Historical Events on April 4

  • 1081 Alexius I Comnenus occupies Byzantine throne
  • 1460 University of Basel founded in Swiss Confederacy (now Switzerland)
  • 1541 Ignatius of Loyola becomes 1st superior-general of Jesuits
  • 1552 Mauritius van Saksen begins alliance with Karel Anikita Stroganov

Stroganov Family Heads East

1558 Tsar Ivan IV gives the patent to colonize "the abundant region along the Kama River" of North-Russia to the fur trading Stroganov merchant family

Francis Drake Knighted

1581 Francis Drake knighted by Queen Elizabeth I aboard his galleon "Golden Hind" at Deptford, England

  • 1588 Christian IV succeeds Frederick II as king of Denmark
  • 1655 Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet beats Barbary pirates
  • 1655 The miraculous statue entitled the Infant of Prague is solemnly crowned by command of Cardinal Harrach

Declaration of Breda

1660 English King Charles II issues the Declaration of Breda, promising a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War and the Interregnum and religious toleration for all those who accepted him as King

Declaration of Indulgence

1687 English King James II publishes his Declaration of Indulgence, a step towards establishing freedom of religion in the British Isles

  • 1737 Anthony van Heim installed as Dutch pension advisor

1st United States Congress

1789 1st US Congress begins regular sessions during George Washington's presidency at Federal Hall, NYC (ending 1791)

Battle of Racławice

1794 Battle of Racławice, part of the Polish-Lithuanian uprising led by Tadeusz Kościuszko with a tactical Polish victory

Napoléon Abdicates

1814 An officer mutiny forces French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte to abdicate for the first time in flavor of his son, who is not accepted by the Allies occupying Paris

  • 1818 Congress decides on the US flag: 13 red & white stripes & 20 stars
  • 1828 Casparus van Wooden patents chocolate milk powder (Amsterdam)

Darwin Reaches Rio de Janeiro

1832 Charles Darwin aboard the HMS Beagle reaches Rio de Janeiro

  • 1833 St Etienne-Lyons railway fully opens in France

President John Tyler

1841 Vice President John Tyler becomes the 10th President of the United States after the death of President William Henry Harrison

  • 1850 City of Los Angeles incorporated
  • 1859 Bryant's Minstrels debut "Dixie" in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show
  • 1859 Opera "Dinorah" is produced in Paris
  • 1862 Peninsular Campaign, launched in southeastern Virginia, aimed at capturing Richmond during US Civil War begins, Confederate victory (US Civil War)
  • 1862 Siege of Yorktown, fought in York County and Newport News, Virginia begins (Yorktown campaign), inconclusive result (US Civil War)
  • 1864 Skirmish at Elkin's Ford (Little Missouri River), Arkansas

Battle of Amelia Springs

1865 General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army arrives at Amelia Courthouse, Amelia County, Virginia

  • 1866 Ashmun Institute, in Oxford, Pennsylvania, is renamed Lincoln University

Assassination Attempt on Alexander II

1866 Russian Tsar Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Dmitry Karakozov in the city of St. Petersburg

  • 1870 Golden Gate Park forms by City Order #800
  • 1887 Susanna Madora Salter elected 1st US woman mayor in Argonia, Kansas
  • 1896 Announcement of gold discovery in Yukon
  • 1899 South Africa all out 35 vs England (Trott 4-19, Haigh 6-11)

Assassination Attempt on Edward VII

1900 Assassination attempt on Prince of Wales, later British King Edward VII when shot by Jean-Baptiste Sipido in protest over Boer war

  • 1900 British garrison of Reddersberg surrenders to Boer General De Wet

Rhodes Scholarship

1902 Cecil Rhodes scholarship fund forms with $10 million

  • 1905 Earthquake in Kangra India, kills 20,000
  • 1911 Hugh Chalmers, automaker, suggests idea of baseball MVP
  • 1912 Army fires on striking mine workers at Lena-gold fields in Siberia
  • 1912 Chinese republic proclaimed in Tibet
  • 1913 75th Grand National: Percy Woodland wins aboard 100/9 chance Covertcoat; owner Sir Charles Assheton-Smith's 2nd straight GN victory and 3rd overall
  • 1913 Greek aviator Emmanuel Argyropoulos becomes the first pilot victim of the Hellenic Air Force when his plane crashes
  • 1914 Film serial "Perils of Pauline" shown for the first time in Los Angeles
  • 1915 Germany protests vigorously to the US, claiming it must insist that Britain lifts its blockade and assert American neutrality
  • 1917 US Senate agrees (82-6) to participate in WWI
  • 1918 Food riot in Amsterdam
  • 1920 Arabs attack Jews in Jerusalem
  • 1921 Stanley Cup Final, Denman Arena, Vancouver, BC: Ottawa Senators (NHL) beat Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA), 2-1 for a 3-2 series victory
  • 1922 WAAB (Baton Rouge La) becomes 1st US radio station with "W" calls
  • 1926 Greek dictator Theodoros Pangalos elected president
  • 1929 1st AAU Greco-Roman wrestling championships held
  • 1929 Sigmund Romberg and Oscar Hammerstein II's operetta "The New Moon" opens at the Drury Lane Theatre in London's West End
  • 1930 England cricket batsman Andy Sandham ends Day 2 of 4th Test against West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica unbeaten on 309; 1st triple century in Test history; out for 325
  • 1930 Les Ames makes the 1st Test Cricket century by a wicketkeeper (149)
  • 1930 The Communist Party of Panama is founded
  • 1932 Charles G. King, University of Pittsburgh isolates Vitamin C, using adrenal samples provided by Hungarian Albert Szent-Györgyi

Too True To Be Good

1932 George Bernard Shaw's comedy play "Too True To Be Good" premieres in NYC; runs for 59 performances

  • 1933 USS Akron dirigible crashes into Atlantic Ocean, off coast of New Jersey, in stormy weather; 73 die including US Navy Rear Admiral William A. Moffett - a major proponent of the airship fleet, there were 3 survivors [1]

US Masters Golf

1937 4th Augusta National Invitation Tournament (Masters) Golf: Byron Nelson wins first of his 5 major titles by 2 strokes ahead of Ralph Guldahl

  • 1938 5th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Henry Picard wins his only Masters, 2 strokes ahead of runners-up Harry Cooper and Ralph Guldahl
  • 1939 Faisal II ascends to throne of Iraq

Higher & Higher

1940 Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's musical "Higher & Higher" premieres in NYC

  • 1941 German troops conquer Benghazi, Libya
  • 1944 Allied Bucharest bombings targeting railroads kills 5,000
  • 1944 British troops capture Addis Ababa Ethiopia

Free France

1944 French General Charles de Gaulle forms new regime in exile, with communists

  • 1945 The Holocaust: US forces liberate the Ohrdruf concentration camp in Germany, the first such camp to be liberated by the US Army
  • 1945 World War II: Soviet forces liberate Hungary from German occupation, establishing their own communist satellite state. This was celebrated as Liberation Day until 1989.
  • 1945 World War II: US Army occupies Bielefeld in north-eastern Germany
  • 1947 Convention on International Civil Aviation goes into effect
  • 1947 Largest group of sunspots on record
  • 1947 UN's International Civil Aviation Organization forms

Baseball History

1948 84-year-old Connie Mack challenges 78-year-old Clark Griffith to a race from home to 1st base; it ends in a tie

  • 1949 Israel & Jordan sign armistice agreement
  • 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) treaty signed in Washington, D.C.
  • 1949 WKRC TV channel 12 in Cincinnati, OH (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1950 Dirk Stikker becomes chairman of OES
  • 1953 KFDA TV channel 10 in Amarillo, TX (CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 British government signs military treaty with Iraq
  • 1956 Enid Bagnold's "Chalk Garden" premieres in London
  • 1957 Heitor Villa-Lobos' 10th Symphony premieres French Radio National Orchestra, conducted by the composer, in Paris
  • 1958 1st march against nuclear weapons from London to Aldermaston, England, home of the Defence Ministry's Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE)

Film & TV History

1958 Cheryl Crane (14), daughter of actress Lana Turner, stabs to death organized crime figure Johnny Stompanato, her mother's boyfriend, in self-defense; crime later ruled a "justifiable homicide"

  • 1958 Eugene Ionesco's "Tueur sans Gages" premieres in Darmstadt
  • 1958 The CND Peace Symbol displayed in public for the first time in London
  • 1959 France beats Wales, 11-3 at Stade Colombes to win the Five Nations Rugby Championship outright for the first time
  • 1959 Mali Federation founded, consisting of Senegal & French Sudan (dissolved 1960)
  • 1960 Oscar awarded to Dutch director Bert Haanstra for documentary "Glass"
  • 1960 Project Ozma begins at Green Bank radio astronomy center
  • 1960 Senegal declares independence from France
  • 1964 Beatles' "Can't Buy Me Love" single goes #1 & stays #1 for 5 weeks

Music Premiere

1964 Stephen Sondheim's musical "Anyone Can Whistle" opens at Majestic Theater, NYC; runs for 9 performances

  • 1965 The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft plane is unveiled.
  • 1966 Pirate Radio Scotland changes name to Radio Ireland
  • 1966 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1967 Amsterdam Marines chase "Nozems" or rebellious youth out of Central Station
  • 1967 Dutch De Young government forms
  • 1968 Apollo 6 launched atop Saturn V; unmanned
  • 1968 Paul Nassau and Oscar Brand's musical "Education of H*Y*M*A*N K*AP*L*A*N", starring Tom Bosley, opens at the Alvin Theater, NYC; runs for 28 performances

Martin Luther King Assassination Riots

1968 Riots break out in over 100 cities in the United States following the assassination of African-American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Shot Dead

1968 US civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray at the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, Tennessee

  • 1969 Haskell Karp receives the 1st temporary artificial heart, implanted by surgeon Denton Cooley at Texas Heart Institute in Houston
  • 1970 124th Grand National: 15/1 chance Gay Trip wins by 20 lengths, giving Irish jockey Pat Taaffe his second GN winner
  • 1970 Firestone World Tournament of Champions won by Don Johnson
  • 1971 Marine clay under houses liquefies in St-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, 31 die
  • 1971 Stephen Sondheim's "Follies" opens at Winter Garden Theater, NYC; runs for 524 performances, then most expensive Broadway musical at the time
  • 1972 1st electric power plant fueled by garbage begins operating
  • 1973 World Trade Center, then the world's tallest building, opens in New York (110 stories). Later destroyed in 9/11 terrorist attacks.

Sports History

1974 Hank Aaron ties Babe Ruth's home-run record by hitting his 714th in Cincinnati, facing Jack Billingham

  • 1975 138 killed as a USAF plane evacuating Vietnamese orphans crashes on approach during an emergency landing at Tân Sơn Nhứt Air Base in South Vietnam
  • 1975 British sitcom "The Good Life" starring Richard Briers, Felicity Kendal, Paul Eddington and Penelope Keith debuts on BBC One

Founding of Microsoft

1975 Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800

Music History

1975 Steve Miller is arrested for burning his girlfriend's clothes

  • 1976 Seni Pramoj's Democratic Party wins elections in Thailand
  • 1979 Ex-President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is executed.
  • 1980 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1981 135th Grand National: Bob Champion aboard 10/1 hope Aldaniti wins by 4 lengths from 8/1 favourite Spartan Missile
  • 1981 26th Eurovision Song Contest: Bucks Fizz for United Kingdom wins singing "Making Your Mind Up" in Dublin
  • 1981 Henry Cisneros becomes 1st Mexican-American mayor (San Antonio)
  • 1983 45th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: North Carolina State beats Houston, 54-52; Wolfpack win with buzzer-beating dunk by Lorenzo Charles off a desperation 30 foot shot from Dereck Whittenburg
  • 1983 6th NASA Space Shuttle Mission: Challenger 1 launches
  • 1984 Michael Frayn's "Benefactors" premieres in London

Event of Interest

1984 Winston Smith in Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four" begins his secret diary in defiance of the totalitarian government of Oceania

  • 1985 Tulane University cancels its basketball season amidst scandal

NHL Record

1986 Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 213th point of season

Music History

1987 "Always & Forever" second studio album by Randy Travis (Billboard Album of the Year 1988)

  • 1987 141st Grand National: Jockey Steve Knight wins his second GN aboard 28/1 shot Maori Venture by 5 lengths from The Tsarevich
  • 1987 Dow Jones up 69.89 points, ending at record 2,390.34 pts
  • 1988 50th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Kansas beats Oklahoma, 83-79; Jayhawks power forward Danny Manning named tournament Most Outstanding Player
  • 1988 Eddie Hill becomes the world's first driver to cover the quarter mile in under 5 seconds
  • 1988 Largest crowd (55,438) at an MLB Opening Day game at Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium; Reds win over St. Louis Cardinals, 5-4 in 12 innings
  • 1988 Last broadcast of British soap opera "Crossroads" on ITV
  • 1988 MLB New York Mets set Opening Day record with 6 HRs, in a 10-6 win over Expos at Montreal

Sports History

1989 Kareem Abdul-Jabbar's last NBA game in Seattle

Sports History

1989 NY Yankee Tommy John ties record of playing 26 seasons, his 287th win puts him 19th overall as Yanks beat Twins on opening day 4-2

  • 1990 "Marshall Chronicles" premieres on ABC-TV

Music History

1990 Gloria Estefan released from hospital after her accident

  • 1990 Security law violator Ivan Boesky is released from federal custody
  • 1991 "Lucifer's Child" opens at Music Box Theater NYC for 28 performances
  • 1991 Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.
  • 1992 146th Grand National: 14/1 shot Party Politics, ridden by Welsh jockey Carl Llewellyn wins by 2½ lengths from Romany King
  • 1992 Game 1 of Mayor Challenge - NY Yankees beat NY Mets 6-4 at Yank Stad

Event of Interest

1992 Jury deliberations begin in Noriega case

  • 1992 Sali Berisha becomes president and Alexander Meksi premier of Albania
  • 1993 12th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Texas Tech beats Ohio State, 84-82; future Hall of Fame forward Sheryl Swoopes MOP
  • 1993 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, GC at Desert Mountain: Tom Shaw wins his lone career major title by 1 stroke from Mike Hill


1993 WrestleMania IX, Caesar's Palace, LV, NV: Yokozuna beats Bret Hart for WWF Heavyweight title

  • 1994 1st game played at Jacobs Field, Indians beat Mariners 4-3 in 11 inn
  • 1994 56th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Arkansas beats Duke, 76-72; Razorbacks' first title in first title game

Film & TV History

1994 American actor Tony Curtis (68) undergoes heart-bypass surgery

  • 1994 KLM Saab 340B crashes at Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3 killed

Sports History

1994 LA Dodger Darryl Strawberry begins substance abuse treatment

  • 1994 Largest Opening Day crowd at Yankee Stadium, 56,706
  • 1994 MLB Chicago Cubs Karl "Tuffy" Rhodes, hit 3 HRs in 1993 hits 3 HRs on Opening Day vs Mets starter Dwight "Doc" Gooden at Wrigley Field, Chicago
  • 1994 Netscape Communications founded as Mosaic Communications
  • 1996 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Austin, Texas on KJFK 98.9 FM

Music History

1996 Revival of Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee's stage drama "Inherit the Wind", starring George C. Scott and Charles Durning, opens at Royale Theater, NYC; runs for 45 performances

  • 1997 Anaheim Ducks clinch their 1st-ever playoff berth
  • 1997 Braves officially open Turner Field against Cubs
  • 1997 DMSP Titan 2 launched
  • 1997 STS 83 (Columbia 22), launches
  • 1998 151st Grand National: Carl Llewellyn wins aboard Earth Summit; first GN winner who was also successful in both Scottish and Welsh Grand Nationals
  • 1998 NFL Europe (Formerly WLAF), kicks off season

Event of Interest

1999 Jack Ma founds Chinese internet company Alibaba

Sports History

1999 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, GC at Desert Mountain: Graham Marsh of Australia wins his second Champions Tour major by 3 strokes from Larry Nelson

  • 2002 The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign a peace treaty ending the Angolan Civil War
  • 2005 67th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: North Carolina beats Illinois, 75-70; Tar Heels' 4th national championship
  • 2006 25th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Maryland beats Duke, 78-75 OT; Terrapins' first national title; Laura Harper MOP
  • 2007 15 British Royal Navy personnel held in Iran are released by the Iranian President.
  • 2008 Raid on Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints owned YFZ Ranch in Texas; 401 children and 133 women taken into state custody
  • 2009 162nd Grand National: French-bred 100/1 outsider Mon Mome, ridden by Liam Treadwell, wins by 12 lengths from defending champion Comply or Die

Rock & Roll Hall of Fame

2009 24th Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees: Jeff Beck; Little Anthony and the Imperials; Metallica; Run-D.M.C.; Bobby Womack; Wanda Jackson; Bill Black; DJ Fontana; and Spooner Oldham

  • 2010 Africa's tallest monument, the African Renaissance Monument, dedicated outside Dakar, Senegal, designed by Pierre Goudiaby to commemorate Senegal's 50th anniversary of independence

Golf Major

2010 Kraft Nabisco Championship Women's Golf, Mission Hills CC: Yani Tseng of Taiwan wins her 2nd major title by 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Suzann Pettersen of Norway

  • 2011 73rd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Connecticut beats Butler, 53-41; Huskies' point guard Kemba Walker scores 16 points
  • 2012 Boris Tadić, President of Serbia, resigns

Historic Publication

2012 German Nobel Laureate, Günter Grass, publishes controversial poem that claims Israel is plotting to wipe out Iran

  • 2012 Somalia's National Theater is struck by a suicide bomber killing ten people including the presidents of the Somali Olympic Committee and Football Federation
  • 2013 74 people are killed after an illegally constructed building collapses in Thane, India
  • 2013 9 people have been killed on an axe-murdering rampage in Chhattisgarh state, India
  • 2013 Poecilotheria rajaei, a giant tarantula with a 20cm leg span, is discovered in Sri Lanka
  • 2014 President of the World Bank, Jim Yong Kim, claims that climate change will lead to battles over water and food within the next five to ten years
  • 2016 78th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Villanova defeats North Carolina, 77-74; Wildcats guard Phil Booth, 20 points
  • 2017 Alibaba becomes the world's largest retailer according to US Securities and Exchange Commission
  • 2017 Chemical weapons attack on Khan Sheikhoun, Syria by Syrian government forces kills more than 80 civilians
  • 2017 Pink Star diamond sets world record price of $71 million for a gem at an action in Hong Kong
  • 2018 21st Commonwealth Games open in the Gold Coast, Australia
  • 2019 Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel apologises for the kidnapping of thousands of mixed-race children during colonial period in Burundi, DR Congo and Rwanda
  • 2019 Kathie Lee Gifford leaves NBC's "Today" show after 11 years
  • 2019 US Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints pledges to roll back anti-LGBT policies, including not baptizing children of gay parents


2020 WrestleMania XXXVI, WWE Performance Center, Orlando FL, Part 1: The Undertaker defeats AJ Styles in a Boneyard match; Becky Lynch beats Shayna Baszler to retain Raw Women's C'ship

  • 2021 39th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Stanford Cardinal defeat Arizona Wildcats, 54–53 to win their third NCAA title
  • 2021 ANA Inspiration Women's Golf, Mission Hills CC: Patty Tavatanakit of Thailand wins her first LPGA Tour event by 2 strokes from NZ's Lydia Ko who cards a 10-under-par final round
  • 2022 83rd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Caesars Superdome, NO, Louisiana: Uni of Kansas overcome record 16 point first half deficit to beat North Carolina Tar Heels, 72–69: Jayhawks 4th national title
  • 2022 Economist Rodrigo Chaves elected President of Costa Rica defeating current president José María Figueres [1]
  • 2022 Eon Musk buys 9.2% of Twitter stock, making him the company's largest shareholder [1]
  • 2022 Ukrainian government begins a war crimes investigation after 410 civilians found killed after the withdrawal of Russian forces from around Kyiv [1]
  • 2023 Finland officially joins NATO at a ceremony in Brussels, becoming its 31st member and doubling NATO's border with Russia [1]