On This Day

Historical Events on August 19

Election of Interest

43 BC Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul

  • 1263 King James I of Aragon censors Hebrew writing

Royal Coronation

1274 Edward I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey after returning from the Ninth Crusade

Victory in Battle

1399 King Richard II of England surrenders to his cousin Henry

  • 1458 Aenea Silvio Piccolomini chosen Pope Pius II
  • 1493 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I becomes Archduke of Austria
  • 1504 Battle of Knockdoe, bloodiest battle of medieval Ireland fought in Galway between two Anglo-Irish lords, Gearoid Fitzgerald, Lord Deputy, defeats Ulick Finn Burke

Historic Siege

1524 Emperor Charles V's troops besiege Marseille, France

Historic Event

1561 Mary Queen of Scots arrives in Leith, Scotland to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France

Historic Event

1587 Sigismund III becomes King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Historic Event

1591 French King Henry IV occupies Rouen

Victory in Battle

1627 Prince Frederick Henry conquers fort Groenlo

  • 1691 Battle at Slankamen: "the Bloodiest battle of the Century" Austrian Hapsburg force defeats Ottoman army, killing Grand Vizer Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha

Salem Witch Trials

1692 Five more people hanged for witchcraft (19 in all) in Salem, Massachusetts

  • 1702 -24] Battle at Santa Marta Venz: English fleet beat French

Historic Event

1745 Jacobite Rising 1745 : Bonnie Prince Charlie, raises his standard at Glenfinnan, Scotland, igniting the second Jacobite rebellion.

  • 1757 Battle at Gross Jagerndorf: Russian army beats Prussia [NS=Aug 30]
  • 1768 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Historic Event

1772 King Gustav III seizes effective control of Swedish government and restores full power of monarchy, which had been subordinate to parliament since 1720

United States Declaration of Independence

1791 Benjamin Banneker sends a copy of his Almanac and writes a letter to Thomas Jefferson criticizing his pro-slavery stance and requesting justice for African Americans using language from the Declaration of Independence

  • 1793 Yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, then the US capital has its 1st fatality. Lasts till November killing around 5,000 people
  • 1796 Spain & France sign anti-British alliance
  • 1812 US warship Constitution defeats British warship Guerriere
  • 1813 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's second triumvirate
  • 1816 Java returns to Dutch rule after being controlled by the British for five years

Coup d'état

1821 Failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII

  • 1826 Canada Co. chartered to colonize Upper Canada (Ontario)
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors at Angra, Azores

Historic Invention

1839 Details of Louis Daguerre's 1st practical photographic process are released in Paris

  • 1849 NY Herald reports gold discovery in California
  • 1861 Confederacy Congress allies with government of Missouri
  • 1864 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia, Union forces attempt to destroy Weldon Railroad Confederate supply route (successful 21 Ausgust)

Historic Event

1887 Dmitri Mendeleev makes a solo ascent by balloon to an altitude of 11,500 feet (3.5 km) above Klin, Russia to observe an eclipse

  • 1891 William Huggins describes astronomical application of spectrum
  • 1895 American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin is shot and killed by John Selman Sr. in a saloon in El Paso, Texas
  • 1897 1st electric taxis driven in London
  • 1900 Start of first and only Olympic cricket match in Paris; GB beats France by 158 runs
  • 1903 Philadelphia Phillies suffer record 9th straight postponed game

Historic Event

1905 Russian Tsar Nicholas II installs "Imperial Duma", without legislative powers

  • 1909 Indianapolis Motor Speedway, home of automobile race Indianapolis 500, opens in Speedway, Indiana
  • 1911 NY Giant Christy Mathewson loses after beating Reds 22 straight times
  • 1912 Percy Grainger's orchestral piece "Shepherd's Hey" premieres
  • 1913 Frenchman Adolphe Célestin Pégoud makes 1st parachute jump in Europe

Theater Premiere

1914 Elmer Rice's play "On Trial" premieres in NYC

  • 1914 German army executes 150 Belgians by firing squad
  • 1914 German fleet bombs the English coast
  • 1914 Harris Theater (Candler, Coan & Harris) opens at 226 W 42nd St NYC

Historic Communication

1914 In a message to the Senate, US President Woodrow Wilson urges the American people to be 'neutral in fact as well as name'

  • 1915 Rationing laws go into effect in Netherlands
  • 1915 World War I: the Battle of Van begins
  • 1915 British liner "SS Arabic" sunk by German submarine without warning leaving Liverpool for New York; killing 44. Creates diplomatic incident
  • 1917 Sunday benefit baseball game at NYC's Polo Grounds results in John McGraw & Christy Mathewson's arrest for violating Blue laws

Music Premiere

1918 Irving Berlin's musical "Yip Yip Yaphank" premieres in NYC

  • 1919 After nearly 100 years of British control, Afghanistan declares itself independent

Baseball Record

1921 Detroit's Tiger Ty Cobb, is 4th to get 3,000 hits against Boston Red Sox, the youngest ever

US Open Women's Tennis

1922 US National Championship Women's Tennis, Germantown CC, PA: Molla Bjurstedt Mallory beats Helen Wills Moody 6-3, 6-1 for her 7th US singles crown

  • 1927 Metropolitan Sergius proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state
  • 1931 Lefty Grove wins AL record tying 16th consecutive game
  • 1932 US National Championship Women's Tennis, Forest Hills, NY: Helen Jacobs beats Carolin Babcock Stark 6-2, 6-2 for her first of 4 straight US singles crowns
  • 1934 The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio
  • 1936 Trial against Ljev Kamenev & Grigori Zinovjev because of "Trotskyism" opens in Moscow
  • 1939 37.6 cm rainfall at Tuckerton, NJ (state record)
  • 1941 Baseball umpire Jocko Conlan ejects Pirate manager Frankie Frisch for coming out on field holding an umbrella to get a rainout

Germany Invades the Soviet Union

1941 Romania annexes the Transnistria territory from the Soviet Union after Operation Barbarossa

Meeting of Interest

1942 -20] Winston Churchill visits Field Marshal Montgomery's headquarter in Burg-al-Arab

  • 1942 World War II: Over 4,000 Canadian and British soldiers killed, wounded or captured raiding Dieppe, France

Historic Event

1942 World War II: General Friedrich Paulus orders the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad

  • 1943 Belgian church excommunicates Nazi collaborator Léon Degrelle
  • 1943 US air raid on German bases at Gilze-Rijen/Vlissingen
  • 1944 Allied air raid on Maastricht, 80+ killed
  • 1944 Last Japanese troops driven out of India
  • 1944 Nazis give parts of Paris to Resistance
  • 1944 Paris police strike against nazi occupiers
  • 1944 Polish 1st Division occupies Hill 262 (Mont Ormel), Normandy
  • 1944 US 15th Army Corps occupies Mantes-Gassicourt at Paris
  • 1944 US 90th/Polish 1st Division occupy Chambois, Normandy

Sports History

1945 Phillies Jimmie Foxx, 37, pitches 1st 7 innings vs Reds & wins

  • 1947 J Arens & D van Dorpen synthetise vitamin A
  • 1948 9th Venice Film Festival opens
  • 1950 ABC begins Saturday morning kid shows (Animal Clinic & Acrobat Ranch)

Sports History

1951 Bill Veeck (St. Louis Browns) sends Eddie Gaedel, a 3'7" little person, to pinch-hit; he walked on four pitches.

  • 1953 England regains cricket Ashes from Australia after winning series 1-0

Coup d'état

1953 Democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name 'Operation Boot') and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project)

Historic Event

1954 American Ralph Bunche named undersecretary of the UN

  • 1955 32.4 cm precipitation at Burlington, Connecticut (state record)
  • 1955 Hurricane Diane kills 200 people, becomes 1st billion $ damage storm (N.E. US)
  • 1955 US raises import duty on bicycles 50%

Radio History

1955 WINS radio (New York City), announces it will not play "copy" white cover versions of R&B records (DJ's play Fats Domino's "Ain't That A Shame," not Pat Boone's)

  • 1957 NY Giants board of directors vote 8-1 to move their baseball franchise to San Francisco in 1958 [1]
  • 1957 US Major David Simons reaches 30,933m in a balloon
  • 1958 NAACP Youth Council begin sit-ins at Oklahoma City Lunch counters
  • 1959 Honolulu seeks a franchise in Continental League
  • 1959 Satellite Discoverer 6 launched into polar orbit

Historic Event

1960 American CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers convicted of spying by USSR (U-2 incident); sentence to 3 years in prison plus 7 in a labor camp, he served 17 months before being exchanged for a captured Soviet KGB spy

  • 1960 Soviet Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 2 rats, 40 mice, 1 rabbit and fruit flies into space, 1st animals to return alive from orbit
  • 1960 The first commercial atomic energy reactor, owned by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, achieves a self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Rowe, Deerfield River, Massachusetts

Historic Event

1961 US vice-president Lyndon B. Johnson visits West Berlin

  • 1962 Homer Blancos plays finest round in golf, shooting a 55
  • 1963 NAACP Youth Council begins sit-ins at lunch counters, Oklahoma City
  • 1964 Communication satellite Syncom 3 launched
  • 1965 Auschwitz trials end with 6 life sentences
  • 1965 Cincinnati Reds pitcher Jim Maloney throws his second no-hitter of the season in 1-0 win over the Chicago Cubs
  • 1965 The Yardbirds launch their first US tour
  • 1966 Earthquake strikes Varto region in eastern Turkey with 6.8 magnitude killing around 2,400
  • 1967 The Beatles' "All You Need is Love" single goes #1
  • 1969 Chicago Cub Ken Holtzman no-hits Atlanta Braves, 3-0
  • 1970 The Chinese Community in South Africa is granted 'White' status
  • 1970 31st Venice Film Festival opens
  • 1973 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1973 Pirate World Music Radio (Holland) closes down after 10 years

Presidential Convention

1976 President Gerald Ford wins Republican presidential nomination at KC convention

  • 1977 USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR
  • 1978 422 die in an arson fire at a movie theater in Iran
  • 1979 "My Sharonna" by the Knack hits #1, stays at top for 6 weeks
  • 1979 Soviet Cosmonauts Vladimir Lyakov and Valery Ryumin return to Earth aboard Soyuz 34 after a record 175 days in space

Baseball Record

1980 George Brett ends hitting streak at 30

  • 1980 Saudi Arabian Lockhead Tristar crashes on landing at Riyadh, 301 die
  • 1980 Willy Russell's play "Educating Rita" premieres in London starring Julie Walters
  • 1981 2 US Navy F-14 jet fighters shoot down 2 Soviet-built Libyan SU-22
  • 1982 Renaldo Nehemiah of US sets record for 110 m hurdles, 12.93 sec
  • 1982 Soyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya 2nd woman in space

Sports History

1983 LSU footballer Billy Cannon sentenced to 5 yrs for counterfeiting

  • 1983 Dodgers trade Dave Stewart & Ricky Wright to Texas for Rick Honeycut

PGA Championship

1984 PGA Championship Men's Golf, Shoal Creek: Lee Trevino wins his 2nd PGA C'ship by 4 shots from Gary Player and Lanny Wadkins

Presidential Convention

1984 Republican convention in Dallas, Texas nominates incumbent Ronald Reagan for President

  • 1985 Japan launches its 2nd probe of Halley's Comet, Suisei

Historic Event

1985 Following the Rubicon speech four days earlier, Archbishop Desmond Tutu snubs P. W. Botha's invitation to attend a meeting to discuss the role and actions of the police and security forces in South Africa

  • 1986 Car bomb kills 20 in Tehran, Iran
  • 1987 Hungerford Massacre: in England, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide
  • 1988 Iran and Iraq begin a cease-fire in their 8-year-old war (11 PM EDT)
  • 1988 Maung Maung succeeds General Sein Lwin as the 7th President of Burma
  • 1988 NY Rangers sign ex-Canadien great Guy LaFluer
  • 1989 Tadeusz Mazowiecki, elected 1st non-communist president of Poland
  • 1989 1st crack in the Iron Curtain when Hungary opens its borders to Austria for a pan-European picnic for a few hours
  • 1990 Dodger Jose Offerman hits HR in his 1st at bat
  • 1991 -20] Hurricane Bob hits US

Coup d'état

1991 Conservative members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union attempt to depose Mikhail Gorbachev in a coup d'état

  • 1991 Janel Bishop, 17, of New Hampshire, crowned 9th Miss Teen USA
  • 1992 Romesh Kaluwitharana scores 132 on Test Cricket debut (SL v Australia)
  • 1992 Sri Lanka make their highest cricket score ever 8-547 v Australia
  • 1993 34th Walker Cup: US, 19-5
  • 1993 Dow Jones hits record high of 3612.13
  • 1993 George Tiller, abortion doctor, shot in his arms by Rachelle Shannon
  • 1993 Mattel & Fisher Price toy companies merge
  • 1993 Sally Gunnell runs women's world record 400m hurdles (52.74")
  • 1993 26th San Diego Comic-Con International opens at Doubletree Hotel
  • 1995 After 5 days Shannon Faulkner quits as 1st woman at the Citadel
  • 1995 Bruce Seldon TKOs Joe Hipp in 10 for heavyweight boxing title

Sports History

1995 Mike Tyson returns to the ring after serving 3 years in prison and DQs Peter McNeeley in 89 seconds

  • 1996 The major South African political parties begin their submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
  • 1997 NY Yank 3rd baseman Wade Boggs pitches a scoreless inning vs Anaheim
  • 1997 STS 85 (Discovery 23) lands
  • 1998 South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission chairperson, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, releases documents revealing an alleged plot by Western countries to assassinate UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden

Historic Event

1999 In Belgrade tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Slobodan Milošević as president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • 2001 PGA Championship Men's Golf, Atlanta Athletic Club: David Toms wins his first major title by 1 stroke from Phil Mickelson

Golf Tournament

2001 Canadian Open Women's Golf, Angus Glen GC: Annika Sörenstam wins by 2 from Kelly Robbins

Sports History

2001 German Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher wins the Hungarian Grand prix at the Hungaroring to clinch his 4th F1 World Drivers Championship and equal Alain Prost's record of 51 Grand Prix victories

  • 2002 A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children
  • 2003 A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2004 US gymnast Carly Patterson becomes the 2nd American woman to win the all-around gold medal, and 1st to win at a non-boycotted Olympic games, when she takes gold in Athens

Olympic Games

2004 American swimmer Michael Phelps wraps up the 200/400m individual medley double at the Athens Olympics when he wins the 200m (1:57.14 OR) ahead of teammate Ryan Lochte

  • 2004 American swimmer Aaron Peirsol wins the men's 200m backstroke in Olympic record 1:54.95, giving him the 100/200m backstroke double at the Athens Olympics
  • 2004 Australian swimmer Jodie Henry records 53.84 to win the blue ribband 100m freestyle gold medal ahead of Dutch star Inge de Bruijn at the Athens Olympics
  • 2005 The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins
  • 2005 A series of strong storms lashes Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities. In Toronto, it is also dubbed as the Toronto Supercell.
  • 2007 Canadian Open Women's Golf, Royal Mayfair GC: Mexican Lorena Ochoa wins by 3 from Paula Creamer
  • 2007 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, Crosswater Club: Mark McNulty of Zimbabwe wins lone career major title by 5 strokes from David Edwards

Album Release

2008 "The Fame", debut album by Lady Gaga, is released (Grammy Award Album of the Year, Best Electronic/Dance Album 2009)

  • 2008 Chris Hoy encapsulates British dominance of track cycling at the Beijing Olympics beating teammate Jason Kenny to win the sprint, adding to his keirin and team sprint gold medals
  • 2008 Britain's Victoria Pendleton beats Anna Mears in the women's cycling sprint final at the Beijing Olympics; GB dominates the track winning 7 of 10 gold medals
  • 2008 Reigning world champion, Christine Ohuruogu wins the women's 400m at the Beijing Olympics; GB's 50th gold medal in Olympic track & field competition
  • 2008 The men's gymnastics program at the Beijing Olympics concludes with the home team from China dominating the medals tally takes 7 of 8 gold medals; Zou Kai wins 3
  • 2009 A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others
  • 2010 Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams crossing the border to Kuwait
  • 2012 32 people are killed after a plane crash in Talodi, Sudan
  • 2013 24 Egyptian policemen are killed in an attack in Rafah
  • 2013 37 pilgrims are killed in a train accident in India
  • 2013 91 people are killed by floods across China
  • 2014 The 24 hour ceasefire extension renewal between Israel and Palestine is violated as Hamas fire rockets; Israeli Air Force respond, killing 9 Gazans

Death of the Aral Sea

2014 NASA satellites take photos showing that the eastern basin of the Aral Sea had for the first time completely dried up

  • 2015 US Food and Drug administration approves Female Viagra libido pill Addyi
  • 2016 Tajikistan's Dilshod Nazarov throws 78.68m to win the men's hammer throw gold medal the Rio de Janeiro Olympics; first gold medal for Tajikistan in Olympic history
  • 2016 Vivian Cheruiyot of Kenya goes one better than her London silver medal when she wins women's 5,000m at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics; runs Olympic record time of 14:26.17
  • 2016 Colombian BMX rider Mariana Pajón successfully defends her Olympic title when she beats American Alise Post in the final in Rio de Janeiro
  • 2016 A 6-way tie for first place in the final of the equestrian individual jumping competition at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics; Nick Skelton of Great Britain wins gold medal jump-off
  • 2016 Great Britain upsets the heavily favoured Netherlands to win the women's field hockey gold medal at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics after drawing 3-3 in regulation time; win dramatic penalty shootout, 2-0
  • 2016 Germany beats Sweden 2-1 in the women's football gold medal match at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics; 52,432 at the Maracanã Stadium
  • 2016 Chloe Esposito of Australia sets Olympic record overall score of 1,372 points to win the women's modern pentathlon in Rio de Janeiro. Élodie Clouvel of France second (1,356 points), Oktawia Nowacka of Poland third (1,349)
  • 2016 Kiley Neushul scores 3 goals as the US women's water polo team routs Italy 12-5 to win the gold medal in Rio de Janeiro and retain their Olympic title

Sports History

2018 Novak Đoković beats Roger Federer 6-4, 6-4 in the final of the Cincinnati Masters to become the first player to win all 9 Masters 1,000 tennis tournaments since the series started in 1990

  • 2018 Monsoon rains finally ease in Kerala State, India, with flooding taking 350 lives with 200,000 in relief camps
  • 2018 Two more earthquakes hit Lombok in Indonesia killing 14 two weeks after previous earthquakes

Film & TV History

2018 Rudy Giuliani, US President Donald Trump's lawyer claims in interview with NBC Chuck Todd that "truth isn't truth"

  • 2018 Weinstein accuser Asia Argento is alleged to have sexually assaulted a 17-year old in article by "The New York Times"
  • 2018 Limerick wins All Ireland Hurling Championship for first time in 45 years with a 3-16 to 2-18 win over defending champions Galway at Croke Park, Dublin
  • 2019 Evelyn Hernández cleared of killing her newborn baby in landmark case in a retrial in El Salvador

Historic Event

2019 Sudanese Ex-President Omar al-Bashir admits he has received $90 million from Saudi Arabian royals at the start of his corruption trial in Khartoum

  • 2020 Apple becomes the 1st US company to be valued at $2 trillion, just 2 years after it reached $1 trillion valuation