On This Day

Historical Events on February 14

  • 842 Charles II & Louis the German sign treaty
  • 1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry II Holy Roman Emperor

Excommunication

1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (for the 1st time)

  • 1130 Jewish Cardinal Pietro Pierleone elected as anti-pope Anacletus II

Black Death

1349 900 Jews are burned alive in Strasbourg and similar number banned from the city after being blamed for the spread of the Black Death

Execution

1540 Emperor Charles V enters Ghent without resistance, executes rebels

  • 1556 English Archbishop Thomas Cranmer declared a heretic

Historic Event

1610 Polish King Sigismund III, Forges Dimitri #2 & Romanov family sign covenant against Tsar Vasili Shushki

  • 1630 Dutch fleet of 69 ships reaches Pernambuco, Brazil
  • 1670 Roman Catholic Emperor Leopold I chases Jews out of Vienna

Historic Event

1689 English parliament places Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne

Historic Event

1743 Henry Pelham becomes Britain's First Lord of Treasury

Scientific Discovery

1747 Astronomer James Bradley presents his discovery of the wobbling motion of the Earth on its axis to the Royal Society, London

  • 1766 Dutch governor Falck and King Keerthisiri Rajasinghe of Kandy sign Treaty of Batticaloa

Historic Event

1777 US Congress commissions Benjamin Lincoln a major general in the Continental Army

  • 1778 "Stars & Stripes" arrives in foreign port for 1st time (France)
  • 1794 1st US textile machinery patent granted, to James Davenport, Philadelphia

Victory in Battle

1797 The Battle of Cape St Vincent: British fleet under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeats larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdoba y Ramos near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. Captain Horatio Nelson distinguishes himself.

  • 1803 Apple parer patented by Moses Coats, Downington, Pennsylvania

Historic Event

1803 Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void

  • 1804 Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire
  • 1804 Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French general who plotted to overthrow Napoleon in the Pichegru Conspiracy, arrested, and exiled to the United States
  • 1831 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay

Historic Expedition

1844 John C. Frémont and his party become the first Europeans to discover Lake Tahoe during his second expedition through the American West

Oldest Photo of a Serving US President

1849 In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes first serving US President to have his photograph taken (by Matthew Brady).

  • 1855 Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
  • 1859 Oregon admitted as 33rd state of the Union
  • 1862 Galena, 1st US iron-clad warship for service at sea, launched, Connecticut
  • 1867 Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co issues 1st policy
  • 1867 Morehouse College organizes (Augusta Georgia)
  • 1870 Esther Morris appointed US' first female in Justice of the Peace in South Pass City, Wyoming, after previous justice, R.S. Barr, resigned to protest passage of Wyoming Territory's women's suffrage amendment in 1869
  • 1870 Seraph Young becomes the first woman to legally vote in the modern United States, two days after the Utah legislature passed a law allowing women the vote
  • 1872 1st US state bird refuge authorized (Lake Merritt, California)
  • 1876 Alexander G. Bell & Elisha Gray apply separately for telephone patents Supreme Court eventually rules Bell rightful inventor
  • 1879 Chilean troops occupy Antofagasta
  • 1883 1st state labor union legislation; New Jersey legalizes unions
  • 1887 Cubs sell Mike King Kelly to Boston for record $10,000
  • 1889 1st train load of fruit (oranges) leaves LA for east
  • 1894 Venus is both a morning star & evening star

Historic Event

1895 Oscar Wilde's "Importance of Being Earnest," opens in London

  • 1896 George Lohmann takes a hat-trick for England v South Africa, 8-7 for inning - their lowest ever
  • 1896 Stanley Cup, Victoria Skating Rink, Montreal, Quebec: Winnipeg Victorias beat Montreal Victorias, 2-0
  • 1896 Austro-Hungarian Zionist Theodor Herzl publishes "Der Judenstaat" (The Jewish State), encouraging Jews to purchase land in Palestine
  • 1896 Theodor Hertzl's "Der Judenstaat" (The Jewish State) is published, proposing a Jewish homeland as a means of escaping anti-Semitism in Europe
  • 1899 US Congress begins using voting machines
  • 1900 Date of events in Australian movie "Picnic at Hanging Rock"
  • 1900 Russia responds to international pressure to free Finland by tightening imperial control over the country
  • 1903 US Department of Commerce & Labor forms
  • 1907 1st US foxhound association forms in NYC
  • 1912 1st US submarines with diesel engines commissioned, Groton, Connecticut
  • 1912 Arizona was admitted to the Union as the 48th state
  • 1914 High Council of Labor forms in Hague Netherlands
  • 1918 H Atteridge & S Rombergs musical "Sinbad," premieres in NYC
  • 1918 USSR adopts New Style (Gregorian) calendar (originally Feb 1)
  • 1919 United Parcel Service forms
  • 1919 The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • 1920 League of Women Voters forms in Chicago
  • 1921 Canadian 5 cent nickel coin is authorized
  • 1921 Little Review faces obscenity charges for publishing "Ulysses," in New York

Historic Event

1924 Thomas J. Watson renames the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) as International Business Machines (IBM)

  • 1925 State of emergency crisis in Bavaria ends, NSDAP re-allowed
  • 1928 Clas Thunberg of Finland wins his 2nd gold medal of the Games and 4th career title when he takes out the 1,500m speed skating at the St. Moritz Winter Olympics
  • 1928 Per-Erik Hedlund leads a Swedish sweep of the medals in the 50k cross-country at the St. Moritz Winter Olympics; Gustaf Jonsson & Volgar Andersson take the minor medals

Historic Event

1929 St Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago, 7 gangsters killed, allegedly on Al Capone's orders

  • 1931 Spanish government of General Damasco Berenguer falls

Film Release

1931 The original "Dracula" film starring Bela Lugosi as the titular vampire, is released

  • 1932 The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show debuts on CBS radio, airing there until 1937, moving to NBC until 1949, and returning to CBS in 1949, before moving to television
  • 1934 NHL Ace Bailey Benefit Game: Toronto beats All-Stars 7-3 in Toronto
  • 1936 National Negro Congress organizes in Chicago
  • 1936 US female Figure Skating championship won by Maribel Vinson
  • 1936 US male Figure Skating championship won by Robin Lee
  • 1936 Karl Schäfer of Austria wins his 2nd consecutive men’s figure skating Olympic gold medal at the Garmisch-Partenkirchen Winter Games in Germany
  • 1936 Norwegian speed skater Ivar Ballangrud sets Olympic record 17:24.3 to win the 10,000m at the Garmisch-Partenkirchen Winter Games; his 3rd gold medal from 4 events and 4th career Olympic gold

Film & TV History

1939 Victor Fleming replaces George Cukor as director of film "Gone With The Wind"

  • 1940 British merchant vessel fleet is armed
  • 1941 One millionth vehicle traverses the NY Midtown Tunnel
  • 1941 Carson McCuller's "Reflections in a Golden Eye" published
  • 1941 Cebrie Park in the Bronx renamed Halsey Street
  • 1941 German Afrika Korps lands in Tripoli, Libya
  • 1942 Japanese parachutists land near oil center Palembang, Sumatra
  • 1942 Rotterdam's Maas tunnel opens
  • 1942 The Polish resistance movement, the Home Army, is formed and will eventually become the largest resistance movement in occupied Europe
  • 1942 World War II: Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore.
  • 1943 German offensive against US troops through de Faid-pass, Tunisia begins, starting the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid
  • 1943 The Soviet Union recaptures the city of Rostov-on-Don, liberating Russia from the German 17th Army during WWII
  • 1944 Anti-Japanese revolt on Java
  • 1944 Carl Wick publishes "Salmon Trolling for Commercial & Sport Fishing"

Bombing of Dresden

1945 Second day of the bombing of Dresden by Allied air forces

  • 1945 Peru, Paraguay, Chile & Ecuador joins UN
  • 1945 World War II: Prague is bombed probably due to a mistake in the orientation of the pilots bombing Dresden.
  • 1945 World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans.
  • 1949 1st session of Knesset (Jerusalem Israel)
  • 1949 Dutch Drees government presents plan for the building of 30,000 houses
  • 1950 Moroney scores cricket twin centuries for Australia at Johannesburg
  • 1950 USSR & China sign peace treaty

Sports History

1951 Sugar Ray Robinson defeats Jake LaMotta & takes middleweight title

  • 1952 VI Winter Olympic Games open at Oslo, Norway
  • 1952 Giant slalom event for women debuts at the Winter Olympics at Oslo Games; American skier Andrea Mead-Lawrence wins gold ahead of Dagmar Rom of Austria and German Annemarie Buchner

Historic Event

1954 Senator John F. Kennedy appears on "Meet the Press"

  • 1954 WTOC TV channel 11 in Savannah, GA (CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 WFLA (now WXFL) TV channel 8 in Tampa-St Petersburg, Florida (NBC) begins
  • 1956 20th Congress of CPSU opens in Moscow
  • 1956 Indonesia withdraws from Netherlands Indonesian Union
  • 1956 Verhoeven, Nauta and De King/Wijnhout win Dutch 11 city skate
  • 1957 Georgia Senate unanimously approves Sen Leon Butts' bill barring blacks from playing baseball with whites
  • 1958 Arab Federation of Iraq & Jordan forms
  • 1959 $3.6 million heroin seizure in NYC
  • 1960 Marshal Ayub Khan elected President of Pakistan
  • 1960 2nd Daytona 500: Junior Johnson survives a 37 car crash on Turn 4 to win driving a John Masoni owned Chevrolet
  • 1961 Element 103, Lawrencium, 1st produced in Berkeley Calif

Historic Event

1962 US 1st lady Jacqueline Kennedy conducts White House tour on TV

  • 1963 US launches communications satellite Syncom 1

Film Release

1963 "8½" film directed by Federico Fellini, starring Marcello Mastroianni and Claudia Cardinale, is released (Academy Awards Best Foreign Language Film 1964)

  • 1965 7th Daytona 500: Fred Lorenzen wins driving for Holman-Moody; race ends on lap 133 due to persistent rain
  • 1966 Australian currency is decimalised, and decimal currency postage stamps introduced

NBA Record

1966 Wilt Chamberlain breaks NBA career scoring record at 20,884 points

  • 1966 Russian writers Andrei Sinyavsky & Joey Daniel found guilty under the offense of anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda for publishing their satirical writings abroad

Music History

1967 "Respect" single recorded by Aretha Franklin (Billboard Song of the Year 1967)

  • 1967 Latin American nuclear free zone proposal drawn up
  • 1968 WHKY TV channel 14 in Hickory, NC (IND) begins broadcasting
  • 1968 Soviet Union goes 1-2 in pairs figure skating at the Grenoble Winter Olympics; husband & wife team Oleg Protopopov and Liudmila Belousova edge teammates Tatiana Zhuk and Alexander Gorelik
  • 1968 Norwegian 15k Olympic cross country champion Harald Grønningen wins his second gold medal of the Grenoble Winter Olympics in the 4 x 10k relay
  • 1970 "Gantry" closes at George Abbott Theater NYC after 1 performance
  • 1971 Movie "Ben Hur" 1st shown on television

Historic Event

1971 Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in the White House

  • 1971 Tehran agreement signed; oil companies accept 55 percent tax rate, immediate increase in posted prices, and further successive increases

Daytona 500

1971 13th Daytona 500: Richard Petty wins his 3rd Great American Race; goes on to win the inaugural Winston Cup title

  • 1972 The Musical "Grease" 1st opens on Broadway at the Eden Theatre

Music History

1972 John Lennon and Yoko Ono co-host the syndicated "Mike Douglas Show" for entire week, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • 1972 Luna 20 (Russia) launched to orbit & soft landing on Moon
  • 1972 CBS "Late Movie" premieres
  • 1972 Lord Widgery arrives in Coleraine, where the 'Bloody Sunday' (30 January 1972) Tribunal was to be based, and holds a preliminary hearing

Boxing Title Fight

1973 Muhammad Ali beats British heavyweight boxing champion Joe Bugner by unanimous points decision in 12 rounds at Las Vegas Convention Centre

  • 1975 Bomb explodes at annex of Amsterdam metro station
  • 1976 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1978 1st "micro on a chip" patented by Texas Instruments
  • 1978 In girls' HS basketball, Chicago Latin beats Harvard St George
  • 1979 "Whoopee!" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 204 performances
  • 1979 In Kabul, Muslims kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police

Music History

1980 "West Side Story" opens at Minskoff Theater NYC for 341 performances

  • 1980 US launches Solar Maximum Mission Observatory to study solar flares
  • 1980 Soviet cross-country skier Nikolay Zimyatov wins first of 3 gold medals at the Lake Placid Winter Olympics when he takes out 30k event; also wins relay and 50k gold
  • 1981 Stardust Disaster: A fire in a Dublin nightclub kills 48 people
  • 1982 "Night of 100 Stars" takes place at NY's Radio City Music Hall
  • 1982 24th Daytona 500: Bobby Allison wins with margin of victory over Cale Yarborough an impressive 23 seconds, more than half a lap

Olympic Games

1984 Britain's Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean famously dominate the ice dancing at the Sarajevo Winter Olympics; perform to Maurice Ravel's "Bolero" in free dance routine; record 9-of-9 perfect scores for artistic impression

  • 1984 Canadian speed skater Gaétan Boucher takes out the 1,000m gold medal at the Sarajevo Winter Olympics; also wins 1,500m; narrowly beats Soviet skater Sergey Khlebnikov in both events
  • 1985 Hostage CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is released in Beirut

Album Release

1985 "Whitney Houston" debut album by Whitney Houston is released (Grammy Award Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female 1986, Billboard Album of Year 1986)

  • 1986 36th Berlin International Film Festival: "Stammheim" wins the Golden Bear
  • 1987 Detroit Pistons-Philadelphia 76ers game draws crowd of 53,745 at Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac; third largest crowd in NBA history; Pistons win, 125-107
  • 1988 Alfredo Stroessner re-elected President of Paraguay
  • 1988 30th Daytona 500: Bobby Allison beats his son, Davey, to the finish line; remembered for Richard Petty's rollover crash in the tri-oval on lap 106, rolls over 8 times and hit by Brett Bodine; walks away unhurt

Sports History

1988 PGA Seniors' Championship Men's Golf, PGA National GC: South African Gary Player wins his second of 3 event titles by 3 strokes from Chi-Chi Rodríguez

  • 1989 African National Congress (ANC) opens office in Amsterdam
  • 1989 Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 mill damages for Bhopol disaster
  • 1989 World's 1st satellite Skyphone opens

Historic Publication

1989 Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini issues a fatwa calling for the death of Salman Rushdie and his publishers due to his novel "Satanic Verses". A bounty is also placed on his head.

  • 1989 The first of 24 satellites of the Global Positioning System are placed into orbit.
  • 1990 Alan Ayckbourn's "Man of the Moment," premieres in London
  • 1990 Perrier recalls 160 million bottles of sparkling water after traces of benzene, a carcinogen, are found in some
  • 1990 Space probe Voyager 1 takes a photograph of the entire solar system, the images transmitted in real-time with earth a 'pale blue dot'
  • 1991 "Mule Bone" opens at Ethel Barrymore Theater NYC for 67 performances
  • 1991 NL Cy Young winner Doug Drabek wins record $3 mil salary arbitration

Film Release

1991 "The Silence of the Lambs" film based on the book by Thomas Harris, directed by Jonathan Demme and starring Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins, is released (Best Picture 1992)

  • 1992 Andre Cason runs world record 60 m indoor (6.41 sec)
  • 1992 Cease fire in Somalia begins
  • 1992 Kieren John Perkins swims world record 800m freestyle (7:46.60)
  • 1992 Merlene Ottey runs world record 60m indoor (6.96 sec)

Film Release

1992 Comedy film "Wayne's World" starring Mike Myers and Dana Carvey, based on their Saturday Night Live sketch is released

  • 1993 Fire in Linxi department store in Tangshan China, kills 79

Daytona 500

1993 35th Daytona 500: Dale Jarrett, driving for Joe Gibbs Racing, wins from Dale Earnhardt and Geoff Bodine

  • 1994 Alexander Golubev skates Olympic record 500m (36.33)

Sports Awards

1994 2nd ESPY Awards: Barry Bonds, Julie Krone win

  • 1995 Wellington 2-498d & 4-475 beat Canterbury 496 & 2-476d

NBA Finals

1995 The Portland Trail Blazers trade Clyde Drexler to the Houston Rockets, who end up winning the 1995 NBA Championship

Television Debut

1996 "Live by Request" debuts on the A&E Network, based on singer Tony Bennett's idea, the set list was determined by viewer phone calls; Bennett starred in the first episode, wins an Emmy Award (Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program)

  • 1998 Authorities in the United States announce that Eric Robert Rudolph is a suspect in an Alabama abortion clinic bombing.
  • 1998 29th NAACP Image Awards: "Soul Food" wins Outstanding Motion Picture

Daytona 500

1999 41st Daytona 500: Jeff Gordon wins; first Daytona 500 pole sitter to win the race since Bill Elliott in 1987

  • 1999 30th NAACP Image Awards: "How Stella Got Her Groove Back" wins Outstanding Motion Picture
  • 2000 The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.

Sports Awards

2000 8th ESPY Awards: Tiger Woods, Mia Hamm win

  • 2002 Fishing vessel Tullaghmurray Lass sinks off the coast of Kilkeel, County Down, Northern Ireland killing three members of the same family on board
  • 2004 In a suburb of Moscow, Russia, the roof of the Transvaal water park collapses, killing more than 25 people, and wounding more than 100 others.
  • 2005 Lebanon's former Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri, is assassinated, prompting the country to fall into chaos.
  • 2005 Seven people are killed and 151 wounded in a series of bombings by suspected Al-Qaeda-linked militants that hit the Philippines' Makati financial district in Metro Manila, Davao City, and General Santos City.
  • 2008 Northern Illinois University shooting: a gunman opened fire in a lecture hall of the DeKalb County, Illinois university resulting in 24 casualties; 6 fatalities (including gunman) and 18 injured.
  • 2008 39th NAACP Image Awards: "The Great Debaters" wins Outstanding Motion Picture

Olympic Gold

2010 Alexandre Bilodeau wins the Gold Medal in the freestyle skiing men's moguls event, becoming the first Canadian to win a Gold Medal during a Canadian-hosted Olympics

  • 2010 59th NBA All-Star Game, Cowboys Stadium, Arlington, TX: East beats West, 141-139; MVP: Dwyane Wade, Miami Heat, G
  • 2010 52nd Daytona 500: Jamie McMurray, driving for Earnhardt Ganassi Racing wins; Mark Martin, oldest polesitter in Daytona 500 history at 51 years, 27 days
  • 2010 America's Cup: Team USA defeats Alinghi 2-0 to win in Spain
  • 2011 The 2011 Bahraini uprising commenced.
  • 2013 A suicide bombing kills 4 police officer and injures 5 in Dagestan
  • 2013 Oscar Pistorius, a South African amputee sprinter, is charged with the murder of Reeva Steenkamp
  • 2013 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, will be switched off for two years for upgrading
  • 2013 The recession in the Eurozone economy deepens with a fall of 0.6% in GDP in the fourth quarter of 2012
  • 2013 Japan remains in recession as the economy shrinks by a further 0.1%
  • 2014 Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta resigns after less than a year in office