Musical "Shinbone Alley", starring Eartha Kitt, opens at Broadway Theater NYC; runs for 49 performances
  • 1957 Saturday postal delivery in US is temporarily halted due to lack of funds
  • 1958 12th Tony Awards: "Sunrise at Campobello" and "Music Man" win
  • 1958 Van Cliburn is the first American to win the Chaikovsky Compettion in Moscow.
  • 1959 USAF launches Discoverer II into polar orbit
  • 1959 Vanguard SLV-5 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
  • 1959 Vatican edict forbids Roman Catholics from voting for communists
  • 1960 US Department of Defense places "Transit 1B", 1st navigational satellite, in orbit around Earth
  • 1961 "Carnival!" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 719 performances
  • 1961 UN General Assembly condemns South-Africa's apartheid

Baseball Record

1962 Stan Musial scores his 1,869th run, a new NL record

  • 1962 US steel industry forced to give up price increases

Sports History

1963 Pete Rose triples for his 1st major league base hit

  • 1963 Pirate's Bob Friend balks 4 times in a game

Academy Awards

1964 36th Academy Awards: "Tom Jones" (Best Film), Patricia Neal (Hud) and Sidney Poitier (Lilies Of The Field) win; Poitier first Black actor in a leading role to win a competitive Oscar

  • 1964 Ian Smith becomes Prime Minister of Rhodesia
  • 1964 New Zealander Colin Bosher shears a record 565 sheep in 1 work day
  • 1965 1st US Senate black page, Lawrence W Bradford Jr, 16, appointed by New York Senator Jacob Javits
  • 1965 7th Grammy Awards: "The Girl From Ipanema", The Beatles win
  • 1965 The Beatles record their single "Help!"
  • 1966 Pan Am places $525,000,000 order for 25 Boeing 747s
  • 1969 33rd US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: George Archer wins his only major title, 1 stroke ahead of runners-up Billy Casper, George Knudson, and Tom Weiskopf
  • 1969 Closure of the Brisbane tramway network.
  • 1970 34th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Billy Casper defeats Gene Littler, 69 to 74 in a Monday 18-hole playoff to win his 3rd major title; last 18-hole playoff at the Masters
  • 1970 Apollo 13 announces "Okay, Houston, we've had a problem here", as Beech-built oxygen tank explodes en route to Moon
  • 1970 Greek composer and counter-revolutionary Mikis Theordorakis freed from Oropos concentration camp, and allowed to be exiled to France
  • 1970 Oakland uses gold-colored bases during the club's home opener: Rules Committee subsequently bans this innovation
  • 1972 1st baseball players' strike ends after 13 days
  • 1975 39th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Jack Nicklaus wins his 5th Masters title, 1 stroke ahead of Johnny Miller and Tom Weiskopf; Lee Elder, first African-American to compete in the tournament
  • 1975 Chad military coup by General Odingar
  • 1975 Christian Falange kills 27 Palestinians, begins Lebanese civil war
  • 1976 1st NBA playoff game for Cleveland Cavliers, they lose 100-95 to Washington
  • 1976 US Federal Reserve begins issuing $2 bicentennial notes
  • 1978 Jackson slugs a 3-run HR in the 1st inning, & the field is showered
  • 1979 Christian Turks occupy St Jansbasiliek
  • 1979 Longest doubles ping-pong match ends after 101 hours
  • 1979 Yusuf Lule becomes premier of Uganda
  • 1980 44th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: 23 year old Spaniard Seve Ballesteros wins his first Masters, 4 strokes ahead of Jack Newton and Gibby Gilbert
  • 1980 Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey's musical "Grease" closes at Majestic Theatre, NYC, after 3,388 performances (including Broadhurst and Royale Theatre runs)
  • 1980 Musical "Reggae", starring Philip Michael Thomas, closes at Biltmore Theater, NYC, after 21 performances
  • 1980 US and its allies boycott the Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest against Russia's invasion of Afghanistan
  • 1981 Pulitzer prize awarded to Beth Henley for "Crimes of the Heart"
  • 1981 Washington Post journalist Janet Cooke wins Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing; she later admits story was a hoax and returns the prize
  • 1983 Undefeated middleweight boxer Tony Ayala gets 35 years on sex assault
  • 1983 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1984 11th NASA Space Shuttle Mission (41C): Challenger 5 returns to Earth
  • 1984 India beat Pak by 58 runs to win 1st Asia Cricket Cup in Sharjah
  • 1984 Pete Rose becomes 1st NL to get 4,000 hits in a career
  • 1985 "TASS" denounces US boycott of Moscow Olympics
  • 1985 Katrin Dörre wins 1st female World Cup marathon (2:33:30)

Historic Event

1985 Ramiz Alia succeeds Enver Hoxha as party leader of Albania

  • 1985 Space Shuttle Atlantis ferried to Kennedy Space Center via Ellington AFB, Texas
  • 1986 50th Masters Golf Tournament: Jack Nicklaus wins his record 18th major with a 1-stroke victory over Greg Norman and Tom Kite; shoots final round 65 (−7); at 46 the oldest Masters winner
  • 1986 Boston Celtics end season with a 40-1 home win record

Meeting of Interest

1986 Pope John Paul II meets Rome's Chief Rabbi Elio Toaff at Rome synagogue

  • 1986 Spanish Grand Prix decided by 0.014 of a second
  • 1987 1st 3 San Diego Padres hit HRs off SF starter Roger Mason
  • 1987 Portugal signs agreement to return Macau to China (in 1999)
  • 1988 Italian government of De Mita forms
  • 1989 "Welcome to the Club" opens at Music Box Theater NYC for 12 performances
  • 1990 4th largest NBA crowd (45,458) see Orlando play at Minneapolis

Television Finale

1990 Final episode of Pat Sajak's late night TV show on CBS

  • 1990 NY Rangers beat NY Islanders 6-5, Rangers win preliminary, 4-1
  • 1991 BPAA US Open by Pete Weber
  • 1992 "2 Trains Running" opens at Walter Kerr Theater NYC for 160 performances
  • 1992 American Airlines reduce its 1st-class fares 20%-50%
  • 1992 Crystal Pepsi begins test marketing in Sacramento, Providence, Denver, Dallas, and Grand Rapids
  • 1992 Great Chicago Flood - Chicago's underground tunnels flood
  • 1992 Longest 2 undefeated baseball teams to meet (NY Yanks 5-0 vs Toronto Blue Jays 6-0); Yanks score 3 in top of 9th to win 5-2
  • 1992 Lou Carnesecca retires as coach of St John's basketball team
  • 1992 Magnitude 5.5 earthquake hits Netherlands
  • 1993 "3 Men on a Horse" opens at Lyceum Theater NYC for 40 performances

Theater Premiere

1993 Tom Stoppard's play "Arcadia" premieres in London directed by Trevor Nunn, starring Rufus Sewell, Felicity Kendal and Bill Nighy

Film & TV History

1994 Asteroid 7373 Takei discovered and named after Star Trek actor George Takei

  • 1994 Presidential guard at Kigali, Rwanda, chops 1,200 church members to death
  • 1994 Target date for Israeli complete withdrawal, doesn't occur
  • 1994 United Arab Emirates' 1st official ODI, losing to India
  • 1995 Yankees beat the Mets 2-0
  • 1996 En route to NHL record 62 victories Detroit Red Wings win #61
  • 1996 Ottawa Senators eliminate Stanley Cup Champs NJ Devils from playoff
  • 1997 "American Daughter" opens at Cort Theater NYC for 88 performances
  • 1997 48th time opposing pitchers hit HRs, Carlos Perez (Mon)/Darren Holmes
  • 1997 61st US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Tiger Woods wins his first major title, a record 12 strokes ahead of Tom Kite; 4-round total 270 (−18) is tournament record
  • 1997 Hartford Whalers last NHL game

Sports History

1997 NHL Pitts Penguin Mario Lemieux's last NHL regular game

  • 1997 Rare double doubleheader played in the same city Giants vs Mets & Oakland A's vs Yankees in NY after rain previous day

Film & TV History

2000 "When Louis Met..." documentary by Louis Theroux premieres on BBC2 in the UK featuring Jimmy Saville

Music Concert

2000 Rock for the Rainforest benefit concert held at Carnegie Hall, NYC; performers include: Sting, Elton John, James Taylor, Stevie Wonder, Ricky Martin, Billy Joel, Gladys Knight, Percy Sledge, Tom Jones, Martha Reeves, Macy Gray, Sam Moore, and The Impressions

  • 2002 Pedro Carmona, interim president of Venezuela, resigns one day after taking office

Music Concert

2002 Rock for the Rainforest benefit concert held at Carnegie Hall, NYC; performers include: Sting, Elton John, James Taylor, Nina Simone, Smokey Robinson, Lulu, Patti Labelle, Ravi Shankar, Anoushka Shankar, Jeff Beck, Wynonna Judd, and Rebecca Del Rio

  • 2003 49th British Academy Television Awards: "Alistair McGowan's Big Impression" Best Comedy, "Spooks" Best Drama
  • 2003 67th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Mike Weir wins his only major title in a 1-hole playoff over Len Mattiace; only Canadian to win a major and first left-handed Masters champion

Baseball Record

2004 Barry Bonds hits his 661st career home run, passing his godfather Willie Mays on the MLB all-time list

  • 2006 Powerful tornadoes rip through Iowa City, Iowa.
  • 2008 72nd US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Trevor Immelman of South Africa wins his first major title, 3 strokes ahead of Tiger Woods; Immelman leads, or ties for the lead after every round

Murder of Interest

2009 US record producer Phil Spector is found guilty of second-degree murder of actress Lana Clarkson in 2003

  • 2012 North Korean long range rocket testing ends in failure after the rocket broke up after launch
  • 2013 20 civilians are killed by the government bombing of Saraqib, Idlib