Historical Events in 1631

  • Jan 23 France & Sweden sign anti-German Treaty of Barwald

Event of Interest

Feb 5 Founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams arrives in Boston from England

  • May 17 Earl Johann Tilly attacks Maagdenburg
  • May 18 English colony Massachusetts Bay grants Puritan voting right

Election of Interest

May 18 John Winthrop is elected 1st Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • May 20 Magdeburg in Germany seized by forces of the Holy Roman Empire under earl Johann Tilly, most inhabitants massacred, one of the bloodiest incidents of the Thirty Years' War
  • May 30 The Treaty of Fontainebleau signed between Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and the Kingdom of France, establishing a secret alliance between them during the Thirty Years' War.

Taj Mahal

Jun 17 Mumtaz Mahal dies during childbirth. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, then spends more than 20 years building her tomb, the Taj Mahal

  • Jun 19 Peace of Cherasco: Charles de Gonzaga-Nevers becomes duke of Mantua
  • Jun 20 The sack of Baltimore: the Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates
  • Sep 13 Admiral Tholen conquers 30+ Spanish frigates
  • Sep 17 Battle of Breitenfeld: King Gustaaf Adolf of Sweden defeats Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly.
  • Oct 10 Saxon army occupies Prague
  • Nov 4 Ferdinand of Austria installed as land guardian of South Netherlands
  • Nov 7 Pierre Gassendi observes 1st ever transit of Mercury predicted by Kepler
  • Dec 6 1st predicted transit of Venus (Kepler) is observed
  • Dec 16 Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts, burying many villages under lava flows and killing around 3,000 people