Historical Events on August 31

  • 1142 Possible date for establishment of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) League [disputed date - other research places date between 1450 and 1660]
  • 1230 Bishop Willebrand of Utrecht grants Swells state justice
  • 1310 German king Heinrich VII makes his son Johan king of Bohemia

Historic Event

1422 Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of 9 months

Historic Event

1745 Jacobite Rising 1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie reaches Blair Castle, Scotland

  • 1751 British troops under Sir Robert Clive occupy Arcot, India
  • 1772 Hurricane destroy ships off Dominica
  • 1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in Bronx during Revolution
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors in Postage Praia, Cape Verde Islands

Historic Event

1837 Ralph Waldo Emerson gives his famous "The American Scholar" speech to Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, declares American literary independence from Europe

  • 1842 Micah Rugg patents a nuts & bolts machine
  • 1842 US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress
  • 1843 Liberty Party nominates James Birneyas presidential candidate
  • 1850 California pioneers organized at Montgomery & Clay Streets
  • 1864 Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties
  • 1876 Ottoman sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II.
  • 1881 1st US men's single tennis championships (Newport, Rhode Island)
  • 1886 1st major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, South Carolina, 110 die

Murder of Interest

1888 The body of Jack the Ripper's first victim, Mary Ann Nichols, is found in Whitechapel in London's East End

Historic Event

1889 Second International Electrical Congress adopts the joule as unit of energy (after James Prescott Joule), the watt as unit of power (after James Watt) and the quadrant as unit of electrical inductance (later renamed henry)

  • 1891 US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport R.I.: Defending champion Oliver Campbell beats Clarence Hobart 2-6, 7-5, 7-9, 6-1, 6-2; second of 3 straight titles
  • 1894 Phillies outfielder Billy Hamilton equals George Gore's MLB single game stolen bases record with 7 steals in 10-8 win vs Washington Senators in Philadelphia
  • 1894 The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act passed by Richard Seddon’s Liberal government, making New Zealand the first country in the world to outlaw strikes in favour of compulsory arbitration
  • 1895 1st pro football game (QB John Brallier paid $10 & won 12-0)
  • 1896 Louis Napoleon Parker's "Rosemary" premieres in NYC

Historic Event

1897 British General Kitchener's army occupies Berber, North of Khartoum

Historic Invention

1897 Thomas Edison patents the Kinetoscope [kinetographic camera], a device which produces moving pictures

  • 1900 British troops over run Johannesburg
  • 1900 Brooklyn pitcher Brickyard Kennedy walks 6 straight Philadelphia Phillies in 2nd inning of the Superbas' 9-4 loss at Washington Park; Kennedy still achieves his 4th 20-win season
  • 1902 Split skirt 1st worn by Mrs Adolph Landeburg (horse rider)
  • 1903 New York Giants future Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Joe McGinnity wins his 3rd doubleheader of month, beating the Philadelphia Phillies, 4-1 and 9-2 at the Polo Grounds
  • 1904 US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport, RI: Holcombe Ward beats William Clothier 10-8, 6-4, 9-7 for his lone major singles title
  • 1905 25th US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport, RI: Beals Wright beats defending champion Holcombe Ward 6-2, 6-1, 11-9 for his lone major singles title
  • 1905 Mbunga rebellion takes German Fort Mahenge East Africa
  • 1907 Britain & Russia sign treaty with Afghanistan, Persia & Tibet
  • 1907 Britain, Russia & France form Triple Entente
  • 1909 A. J. Reach Co. patents cork-centered baseball
  • 1909 Swedish runner Thure Johansson runs world record marathon (2:40:34.2) in Stockholm

Historic Event

1910 Theodore Roosevelt makes a speech in Kansas advocating a 'square deal': property shall be 'the servant and not the master of the commonwealth'

  • 1911 Anthony Fokker's demonstrates aircraft "Snip"
  • 1911 The "Sullivan Act" requiring New Yorkers to possess licences for firearms small enough to be concealed comes into effect
  • 1913 Massive protest rally on Sackville Street attacked by the Dublin Metropolitan Police; two strikers killed by the police
  • 1913 Soccer club PSV forms in Eindhoven, Netherlands
  • 1914 24.8 cm rainfall at Bloomingdale, Michigan (state record)
  • 1914 Ecuador becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty
  • 1914 General von Kluck decides not to attack Paris
  • 1914 German troops reconquer Soldau/Neidenburg East-Prussia
  • 1915 Brazil becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty
  • 1915 Chicago White Sox Jimmy Lavender no-hits NY Giants, 2-0
  • 1916 Oscar Asche's musical "Chu Chin Chow" premieres in London

Election of Interest

1917 In China, Sun Yat-sen and his supporters' 'rump' parliament establishes a military government and elects Sun Yat-sen as commander-in-Chief

  • 1918 Boston Red Sox, win earliest AL pennent ever (season ended Sept 2)
  • 1919 John Reed forms American Communist Labor Party in Chicago
  • 1919 Petlyura's Ukrainian Army kills 35 members of a Jewish defense group
  • 1919 Ukrainian (Petlyura) Army recaptures Kiev
  • 1920 Belgium starts paying old age pensions
  • 1920 Detroit radio station 8MK (now WWJ, 950AM) is 1st to broadcast a news program on the air
  • 1923 Italian troops occupy Corfu
  • 1923 League of Nations gives Belgium mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (was German)

Historic Event

1923 Mussolini orders the Greek Government to apologize for the deaths of an Italian general and his staff on the Greco-Albanian border

World Record

1924 Paavo Nurmi runs world record 10,000m (30:06.2)

Historic Event

1925 Anthropologist Margaret Mead first arrives in Samoa

Theater Premiere

1928 Bertolt Brecht & Kurt Weil's play with music "The Threepenny Opera" premieres at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin

Historic Event

1929 Committee chaired by Owen D. Young finalizes the "Young Plan" to reduce German reparations from World War I to 112 billion Gold Marks ($US8 billion) paid over 59 years

  • 1934 1st NFL Chicago All-Star Game: Chicago Bears 0, All-Stars 0 (79,432)
  • 1935 1st national skeet championship (Indianapolis)
  • 1935 Chicago White Sox Vern Kennedy no-hits Cleveland Indians, 5-0

Historic Event

1935 FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents

  • 1935 Russian miner Aleksey Stachanov digs 102 tons of coal in under 6 hours, using a jackhammer
  • 1937 Det's rookie Rudy York sets record for HRs of 18 HRs in August
  • 1938 5th NFL Chicago All-Star Game: All-Stars 28, Washington 16 (74,250)
  • 1939 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
  • 1939 Staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz
  • 1940 1st edition of illegal opposition newspaper Free Netherlands
  • 1940 German occupiers in Netherlands begin soap rationing
  • 1940 RAF Fighter Command loses 39 aircraft against Luftwaffe's 41
  • 1940 US National Guard assembles
  • 1941 Great Gildersleeve, a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly debuts on NBC
  • 1942 Battle at Alam Halfa: German & Italians assault
  • 1942 U-boats sink and damage 131 allied ships this month (639,946 tons)
  • 1943 1st battle of Essex/new Yorktown: US assault on Marcus Island
  • 1943 Japanese occupiers intern Jewish Congregation of Sorabajo
  • 1944 Allied offensive at "Gothen-linie" Italy
  • 1944 French provisional government moves from Algiers to Paris
  • 1944 French troops liberate Bordeaux
  • 1944 Soviet & Romanian troops march into Bucharest

Historic Event

1945 The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies

  • 1946 Foghorn Leghorn, Warner Bros. cartoon character created by Robert McKimson and Warren Foster, (Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series), first debuts in "Walky Talky Hawky"
  • 1947 Hungarian communist party wins election
  • 1947 NY Giants set season record for HRs by a club 183 (en route to 221)

Baseball Record

1950 Dodger Gil Hodges hits 4 HRs & a single in a game vs Braves

  • 1951 1st 33 1/3 album introduced in Dusseldorf
  • 1953 KRBC TV channel 9 in Abilene, TX (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 WKBG (now WLVI) TV channel 56 in Cambridge-Boston, MA (IND) begins
  • 1954 Cincinnati 1st baseman Ted Kluszewski hits 2 HRs in a 9-3 loss v Phillies at Connie Mack Stadium, Philadelphia; 1st Redleg to ever hit 40 MLB HRs, en route to season total 49
  • 1954 Hurricane Carol hits New England, 70 die. Costliest ever hurricane at the time and 1st storm name to be retired.
  • 1954 Indians beat Yanks 6-1 for record tying 26 wins in August (1931 A's)
  • 1954 WMTW TV channel 8 in Portland-Poland Spring, ME (ABC) begins
  • 1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1955 KTRE TV channel 9 begins broadcasting in Lufkin, Texas (ABC/NBC affiliate)

Historic Event

1957 Federation of Malaya gains independence from Great Britain

  • 1959 48th Davis Cup: Australia beats USA in New York (3-2)

Baseball Record

1959 Sandy Koufax breaks Dizzy Dean's NL mark of 18 strikeouts in a game

  • 1960 Agricultural Hall of Fame forms
  • 1960 US sweeps the medals in the shot put at the Rome Olympics; Bill Nieder wins gold with 19.68m, ahead of countrymen Parry O'Brien and Dallas Long
  • 1961 Amsterdam National Ballet forms
  • 1962 Trinidad & Tobago gain independence from Britain (National Day) with Eric Williams as first Prime Minister
  • 1964 Ground is broken for Anaheim Stadium, future home of MLB California Angels
  • 1965 The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy Aircraft makes its first flight.
  • 1965 US Congress establishes Department of Housing & Urban Development
  • 1966 "The Battle of Algiers", directed by Gillo Pontecorvo, starring Jean Martin, Saadi Yacef, premieres at the Vienna International Film Festival
  • 1966 Referee Leo Horn whistles his last soccer match (Ajax-Bulgaria)
  • 1968 12,000 die in 7.8 quake which destroys 60,000 buildings in NE Iran
  • 1968 68th US Golf Amateur Championship won by Bruce Fleisher
  • 1968 Gary Sobers becomes the first cricketer to hit 6 sixes in one over

Music History

1968 Private Eye magazine reports a John Lennon and Yoko Ono album will have a picture of them nude on the cover

  • 1968 Roy Face ties W. Johnson's record of 802 pitching appearances with club
  • 1968 Verne Gagne beats Dick Beyers (Dr X) in Minnesota to become NWA champ
  • 1970 59th Davis Cup: USA beats Germany in Cleveland (5-0)
  • 1970 Lonnie McLucas, a Black Panther activist, convicted of conspiracy to commit murder
  • 1970 Molukkers occupy Indonesian ambassador's home in Wassenaar
  • 1970 WKMJ TV channel 68 in Louisville, Kentucky (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1971 Adrienne Beames runs female world record marathon (2:46:30)
  • 1971 An inquiry into allegations of brutality by the security forces against those interned without trial in Northern Ireland is announced

Music History

1971 Beatle John Lennon leaves England for the final time, moving to New York City

World Record

1972 American 4 x 200m freestyle relay team of John Kinsella, Fred Tyler, Steve Genter & Mark Spitz swim a world record 7:35.78 to beat West Germany for the gold medal at the Munich Olympics

  • 1972 American super swimmer Mark Spitz wraps up the Olympic butterfly double with a world record 54.27 in the 100m in Munich, having already won the 200m in world record time 2:00.70
  • 1972 Australian swimmer Gail Neall with a world record 5:02.97 wins the 400m individual medley gold medal at the Munich Olympics
  • 1972 Lasse Viren runs Olympic/world record 10,000m (27:38.4)

Olympic Gold

1972 Soviet gymnast Olga Korbut wins balance beam & floor exercise gold medals at the Munich Olympics; follows gold in the teams all-round

  • 1973 PBA National Championship Won by Earl Anthony
  • 1974 Pirate Radio Veronica moves into Scheveningen, Neteherlands harbor
  • 1976 Mexican peso devalued
  • 1976 Trinidad & Tobago adopts constitution
  • 1977 Aleksandr Fedotov sets aircraft alt rec of 38.26 km (125,524')
  • 1977 Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, wins Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote
  • 1977 Spyros Kyprianou appointed president of Cyprus
  • 1978 Constitution adopted by Sri Lanka

Historic Event

1978 Emily & William Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst

  • 1978 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with Sun
  • 1979 Donald McHenry named to succeed Andrew Young as US UN ambassador

Sports History

1979 In the battle of American teenage tennis prodigies, 16 year old Tracy Austin beats 14 year old Andrea Jaeger 6-2, 6-2 in the 2nd round at US Open

  • 1980 80th US Golf Amateur Championship won by Hal Sutton
  • 1980 Poland's Solidarity trade union federations forms and is officially recognised by the Polish government
  • 1980 The Gdańsk Agreement is signed, allowing Polish citizens to bring democratic changes within the communist political structure
  • 1981 Dirk Wellham scores 103 on Test Cricket debut, v England at Lord's
  • 1981 MLB Kansas City Royals fire manager Jim Frey, replace him with Dick Howser
  • 1982 USSR performs underground nuclear test

Venice Film Festival

1983 40th Venice Film Festival: "First Name: Carmen" directed by Jean-Luc Godard wins Golden Lion

  • 1983 Edwin Moses of USA sets 400m hurdle record (47.02) in Koblenz
  • 1984 Pinklon Thomas beats Tim Witherspoon in 12 for heavyweight boxing title
  • 1985 "Prakas" sets trotting mile record of 1:53.4 at Du Quoin, Illinois

Sports History

1985 Ángel Cordero Jr. becomes 3rd jockey to ride horses earning over $100m

  • 1985 Night Stalker suspect that terrorized California captured in East Los Angeles
  • 1986 Aeromexico DC-9 & small plane collide in LA, killing 82 (15 on the ground)
  • 1986 Russian cargo ship crashes into cruise ship Admiral Nakhimov; 398 die
  • 1987 Curtis Strange sets golf's earning for year record ($697,385)

Television Premiere

1987 Michael Jackson's "Bad" video, directed by Martin Scorcese, premieres during TV special "Michael Jackson: The Magic Returns" on CBS

  • 1987 South Africa's longest mine strike in history ends
  • 1987 The Great Potato Incident: Minor league Williamsport Bills catcher Dave Bresnahan attempts to lure an opposing baserunner off third base using a potato carved to look like a baseball. Umpire calls runner safe, and the catcher is fined $50 and released by the team [1] [2]
  • 1988 5-day power blackout of downtown Seattle begins
  • 1988 Arbitrator George Nicolau rules owners conspired against free agents
  • 1988 Bomb attack on office of South Africa Council of Churches
  • 1989 Arbitrator T Roberts orders owners to pay $105 million for collusion

Sports History

1990 Baseball outfielders Ken Griffey and Ken Griffey Jr. become the 1st father and son to play on same team (Seattle Mariners), the pair hit back-to-back singles in the first inning and both scored

  • 1990 Dennis Eckersley saves his 40th game of the season
  • 1990 East & West Germany sign a treaty to join legal & political systems
  • 1991 Houston QB David Klingler sets NCAA record with 6 touchdown passes in the 2nd quarter as the Cougars clobbered Louisiana Tech 73-3
  • 1991 Richard J. Kerr, ends term as deputy director of CIA
  • 1991 Rockies bat out of order against Expos in 1st inning
  • 1991 Uzbekistan declares independence from the Soviet Union following the failed coup in Moscow

Historic Event

1991 William H. Webster ends term as 14th director of CIA

  • 1992 44th Emmy Awards: "Northern Exposure" (Best Drama & Best Drama Writing), Christopher Lloyd (Road To Avalonlea), and Dana Delany (China Beach) win
  • 1992 Dynamite explosion in a mine in the Philippines kills 500
  • 1992 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Cleveland, Ohio on WNCX 98.5 FM

Venice Film Festival

1993 50th Venice Film Festival: "Short Cuts" directed by Robert Altman and "Three Colors: Blue" directed by Krzysztof Kieslowski jointly awarded Golden Lion

  • 1993 HMS Mercury, the Royal Navy's communications training establishment, closes after 52 years in commission.
  • 1993 Minnesota Twins beat Cleveland Indians 5-4 in 22 innings
  • 1993 Venezuela president Carlos Perez flees
  • 1994 Last Russian soldiers leave Estonia & Latvia

Sports History

1994 Pentium computer beats world chess champ Garry Kasparov

  • 1994 The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Sinn Féin) declares a ceasefire in Northern Ireland
  • 1997 "Gin Game" closes at Lyceum Theater NYC after 144 performances

Historic Event

1997 Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in a car crash in a road tunnel in Paris

Sports History

1997 Don Mattingly's #23 is retired by NY Yankees

  • 1997 Eddie George runs for 216 yards on 35 carries and scores a touchdown as the Oilers, playing their first NFL game in Tennessee, beat Oakland 24-21 in overtime at the Liberty Bowl in Memphis
  • 1997 Last episode of Rolanda airs
  • 1998 North Korea reportedly launches Kwangmyongsong, its first satellite.

Album Release

1999 "Fly" 5th studio album by Dixie Chicks is released (Grammy Award Best Country Album 2000, Billboard Album of the Year 2000)

  • 1999 A LAPA Boeing 737-200 crashes during takeoff from Jorge Newbury Airport in Buenos Aires, killing 65, including 2 on the ground.

Sports History

1999 Dino Ciccarelli retires from the NHL

  • 1999 The first of a series of apartment bombings in Moscow, killing one person and wounding 40 others.

Sports History

2003 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, Reserve Vineyards & GC: Tom Watson wins his third of 6 Champions Tour majors by 1 stroke from Jim Ahern & Tom Kite

Presidential Convention

2004 Barbara Pierce Bush gives a speech to the Republican Convention

Venice Film Festival

2005 62nd Venice Film Festival: "Brokeback Mountain" directed by Ang Lee wins Golden Lion

  • 2005 A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad kills 1,199 people.

Video Music Awards

2006 23rd MTV Video Music Awards: Panic! At the Disco, Kelly Clarkson & James Blunt win