On This Day

Historical Events in 1775

Historic Event

Jan 1 English potter Josiah Wedgwood writes that he has developed his famous 'wedgwood blue' color in a letter to Thomas Bentley [1]

  • Jan 11 Francis Salvador becomes 1st Jew elected to office in America (SC)
  • Jan 17 9 old women burnt as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland
  • Jan 17 Richard Brinsley Sheridan's play "The Rivals" premieres in London
  • Jan 22 Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expels Jews from Warsaw, Poland
  • Feb 9 British Parliament declares Massachusetts colony in rebellion

Historic Event

Feb 15 Angelo Braschi chosen as Pope Pius VI

  • Feb 22 1st US joint stock company (to make cloth) offers shares at 10 cents
  • Feb 22 Jews expelled from outskirts of Warsaw, Poland
  • Mar 6 1st Negro Mason in north America initiated, Boston
  • Mar 17 Transylvania Land Company, headed by Richard Henderson, buys most of Kentucky through treaty signed with Cherokee chiefs at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River (later declared illegal)
  • Mar 19 4 people buried by avalanche for 37 days, 3 survive (Italy)
  • Mar 19 Poland & Prussia sign trade agreement
  • Mar 22 British MP Edmund Burke makes a speech to the English Parliament advocating for peace with the American colonies

Historic Event

Mar 23 Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death" in speech in favour of Virginian troops joining US Revolutionary war

  • Apr 14 1st abolitionist society in US organizes in Philadelphia

Historic Event

Apr 18 Paul Revere and William Dawes ride from Charlestown to Lexington warning the "regulars are coming!"

  • Apr 19 Minutemen Capt John Parker orders not to fire unless fired upon

The Shot Heard Round the World

Apr 19 American Revolution begins in Lexington, Massachusetts. The "Shot Heard Round the World" took place in Concord later that day

  • Apr 19 New England militiamen begin the siege of Boston, hemming in the British army garrison
  • Apr 19 Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott are captured by British troops riding from Lexington to Concord, Prescott escapes to warn Concord

Music History

Apr 23 Opera "Il Ré Pastore" (The Shepherd King) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is first produced in Salzburg

  • May 7 Turkish state of Bukovina secedes from Austria
  • May 10 Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and issues paper currency for 1st time

Appointment of Interest

May 10 Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia names George Washington Supreme Commander

  • May 10 American Revolution: Green Mountain Boys capture Fort Ticonderoga, New York
  • May 17 American Revolutionary War: the Continental Congress bans trade with Canada
  • May 20 Citizens of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina declare independence from Great Britain

Election of Interest

May 24 John Hancock is unanimously elected President of the Continental Congress

  • Jun 12 1st naval battle of Revolution-Unity (US) captures Margaretta (Br)

Historic Event

Jun 14 US Army first forms as the Continental Army to fight American Revolutionary War

  • Jun 15 George Washington appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, the day after Congress establishes the force
  • Jun 17 Battle of Bunker Hill (actually it was Breed's Hill)
  • Jun 22 1st Continental currency issued ($3,000,000)
  • Jun 23 1st regatta held on river Thames, England
  • Jul 3 George Washington takes command of Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts

Historic Event

Jul 5 Second Continental Congress drafts the Olive Branch Petition to King George III

Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

Jul 6 Congress issues "Declaration of the Causes & Necessity of Taking up Arms", listing grievances but denying intent to be independent

Historic Event

Jul 10 Horatio Gates issues order excluding blacks from Continental Army

  • Jul 17 1st military hospital approved

Historic Event

Jul 26 US Continental Congress creates United States Post Office (U.S.P.O.) in Philadelphia under Benjamin Franklin

Historic Event

Jul 30 Captain James Cook with Resolution returns to England

  • Aug 5 1st Spanish ship, San Carlos, enters San Francisco Bay
  • Aug 22 King George III proclaims colonies to be in open rebellion
  • Sep 13 Gotthold Lessing's "Die Juden," premieres in Frankfurt-am-Main

Historic Event

Sep 25 American Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen captured

  • Oct 8 Officers decide to bar slaves and free blacks from the Continental Army
  • Oct 13 First US Navy forms when Continental Congress orders construction of a naval fleet [1]
  • Oct 16 Portland, Maine burned by British

Historic Event

Oct 18 African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery

  • Oct 27 US Navy forms as the Continental Navy
  • Nov 7 Lord Dunmore promises freedom to male slaves who join British army
  • Nov 10 The Second Continental Congress forms Continental Marines, precursor to the United States Marine Corps

Historic Event

Nov 11 Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant goes to London to solicit more support from the government and to persuade the Crown to address past Mohawk land grievances in exchange for their participation as allies in the impending war

  • Nov 12 General Washington forbids recruiting officers from enlisting black troops
  • Nov 13 American Revolutionary forces capture Montreal
  • Nov 14 -15] Floods ravage Dutch coast provinces
  • Nov 24 Continental Congress approves resolution barring blacks from army
  • Nov 28 Second Continental Congress formally establishes the Continental Navy
  • Nov 29 Sir James Jay invents invisible ink
  • Dec 3 First official US flag raised (Grand Union Flag) aboard naval vessel USS Alfred
  • Dec 5 At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox begins his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Historic Invention

Dec 16 Englishman Richard Arkwright receives a patent for his carding machine for use in cotton mills

  • Dec 22 Continental navy organized with 7 ships
  • Dec 25 Pope Pius VI encyclical on the problems of the pontificate
  • Dec 31 Battle of Quebec in American Revolutionary War; Americans defeated trying to take British stronghold