On This Day

Historical Events in 1860

  • Jan 1 Slavery ends of in Neth Indies
  • Jan 20 Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
  • Jan 28 Britain formally returns Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua
  • Jan 29 American College established in Rome by Pope Pius IX
  • Feb 1 1st rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of NYC
  • Feb 3 Thomas Clemson takes office as 1st US superintendent of agriculture

Music History

Feb 10 Johannes Brahms' 2nd Serenade in A, premieres

  • Feb 13 King Basse Kajuara departs Boni South-Celebes
  • Feb 16 Dutch Rochussen/Van Bosse government resigns
  • Feb 22 Organized baseball played in San Francisco for 1st time between the Eagles and the Red Rovers
  • Feb 22 Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Massachusetts, strike successfully for higher wages

Historic Event

Feb 27 Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency

  • Mar 5 Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna vote in referendums to join the Kingdom of Sardinia
  • Mar 7 22nd Grand National: Tommy Pickernell wins aboard Irish horse Anatis at 5/1
  • Mar 9 1st Japanese ambassador arrives in San Francisco en route to Washington

Treaty of Interest

Mar 17 Six years after the forcible ending of Japan's isolationist policy by US Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry, the Japanese Embassy arrives in San Francisco to sign a Treaty of Friendship

  • Mar 21 US extradition treaty with Sweden

Historic Event

Mar 21 English novelist George Eliot finishes her novel "The Mill on the Floss" in Wandsworth, London

  • Mar 24 Clipper Andrew Jackson arrives in San Francisco, 89 days out of New York
  • Mar 27 M L Byrn patents "covered gimlet screw with a 'T' handle" (corkscrew)
  • Mar 28 First Taranaki War: The Battle of Waireka begins in New Zealand

Theater Premiere

Mar 29 Dion Boucicault's play "Colleen Bawn" premieres in NYC

  • Apr 2 1st Italian Parliament meets at Turin

Pony Express

Apr 3 Pony Express began between St Joseph, Missouri & Sacramento, California

  • Apr 6 Joseph Smith III, creates the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints by reorganizing the previous church organized by his father, Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • Apr 7 Grand duke Frederik I liberalizes laws in Bathe
  • Apr 9 Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville uses his phonautograph to make a 10-second recording of "Au Clair de la Lune"
  • Apr 13 1st Pony Express reaches Sacramento, California
  • Apr 14 1st Pony Express rider arrives in San Francisco from St Joseph, Missouri

Boxing Match That Went for 42 Rounds

Apr 17 Champion of England Tom Sayers and American John Heenan fight out brutal 2 hour, 27 minute draw near Farnborough, England; police stop fight acknowledged as first world title bout

  • Apr 23 Democratic convention in Charleston, South Carolina divided over slavery

Historic Event

Apr 27 Thomas Jackson is assigned to command Harpers Ferry

  • Apr 30 Navaho indians attack Fort Defiance (Canby)
  • May 3 Charles XV of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Sweden
  • May 6 San Francisco Olympic Club, 1st US athletic club forms

Historic Event

May 6 Giuseppe Garibaldi's Mille sets sail from Genoa to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

  • May 16 -18] Chicago: Republican convention selects Abraham Lincoln as candidate
  • May 17 German football club TSV 1860 München is founded
  • May 18 US Republican Party nominates Abraham Lincoln for president
  • May 26 Giuseppe Garibaldi occupies Palermo, Italy
  • Jun 3 Comanche, Iowa, completely destroyed by one of a series of tornadoes
  • Jun 7 Workmen start laying track for Market Street Railroad, San Francisco
  • Jun 9 1st US "dime novel" published: "Malaseka, The Indian Wife of the White Hunter," by Mrs Ann Stevens
  • Jun 12 The State Bank of the Russian Empire is established.
  • Jun 15 1st White settlement in Idaho (Franklin)
  • Jun 23 US Congress establishes Government Printing Office

Historic Event

Jun 30 Famous debate on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution held at the Oxford University Museum and dominated by arguments between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce

  • Jul 9 Temperature hits 115°F in Fort Scott and 112°F in Topeka, Kansas
  • Jul 19 1st railroad reaches Kansas
  • Jul 24 Olympics beat St. George, 25-17 at St. Georges Cricket Grounds, Philadelphia in first baseball game played in enclosed field
  • Jul 25 1st US intercollegiate billiard match (Harvard vs Yale)
  • Aug 3 The Second Maori War begins in New Zealand
  • Aug 5 Carl IV of Sweden-Norway is crowned King of Norway in Trondheim
  • Aug 8 Queen of Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) arrives in NYC
  • Aug 11 US's 1st successful silver mill (Virginia City, Nevada)
  • Aug 30 1st British tram opens (Birkenhead)
  • Sep 8 Excursion steamer "Lady Elgin" sinks after being rammed in a storm on Lake Michigan drowning about 300. Largest loss of life on the Great Lakes.

Historic Event

Sep 20 First British royalty to visit US, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII)

  • Sep 21 In the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Baliqiao
  • Oct 8 Telegraph line between LA & San Francisco opens
  • Oct 12 British & French troops capture Beijing
  • Oct 13 1st aerial photo taken in US (from a balloon) of Boston
  • Oct 17 1st British Open Men's Golf, Prestwick GC: Willie Park Sr. wins inaugural event by 2 strokes from fellow Scot Tom Morris Sr
  • Oct 18 The Second Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty.

Historic Event

Nov 3 Poet and critic Matthew Arnold begins his series of lectures "On Translating Home" as Oxford Professor of Poetry at Oxford University

  • Nov 6 Republican Abraham Lincoln of Illinois elected the 16th President of the United States of America
  • Dec 17 Anaheim Township created in Los Angeles County
  • Dec 20 South Carolina declared an "independent commonwealth" and secedes from the Union (US Civil War)
  • Dec 24 Actor Joseph Jefferson's dramatization of "Rip Van Winkle" premieres in NYC

Historic Event

Dec 26 Maiden voyage of 1st steamship owned by 1 man (Cornelius Vanderbilt)

  • Dec 26 Major Robert Anderson, under cover of darkness, concentrates his small force at Ft Sumter
  • Dec 26 First ever inter-club football match between Hallam F.C. and Sheffield F.C. at Sandygate Road ground in Sheffield, England

Historic Event

Dec 28 Harriet Tubman arrives in Auburn, New York, on her last mission to free slaves, having evaded capture for 8 years on the Underground Railroad

  • Dec 29 The first British seagoing iron-clad warship, HMS Warrior is launched