On This Day

Historical Events on August 31

  • 1142 Possible date for establishment of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) League - with the aid of Hiawatha and Deganawidah
  • 1230 Bishop Willebrand of Utrecht grants Swells state justice
  • 1310 German king Heinrich VII makes his son Johan king of Bohemia
  • 1422 Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of 9 months

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1745 Jacobite Rising 1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie reaches Blair Castle, Scotland

Pretender to the British throne Bonnie Prince Charlie
Pretender to the British throne
Bonnie Prince Charlie
  • 1751 British troops under Sir Robert Clive occupy Arcot, India
  • 1772 Hurricane destroy ships off Dominica
  • 1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in Bronx during Revolution
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors in Postage Praia, Cape Verde Islands

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1837 Ralph Waldo Emerson gives his famous "The American Scholar" speech to Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, declares American literary independence from Europe

Lecturer and Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson
Lecturer and Poet
Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • 1842 Micah Rugg patents a nuts & bolts machine
  • 1842 US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress
  • 1843 Liberty Party nominates James Birneyas presidential candidate
  • 1850 California pioneers organized at Montgomery & Clay Streets
  • 1864 Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties
  • 1876 Ottoman sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II.

  • 1881 1st US men's single tennis championships (Newport, Rhode Island)
  • 1886 1st major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, South Carolina, 110 die

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1886 Crocker-Woolworth National Bank organized

Business Tycoon and Railroad Executive Charles Crocker
Business Tycoon and Railroad Executive
Charles Crocker

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1888 The body of Jack the Ripper's first victim, Mary Ann Nichols, is found in Whitechapel , in London's East End

First Victim of Jack the Ripper Mary Ann Nichols
First Victim of Jack the Ripper
Mary Ann Nichols
  • 1891 US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport R.I.: Defending champion Oliver Campbell beats Clarence Hobart 2-6, 7-5, 7-9, 6-1, 6-2; second of 3 straight titles
  • 1894 Phillies Billy Hamilton steals 7 bases
  • 1894 The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act passed by Richard Seddon’s Liberal government, making New Zealand the first country in the world to outlaw strikes in favour of compulsory arbitration
  • 1895 1st pro football game (QB John Brallier paid $10 & won 12-0)
  • 1896 Louis Napoleon Parker's "Rosemary" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1897 British General Kitchener's army occupies Berber, North of Khartoum

General and Secretary of War Horatio Kitchener
General and Secretary of War
Horatio Kitchener

InventionHistoric Invention

1897 Thomas Edison patents the Kinetoscope [kinetographic camera], a device which produces moving pictures

Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
  • 1900 British troops over run Johannesburg
  • 1900 Dodgers' Brickyard Kennedy walks 6 straight Phillies
  • 1902 Split skirt 1st worn by Mrs Adolph Landeburg (horse rider)
  • 1903 Joe McGinnity wins his 3rd doubleheader of month
  • 1904 US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport, RI: Holcombe Ward beats William Clothier 10-8, 6-4, 9-7 for his lone major singles title
  • 1905 Mbunga rebellion takes German Fort Mahenge East Africa
  • 1905 25th US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport, RI: Beals Wright beats defending champion Holcombe Ward 6-2, 6-1, 11-9 for his lone major singles title
  • 1907 Britain & Russia sign treaty with Afghanistan, Persia & Tibet
  • 1907 Britain, Russia & France form Triple Entente

  • 1909 A J Reach Co patents cork-centered baseball
  • 1909 Swedish runner Thure Johansson runs world record marathon (2:40:34.2) in Stockholm

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1910 Theodore Roosevelt makes a speech in Kansas advocating a 'square deal': property shall be 'the servant and not the master of the commonwealth'

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1911 The "Sullivan Act" requiring New Yorkers to possess licences for firearms small enough to be concealed comes into effect
  • 1911 Anthony Fokker's demonstrates aircraft "Snip"
  • 1913 Soccer club PSV forms in Eindhoven, Netherlands
  • 1913 Massive protest rally on Sackville Street attacked by the Dublin Metropolitan Police; two strikers killed by the police
  • 1914 24.8 cm rainfall at Bloomingdale, Michigan (state record)
  • 1914 General von Kluck decides not to attack Paris
  • 1914 German troops reconquer Soldau/Neidenburg East-Prussia
  • 1914 Ecuador becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1915 Chicago White Sox Jimmy Lavender no-hits NY Giants, 2-0
  • 1915 Brazil becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1916 Oscar Asche's musical "Chu Chin Chow" premieres in London

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1917 In China, Sun Yat-sen and his supporters' 'rump' parliament establishes a military government and elects Sun Yat-sen as commander-in-Chief

Father of Modern China Sun Yat-sen
Father of Modern China
Sun Yat-sen
  • 1918 Boston Red Sox, win earliest AL pennent ever (season ended Sept 2)
  • 1919 John Reed forms American Communist Labor Party in Chicago
  • 1919 Petlyura's Ukrainian Army kills 35 members of a Jewish defense group
  • 1919 Ukranian (Petlyura) Army recaptures Kiev
  • 1920 Belgium starts paying old age pensions
  • 1920 Detroit radio station is 1st to broadcast a news program on the air
  • 1923 League of Nations gives Belgium mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (was German)
  • 1923 Italian troops occupy Corfu

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1923 Mussolini orders the Greek Government to apologize for the deaths of an Italian general and his staff on the Greco-Albanian border

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini

Sports record brokenWorld Record

1924 Paavo Nurmi runs world record 10,000m (30:06.2)

Runner nicknamed the
Runner nicknamed the "Flying Finn"
Paavo Nurmi

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1925 Anthropologist Margaret Mead first arrives in Samoa

Cultural Anthropologist Margaret Mead
Cultural Anthropologist
Margaret Mead
  • 1928 Brecht & Weil's play " The Threepenny Opera " premieres

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1929 Committee chaired by Owen D. Young finalizes the "Young Plan" to reduce German reparations from World War I to 112 billion Gold Marks ($US8 billion) paid over 59 years

Diplomat and Industrialist Owen D. Young
Diplomat and Industrialist
Owen D. Young
  • 1934 1st NFL Chicago All-Star Game: Chicago Bears 0, All-Stars 0 (79,432)
  • 1935 1st national skeet championship (Indianapolis)
  • 1935 Chicago White Sox Vern Kennedy no-hits Cleveland Indians, 5-0

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1935 FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1935 Russian Aleksei Stachanov digs 105 tons of cabbages in 6 hours
  • 1937 Det's rookie Rudy York sets record for HRs of 18 HRs in August
  • 1938 5th NFL Chicago All-Star Game: All-Stars 28, Washington 16 (74,250)
  • 1939 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
  • 1939 Staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz
  • 1940 1st edition of illegal opposition newspaper Free Netherlands
  • 1940 RAF Fighter Command loses 39 aircraft against Luftwaffe's 41
  • 1940 German occupiers in Netherlands begin soap rationing
  • 1940 US National Guard assembles
  • 1941 Great Gildersleeve, a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly debuts on NBC
  • 1942 Battle at Alam Halfa: German & Italians assault
  • 1942 U-boats sink and damage 131 allied ships this month (639,946 tons)
  • 1943 1st battle of Essex/new Yorktown: US assault on Marcus Island
  • 1943 Japanese occupiers intern Jewish Congregation of Sorabajo
  • 1944 Allied offensive at "Gothen-linie" Italy
  • 1944 French provisional government moves from Algiers to Paris
  • 1944 French troops liberate Bordeaux
  • 1944 Soviet & Romanian troops march into Bucharest

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies

12th Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies
12th Australian Prime Minister
Robert Menzies
  • 1946 Foghorn Leghorn, Warner Bros. cartoon character created by Robert McKimson and Warren Foster, (Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series), first debuts in "Walky Talky Hawky"
  • 1947 Hungarian communist party wins election
  • 1947 NY Giants set season record for HRs by a club 183 (en route to 221)
  • 1948 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands celebrates golden jubilee

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1950 Dodger Gil Hodges hits 4 HRs & a single in a game vs Braves

MLB First Baseman Gil Hodges
MLB First Baseman
Gil Hodges
  • 1951 1st 33 1/3 album introduced in Dusseldorf
  • 1953 KRBC TV channel 9 in Abilene, TX (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 WKBG (now WLVI) TV channel 56 in Cambridge-Boston, MA (IND) begins
  • 1954 Hurricane Carol hits New England, 70 die, Costliest ever hurricane at the time and 1st storm name to be retired.
  • 1954 Indians beat Yanks 6-1 for record tying 26 wins in August (1931 A's)
  • 1954 WMTW TV channel 8 in Portland-Poland Spring, ME (ABC) begins
  • 1954 Cincinnati 1st baseman Ted Kluszewski hits 2 HRs in a 9-3 loss v Phillies; 1st Redleg to ever hit 40 MLB HRs, en route to season total 49
  • 1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1955 KTRE TV channel 9 begins broadcasting in Lufkin, Texas (ABC/NBC affiliate)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1957 Federation of Malaya gains independence from Great Britain

Malaysia's Founding Father Tunku Abdul Rahman
Malaysia's Founding Father
Tunku Abdul Rahman
  • 1959 48th Davis Cup: Australia beats USA in New York (3-2)
  • 1959 Sandy Koufax breaks Dizzy Dean's NL mark of 18 strikeouts in a game
  • 1960 Agricultural Hall of Fame forms
  • 1960 US sweeps the medals in the shot put at the Rome Olympics; Bill Nieder wins gold with 19.68m ahead of countrymen Parry O'Brien and Dallas Long
  • 1961 Amsterdam National Ballet forms
  • 1962 Trinidad & Tobago gain independence from Britain (National Day)
  • 1964 Ground is broken for Anaheim Stadium, future home of Angels
  • 1965 US Congress establishes Department of Housing & Urban Development
  • 1965 The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy Aircraft makes its first flight.
  • 1966 Referee Leo Horn whistles his last soccer match (Ajax-Bulgaria)
  • 1966 "The Battle of Algiers", directed by Gillo Pontecorvo, starring Jean Martin, Saadi Yacef, premieres at the Vienna International Film Festival
  • 1968 12,000 die in 7.8 quake destroys 60,000 buildings in NE Iran
  • 1968 68th US Golf Amateur Championship won by Bruce Fleisher

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1968 Private Eye magazine reports a John Lennon and Yoko Ono album will have a picture of them nude on cover

Artist & Musician Yoko Ono
Artist & Musician
Yoko Ono
Musician and Beatle John Lennon
Musician and Beatle
John Lennon
  • 1968 Roy Face ties W Johnson's record of 802 pitching appearances with club
  • 1968 Verne Gagne beats Dick Beyers (Dr X) in Minn, to become NWA champ
  • 1968 Gary Sobers becomes the first cricketer to hit 6 sixes in one over
  • 1969 25,000 attend New Orleans Pop Festival
  • 1970 59th Davis Cup: USA beats Germany in Cleveland (5-0)

  • 1970 Lonnie McLucas, a Black Panther activist, convicted
  • 1970 Molukkers occupy Indonesian ambassador's home in Wassenaar
  • 1970 WKMJ TV channel 68 in Louisville, Kentucky (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1971 Adrienne Beames runs female world record marathon (2:46:30)
  • 1971 An inquiry into allegations of brutality by the security forces against those interned without trial in Northern Ireland is announced
  • 1972 Lasse Viren runs Olympic/world record 10,000m (27:38.4)
  • 1972 Soviet gymnast Olga Korbut wins balance beam & floor exercise gold medals at the Munich Olympics; follows gold in the teams all-round
  • 1972 American super swimmer Mark Spitz wraps up the Olympic butterfly double with a world record 54.27 in the 100m in Munich, having already won the 200m in world record time 2:00.70
  • 1972 American 4 x 200m freestyle relay team of John Kinsella, Fred Tyler, Steve Genter & Mark Spitz swim a world record 7:35.78 to beat West Germany for the gold medal at the Munich Olympics
  • 1972 Australian swimmer Gail Neall with a world record 5:02.97 wins the 400m individual medley gold medal at the Munich Olympics
  • 1973 PBA National Championship Won by Earl Anthony
  • 1974 Pirate Radio Veronica moves into Scheveningen harbor

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1976 George Harrison found guilty of plagiarising "My Sweet Lord"

Singer-Songwriter George Harrison
George Harrison
  • 1976 Mexican peso devalued
  • 1976 Trinidad & Tobago adopts constitution
  • 1977 Aleksandr Fedotov sets aircraft alt rec of 38.26 km (125,524')
  • 1977 Spyros Kyprianou appointed president of Cyprus
  • 1977 Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, wins Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote
  • 1978 Constitution adopted by Sri Lanka
  • 1978 Emily & William Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst
  • 1978 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1979 In the battle of American teenage tennis prodigies, 16 year old Tracy Austin beats 14 year old Andrea Jaeger 6-2, 6-2 in the 2nd round at US Open
  • 1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with Sun
  • 1979 Donald McHenry named to succeed Andrew Young as US UN ambassador
  • 1980 "Oklahoma!" closes at Palace Theater NYC after 301 performances
  • 1980 80th US Golf Amateur Championship won by Hal Sutton
  • 1980 Poland's Solidarity trade union federations forms and is offically recognised by the Polish government
  • 1980 The Gdańsk Agreement is signed, allowing Polish citizens to bring democratic changes within the communist political structure
  • 1981 Dirk Wellham scores 103 on Test Cricket debut, v England at Lord's
  • 1981 Royals manager Jim Frey is fired & replaced by Dick Howser

  • 1982 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1983 Edwin Moses of USA sets 400m hurdle record (47.02) in Koblenz

Film tv awardsFilm Awards

1983 40th Venice Film Festival: "First Name: Carmen" directed by Jean-Luc Godard wins Golden Lion

Director Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
  • 1984 Pinklon Thomas beats Tim Witherspoon in 12 for heavyweight boxing title
  • 1985 "Prakas" sets trotting mile record of 1:53.4 at Du Quoin, Illinois
  • 1985 Angel Cordero becomes 3rd jockey to ride horses earning over $100 M
  • 1985 Night Stalker suspect that terrorized California captured in East Los Angeles
  • 1986 Aeromexico DC-9 & small plane collide in LA, killing 82 (15 on the ground)
  • 1986 Russian cargo ship crashes into cruise ship Admiral Nakhimov; 398 die
  • 1987 Curtis Strange sets golf's earning for year record ($697,385)

Appears on tv showTelevision Premiere

1987 Michael Jackson's "Bad" video premieres on CBS TV

King of Pop Michael Jackson
King of Pop
Michael Jackson
  • 1987 South Africa's longest mine strike in history ends
  • 1988 5-day power blackout of downtown Seattle begins
  • 1988 Arbitrator George Nicolau rules owners conspired against free agents
  • 1988 Bomb attack on office of South Africa Council of Churches
  • 1989 Arbitrator T Roberts orders owners to pay $105 million for collusion
  • 1990 Dennis Eckersley saves his 40th game of the season
  • 1990 East & West Germany sign a treaty to join legal & political systems
  • 1990 Baseball outfielders Ken Griffey and Ken Griffey Jr. become the 1st father and son to play on same team (Seattle Mariners), the pair hit back-to-back singles in the first inning and both scored
  • 1991 Houston QB David Klingler sets NCAA record with 6 touchdown passes in the 2nd quarter as the Cougars clobbered Louisiana Tech 73-3
  • 1991 Richard J Kerr, ends term as deputy director of CIA
  • 1991 Rockies bat out of order against Expos in 1st inning
  • 1991 William H. Webster ends term as 14th director of CIA
  • 1991 Uzbekistan declares independence from the Soviet Union following the failed coup in Moscow
  • 1992 44th Emmy Awards: Northern Exposure, Christopher Lloyd & Dana Delane win
  • 1992 Dynamite explosion in Philipines mine; 500 die
  • 1992 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Cleveland, Ohio on WNCX 98.5 FM
  • 1993 Minnesota Twins beat Cleveland Indians 5-4 in 22 innings
  • 1993 Venezuela president Carlos Perez flees
  • 1993 HMS Mercury, the Royal Navy's communications training establishment, closes after 52 years in commission.

Film tv awardsFilm Awards

1993 50th Venice Film Festival: "Short Cuts" directed by Robert Altman and "Three Colors: Blue" directed by Krzysztof Kieslowski jointly awarded Golden Lion

Film Director Robert Altman
Film Director
Robert Altman
  • 1994 Last Russian soldiers leave Estonia & Latvia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1994 Pentium computer beats world chess champ Garry Kasparov

Chess Grandmaster and Political Activist Garry Kasparov
Chess Grandmaster and Political Activist
Garry Kasparov
  • 1994 The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Sinn Féin) declares a ceasefire in Northern Ireland
  • 1997 "Gin Game" closes at Lyceum Theater NYC after 144 performances
  • 1997 Don Mattingly's #23 is retired by NY Yankees
  • 1997 Last episode of Rolanda airs

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1997 Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in a car crash in a road tunnel in Paris

Princess of Wales Diana Spencer
Princess of Wales
Diana Spencer
  • 1997 Eddie George runs for 216 yards on 35 carries and scores a touchdown as the Oilers, playing their first NFL game in Tennessee, beat Oakland 24-21 in overtime at the Liberty Bowl in Memphis
  • 1998 North Korea reportedly launches Kwangmyongsong, its first satellite.
  • 1999 The first of a series of apartment bombings in Moscow, killing one person and wounding 40 others.
  • 1999 A LAPA Boeing 737-200 crashes during takeoff from Jorge Newbury Airport in Buenos Aires, killing 65, including 2 on the ground.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1999 Dino Ciccarelli retires from the NHL

NHL Star Dino Ciccarelli
NHL Star
Dino Ciccarelli

Music releaseAlbum Release

1999 "Fly" 5th studio album by Dixie Chicks is released (Grammy Award Best Country Album 2000, Billboard Album of the Year 2000)

Singer-songwriter Natalie Maines
Natalie Maines

Event of interestEvent of Interest

2003 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, Reserve Vineyards & GC: Tom Watson wins his third of 6 Champions Tour majors by 1 stroke from Jim Ahern & Tom Kite

Golfer Tom Watson
Tom Watson

Electoral defeatPresidential Convention

2004 Barbara Pierce Bush gives a speech to the Republican Convention

Twin daughter of US President George W. Bush Barbara Pierce Bush
Twin daughter of US President George W. Bush
Barbara Pierce Bush
  • 2005 A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad kills 1,199 people.
  • 2005 62nd Venice Film Festival: "Brokeback Mountain" directed by Ang Lee wins Golden Lion

Person of InterestThe Scream

2006 Stolen on August 22, 2004, Edvard Munch's famous painting "The Scream" is recovered from a raid by Norwegian police. The painting was said to be in a better-than-expected condition.
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"The Scream", pastel on cardboard by Edvard Munch