Historical Events on April 18

  • 310 St Eusebius begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 387 Bishop Ambrosius of Milan baptizes Augustinus
  • 1025 Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland

St. Peter's Basilica

1506 The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica is laid in the Vatican by Pope Julius II

  • 1518 Bona Sforza is crowned queen consort of Poland

Diet of Worms

1521 Diet of Worms: Cardinal Alexander questions Martin Luther

  • 1552 Mauritius of Saksen occupies Linz
  • 1663 Osman declares war on Austria
  • 1666 Peace of Kleef: Netherlands & bishop Von Galen of Munster
  • 1676 Sudbury, Massachusetts, attacked by Indians
  • 1688 "Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery": Francis Daniel Pastorius presents 1st formal written protest against African-American slavery in English colonies in Germantown, Pennsylvania
  • 1738 Real Academia de la Historia ("Royal Academy of History") founded in Madrid

The Regulars Are Coming!

1775 Paul Revere and William Dawes ride from Charlestown to Lexington warning "the regulars are coming!"

Cessation of Hostilities

1783 American Revolution: George Washington issues General Order announcing the end of hostilities with Britain, giving thanks to the Almighty, and offering congratulations and authorizing an extra ration of alcohol to the troops to celebrate [1]

  • 1797 France & Austria sign ceasefire
  • 1809 First run of 2,000 guineas horse race at Newmarket, England

PM Lord Melbourne

1835 William Lamb (Lord Melbourne) becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after Robert Peel resigns out of frustration

  • 1845 Whaling ship the Manhattan captained by Mercator Cooper is the first ship officially permitted visit Edo, Japan, in 220 years rescuing shipwrecked sailors
  • 1848 American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico
  • 1856 Russian Chancellor Count Nesselrode resigns

Military History

1861 Colonel Robert E. Lee turns down offer to command Union armies (US Civil War)

  • 1862 Battle of Fort Jackson, Fort St Philip & New Orlean's, Louisiana
  • 1864 Battle of Dybbøl: Denmark is defeated by Prussian and Austrian forces storming Dybbol fort in the deciding battle of the Second Schleswig War
  • 1864 Battle of Poison Springs, Arkansas (Camden Expedition)

Victory in Battle

1865 Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina

  • 1868 San Francisco Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals forms in San Francisco, California
  • 1869 1st international cricket match, held in San Francisco, won by California

Event of Interest

1874 David Livingstone, African explorer, buried in Westminster Abbey

  • 1876 Daniel O'Leary completes a 500 mile walk in 139 hrs 32 min
  • 1879 Trial of Standing Bear-Crook on indians citizen rights begins
  • 1880 An F4 tornado strikes Marshfield, Missouri, killing 99 people and injuring 100.
  • 1881 Natural History Museum opens in South Kensington, England
  • 1890 NY Commission of Emigration ends, closing Castle Garden, NYC (now known as Castle Clinton) [1]
  • 1898 2nd Boston Marathon won by Canadian Ron McDonald in race record 2:42:00
  • 1899 John McGraw, at 26, has his managerial debut as Oriole manager

Event of Interest

1899 St. Andrew's Ambulance Association is granted a Royal Charter by Queen Victoria

  • 1904 8th Boston Marathon won by Michael Spring in 2:38:04.4
  • 1904 L'Humanité, under Jean Jaurès begins publishing
  • 1906 Calvinist Reformed Union in Neth Church forms in Utrecht

San Francisco Earthquake of 1906

1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire kills nearly 4,000 while destroying 75% of the city

  • 1906 The Los Angeles Times story on the Azusa Street Revival launches Pentecostalism as a worldwide movement
  • 1907 Augustus Thomas' "Witching Hour" premieres in NYC
  • 1907 Fairmont Hotel opens in San Francisco

Tommy Burns KOs Jewey Smith

1908 Canadian champion Tommy Burns KOs Jewey Smith of England in 5th round at Neuilly Bowling Palace, Paris to retain his world heavyweight boxing title

Beatification of Joan of Arc

1909 Joan of Arc receives beatification by the Roman Catholic Church at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican

  • 1910 14th Boston Marathon won by Canadian Fred Cameron in 2:28:52.4
  • 1912 Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City
  • 1912 Tripolitan War: in continuing hostilities, Turkey closes the Dardanelles Straits after an Italian naval bombardment of the coastline
  • 1915 French pilot Roland Garros is shot down and glides to a landing on the German side of the lines during World War I.

Appointment of Interest

1916 Edith Wharton is appointed Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, France’s highest award, for her contribution to the war effort

  • 1916 US Secretary of State Warns Germany that the USA may break diplomatic relations unless torpedo attacks on unarmed ships stop

Baseball History

1918 Cleveland center fielder Tris Speaker turns an unassisted double play

  • 1918 The People's Council of Latvia proclaims the independence of the new country of Latvia
  • 1921 25th Boston Marathon won by Frank Zuna in race record 2:18:57.6
  • 1921 Junior Achievement incorporated in Colorado Spring
  • 1921 Philip James Barry's "Punch for Judy" premieres in NYC
  • 1922 Netherlands soccer team defeats Denmark 2-0
  • 1923 74,000 (62,281 paid) on hand for opening of Yankee Stadium
  • 1923 Poland annexes Central Lithuania
  • 1924 1st crossword puzzle book published by Simon & Schuster
  • 1925 World's Fair opens in Chicago
  • 1926 Rhein Stadium opens in Dusseldorf, Germany

Boston Marathon

1927 31st Boston Marathon won by Clarence DeMar in 2:40:22.2; his 5th victory in the event

Event of Interest

1927 Chiang Kai-shek forms anti-government in China

  • 1929 Palace for People's industry in Amsterdam devastated by fire
  • 1930 Attempted raid on the armoury of police and auxiliary forces in Chittagong in Bengal province, British India by armed pro-independence revolutionaries led by Surya Sen popularly known as Master-da
  • 1930 BBC news announcer announces "there is no news" at 20:45 news bulletin, plays music instead
  • 1932 36th Boston Marathon won by German runner Paul de Bruyn in 2:33:36.4
  • 1934 1st "Washateria" (laundromat) opens (Fort Worth, Texas)
  • 1935 Gen Sarazen's double eagle on 15th, wins him his 2nd Masters
  • 1935 Netherlands election (Musserts NSB wins 8% of vote)
  • 1936 Pan-Am Clipper begins regular passenger flights from San Francisco to Honolulu
  • 1938 42nd Boston Marathon won by Leslie Pawson in 2:35:34.8; his second victory in the event
  • 1938 Headless Mad Butcher victim found in Cleveland

Event of Interest

1939 Franz von Papen becomes German ambassador in Turkey

  • 1939 Hubert Pierlot forms Belgian government
  • 1942 "Stars & Stripes" paper for US armed forces starts

Event of Interest

1942 James Doolittle bombs Tokyo & other Japanese cities

  • 1942 Stanley Cup Final, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, ON: Toronto Maple Leafs beat Detroit Red Wings, 3-1 for a 4-3 series win; Toronto recovers after losing first 3 games

Attack on Pearl Harbor

1943 Operation Vengeance: US Army Air Force P-38G fighter aircraft from Kukum Field on Guadalcanal ambush and shoot down the transport bomber aircraft of Isoroku Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy and mastermind behind the Pearl Harbor attack

  • 1945 1 armed outfielder, St Louis Brown Pete Gray, 1st game he goes 1 for 4
  • 1945 Clandestine Radio 1212, after broadcasting pro-nazi propaganda for months used their influence to trap 350,000 German army group B troops
  • 1945 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Bolivia established
  • 1945 Epe freed (by corporal G van Aken)
  • 1946 International Court of Justice opens at The Hague Netherlands

Sports History

1946 Jackie Robinson debuts as 2nd baseman for the Montreal Royals

  • 1946 League of Nations dissolves (3 months after UN starts)
  • 1946 Rome, Auerbach and Horwitt's musical "Call Me Mister" opens at National Theater, NYC; runs for 734 performances

Event of Interest

1946 US recognizes Tito's Yugoslavia government

  • 1949 53rd Boston Marathon won by Gösta Leandersson of Sweden in 2:31:50.8
  • 1949 Republic of Ireland withdraws from British Commonwealth
  • 1950 1st opening night-game, Cards beat Pirates, 4-2
  • 1950 Polish Catholic church & government sign accord over relations
  • 1950 Sam Jethroe is 1st African American to play for Boston Braves
  • 1950 Yankees win 15-10 after trailing Red Sox 9-0 in 6th
  • 1951 "Make a Wish" opens at Winter Garden Theater, NYC; runs for 102 performances
  • 1951 Dutch Antilles government of Da Costa Gomez forms
  • 1951 France, West Germany & Benelux form European Steel & Coal Community

Musical Finale

1953 Revival of Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's musical "Pal Joey", starring Harold Lang and Vivienne Segal, closes at Broadhurst Theater, NYC, after 540 performances, winning 3 Tony Awards

Event of Interest

1954 Egyptian Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power and appoints himself Prime Minister

  • 1955 1st "Walk"/"Don't Walk" lighted street signals installed
  • 1955 1st Bandoeng Conference opens in Indonesia, attended by 29 nations - first international assembly of Asian-African nations
  • 1955 59th Boston Marathon won by Hideo Hamamura of Japan in 2:18:22
  • 1955 Dan Shapiro, and music by Sammy Fain's musical "Ankles Aweigh" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater, NYC; runs for 176 performances
  • 1956 Egypt & Israel agree to a cease fire

Event of Interest

1958 A United States federal court rules that poet Ezra Pound is to be released from an insane asylum.

  • 1958 Government troops reconquer Padang, Middle-Sumatra, Indonesia
  • 1958 NL single-game record crowd of 78,682 at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Dodgers win over San Francisco Giants, 6-5
  • 1959 Stanley Cup Final, Montreal Forum, Montreal, Quebec: Montreal Canadiens' 4th straight title; beat Toronto Maple Leafs, 5-3 for a 4-1 series win
  • 1960 64th Boston Marathon won by Paavo Kotila of Finland in 2:20:54
  • 1961 CONCP is founded in Casablanca as a united front of African movements opposing Portuguese colonial rule
  • 1962 16th NBA Championship: Boston Celtics beat LA Lakers, 4 games to 3
  • 1963 Dr James Campbell performed the 1st human nerve transplant
  • 1963 Stanley Cup Final, Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, ON: Toronto Maple Leafs go back-to-back with a 3-1 Game 5 win over Detroit Red Wings for a 4-1 series victory
  • 1964 Albert Hague and Marty Brill's musical "Cafe Crown", starring Theodore Bikel, closes at Martin Beck Theater, NYC, after 3 performances
  • 1964 Artisans strike in Belgium ends

Baseball Record

1964 LA Dodgers pitcher Sandy Koufax strikes out the side on 9 pitches, for major league best third time in his career

Musical Finale

1964 Robert Emmett Dolan and Johnny Mercer's musical "Foxy", starring Bert Lahr, closes at Ziegfeld Theater. NYC. after 72 performances and a Tony Award win for Lahr

  • 1966 70th Boston Marathon: Kenji Kimihara of Japan wins in 2:17:11; American Bobbi Gibb first woman in 3:21:40 (unsanctioned)

NBA Record

1966 Bill Russell becomes first African American coach in NBA history (Boston Celtics)

  • 1967 Jonathan Frid makes his 1st appearance as 200-year-old vampire Barnabas Collins on TV's "Dark Shadows", show becomes a huge hit
  • 1968 178,000 employees of US Bell Telephone System go on strike
  • 1968 1st ABA basketball championship began
  • 1968 Dutch Department of Amnesty International forms
  • 1968 London Bridge is sold to US oil company (to be erected in Arizona)
  • 1968 Mart Crowley's "Boys in the Band" premieres in NYC
  • 1968 Peter Luke's "Hadrian VII" premieres in London
  • 1968 San Francisco's Old Hall of Justice demolished
  • 1968 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1969 Greek actress and activist Melina Mercouri establishes Greek Aid Fund
  • 1970 France beats England, 35-13 at Stade Colombes, Paris to earn a share of the Five Nations Rugby Championship with Wales

Music Premiere

1972 Revival of Kurt Weill and Maxwell Anderson's musical "Lost in the Stars" based on the novel "Cry the Beloved Country" by Alan Paton, opens at Imperial Theater, NYC; runs for 39 performances

  • 1972 The Widgery Report on 'Bloody Sunday' in Northern Ireland is published, causing outrage among the people of Derry who call it the "Widgery Whitewash"

Event of Interest

1973 US Government ends Mandatory Oil Import Program, established in 1959 by President Eisenhower

  • 1974 Red Brigade kidnaps Italian attorney general Mario Sossi

Music Concert

1975 John Lennon gives what becomes his final public performance at a gala salute to British media mogul Lew Grade at the Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Hotel, NYC; he performed 3 songs - Little Richard’s “Slippin’ and Slidin’”, Ben E. King’s “Stand By Me”, and closed with his own “Imagine”

  • 1976 30th Tony Awards: "Travesties" (play) & "A Chorus Line" (musical) win
  • 1977 81st Boston Marathon: Canadian Jerome Drayton wins men's race in 2:14:46; American Miki Gorman takes her 2nd women's event in 2:48:33

Event of Interest

1977 Alex Haley author of "Roots" awarded Pulitzer Prize

Baseball History

1977 Eddie Murray hits his 1st HR

Music Premiere

1977 Musical revue "Side by Side by Sondheim" opens at Music Box, NYC; runs for 390 performances

  • 1977 Pulitzer prize awarded to Michael Cristofer for "Shadow Box"
  • 1978 Senate votes to turn Panama Canal over to Panama on Dec 31, 1999
  • 1979 "Real People" premieres on NBC TV
  • 1979 Major Haddad declares South-Lebanon independent
  • 1980 Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) declares independence from UK
  • 1981 Longest game in Professional Baseball: Pawtucket Red Sox tie Rochester Red Wings 2-2 in 32 innings (game resumed 23rd June)
  • 1982 Atlanta Braves win record 11th straight opening game (beat Astros)
  • 1982 Canada Constitution Act replaces British North America Act
  • 1982 Zimbabwean capital Salisbury renamed Harare
  • 1983 87th Boston Marathon: American double; Greg Meyer men's champion in 2:09:00; Joan Benoit takes women's race in 2:22:43; her 2nd event title
  • 1983 A lone suicide bomber kills 63, at US Embassy in Lebanon
  • 1983 KMO-AM in Tacoma Wash changes call letters to KAMT (now KKMO)

Event of Interest

1983 Pulitzer Prize awarded to Alice Walker for the novel "The Color Purple"

  • 1984 Joan Benoit runs world record female marathon (2:22:43)
  • 1984 Space Shuttle Challenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly Air Force Base
  • 1985 "Wham!" become the first western pop act to release an album in China
  • 1986 IBM produces 1st megabit-chip
  • 1986 Robert M Gates becomes deputy director of CIA
  • 1986 Titan rocket explodes seconds after liftoff from Vandenberg AFB
  • 1987 Bob Land wins his 6th straight Kenduskeag Stream Canoe Race
  • 1987 Gregory Robertson does 200-mph free fall to save unconscious skydiver near Coolidge, Arizona

Baseball Record

1987 Mike Schmidt hits 500th home run (vs Robinson-Pirates)

  • 1987 Pat Knauff, France sets 1-leg downhill ski speed record (115.012 mph)

Boston Marathon

1988 92nd Boston Marathon: Ibrahim Hussein of Kenya wins men's race in 2:08:43; Rosa Mota of Portugal repeats as women's champion in 2:24:30

  • 1990 Bankruptcy court forces Frank Lorenzo to give up Eastern Airlines
  • 1990 Birmingham Fire issued an original franchise in WLAF
  • 1990 Supreme Court rules states could make it a crime to possess or look at child pornography, even in one's home
  • 1991 Congress ends railroad worker 1 day strike

NBA Record

1991 John Stockton breaks his own NBA season assist record at 1,136

  • 1991 US Census Bureau said it failed to count up to 63 million in 1990 census
  • 1992 Start of South Africa's 1st Test Cricket since 1970 (v WI Bridgetown)
  • 1993 Lee Adams and Mitch Leigh's musical "Ain't Broadway Grand" opens at Lunt-Fontanne Theater, NYC; runs for 25 performances
  • 1993 Senior PGA Championship, PGA National GC: American Tom Wargo pars second playoff hole to beat Bruce Crampton of Australia and take his first and only major title

Boston Marathon

1994 98th Boston Marathon: Cosmas Ndeti of Kenya wins 2nd straight title in 2:07:15; Uta Pippig of Germany claims women's race in 2:21:45

Music Premiere

1994 Alen Menken, Howard Ashman, and Tim Rice's stage adaptation of Disney's animated musical "Beauty & the Beast" opens at Palace Theater (later transferring the Lunt-Fontanne), NYC; runs for 5,461 performances

Film & TV History

1994 Arsenio Hall announces he will end his late-night TV talk show in May 1994

Cricket Record

1994 Cricketer Brian Lara hits 375 runs on 1 day for WI vs England to beat Garfield Sobers' world record

Event of Interest

1994 Former US President Richard Nixon suffers a stroke and passes away 4 days later

  • 1994 Lebanon drops relations with Iran
  • 1994 STS-59 (Endeavour) lands [approx]
  • 1995 Houston Post folds after 116 years

Sports History

1995 Quarterback Joe Montana announces his retirement from football

  • 1996 In Lebanon, at least 106 civilians are killed when the Israel Defense Forces accidentally shell the UN compound at Quana.
  • 1996 Second successful revival of Stephen Sondheim's musical comedy "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum", starring Nathan Lane, opens at St James Theater NYC for 715 performances
  • 1998 51st British Film and Television Awards (BAFTAs): "The Full Monty" Best Film, Baz Luhrmann Best Director

Sports History

1998 NFL Draft: Tennessee quarterback Peyton Manning first pick by Indianapolis Colts

  • 1999 Senior PGA Championship, PGA National GC: Allen Doyle wins first of 4 Senior PGA major titles with a 2 stroke margin over runner-up Vicente Fernández of Argentina

Sports History

1999 Wayne Gretzky plays his last game in the NHL, as his New York Rangers lose 2-1 to the Pittsburgh Penguins

  • 2004 50th British Academy Television Awards: "Little Britain" Best Comedy, "Buried" Best Drama
  • 2005 109th Boston Marathon: Hailu Negussie of Ethiopia claims men's section in 2:11:44; Catherine Ndereba of Kenya wins back-to-back races and 4th overall women's title in 2:25:12
  • 2007 The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in a 5-4 decision
  • 2008 NBA owners give approval of a potential Seattle SuperSonics' relocation to Oklahoma City in a 28–2 vote by the Board of Governors
  • 2011 115th Boston Marathon: Kenyan double; Geoffrey Mutai wins men's race in record 2:03:02; Caroline Kilel takes women's section in 2:22:36
  • 2012 The Casoria Contemporary Art Museum in Naples begins burning artworks after cultural institution budget cuts

Film Premiere

2013 "Iron Man 3", directed by Shane Black, starring Robert Downey Jr. and Gwyneth Paltrow, premieres in London