On This Day

Historical Events on January 1

Events 1 - 200 of 495

  • 153 BC Roman consuls begin their year in office
  • 45 BC The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time
  • 1 Origin of the Christian Era
  • 69 Roman garrison of Mainz uprising
  • 89 Governor Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes emperor of Rome

Roman Empire

104 Triumphal procession for the Roman General Gaius Marius with the defeated Numidian King Jugurtha led in chains though Rome

Historic Event

177 Commodus, son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius becomes consul for the first time - at 15 then youngest ever in Roman history

  • 313 Start of Roman (Pontifical) Indiction
  • 404 Last gladiator competition in Rome
  • 630 Prophet Muhammad sets out with an army 10,000 strong to conquer Mecca
  • 722 Hofmeier Charles Martel flees from bishop Willibrord
  • 990 Russia adopts Julian calendar
  • 1259 Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris
  • 1430 Jews of Sicily are no longer required to attend conversionist services
  • 1438 Albrecht II von Habsburg becomes King of Hungary
  • 1494 Juw Dekama elected potentate of Frisia
  • 1502 Portuguese navigators discover Rio de Janeiro

Historic Event

1504 French King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta

Historic Event

1515 Francis, Duke of Angouleme succeeds King Louis XII as Francis I of France

  • 1515 Jews are expelled from Laibach in Austria
  • 1527 Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as king of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin
  • 1573 Geuzen sets fire to Woudrichem
  • 1600 Scotland begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of 25 March.
  • 1622 Papal Chancery adopts Jan 1 as beginning of the year (was Mar 25)

Royal Coronation

1651 Charles II Stuart crowned king of Scotland

Historic Event

1660 1st entry in English civil servant Samuel Pepys' diary

  • 1660 General Moncks army battles with the Tweed on way to London
  • 1660 Thomas Fairfax's New Model Army occupies York
  • 1660 Academia de Bellas Artes is founded in Seville with painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo its first president

Historic Event

1672 Jean Racine's "Bajazet," premieres in Paris

  • 1673 Regular mail delivery begins between NY & Boston
  • 1675 Don Carlos de Gurrea/Aragon becomes Spanish land guardian of S Neth
  • 1689 Pro-James II-earl of Danby occupies York
  • 1700 Protestant Western Europe (except England) begins using the Gregorian calendar
  • 1700 Russia begins using the Anno Domini era and no longer uses the Anno Mundi era of the Byzantine Empire
  • 1707 John V succeeds his father Pedro II as King of Portugal
  • 1710 Paris merchant Jean Marius obtains 5-year royal privilege for his invention of a folding umbrella - first in Europe

Historic Event

1724 Glassblower Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit proposes system for making thermometers and the Fahrenheit temperature scale in a paper to the Royal Society of London and is elected a fellow on its basis

  • 1739 J B C Bouvet de Lozier discovers Bouvet Island, near Antarctica

Historic Event

1758 The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature establish the "starting point" for standardized species names across the animal kingdom, based on the binomial nomenclature by Carolus Linnaeus 10th edition of Systema Naturae

  • 1770 Date of action in the opera "Madeleine"
  • 1772 First traveler's cheques go on sale in London, can be used in 90 European cities

Historic Event

1775 English potter Josiah Wedgwood writes that he has developed his famous 'wedgwood blue' color in a letter to Thomas Bentley [1]

Historic Event

1776 General George Washington hoists Continental Union Flag

Historic Event

1781 1,500 soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey as part of the Pennsylvania (Continentals; Regiment) Mutiny of 1781.

  • 1785 "Daily Universal Register" (Times of London) publishes 1st issue
  • 1788 London's Daily Universal Registrar becomes the Times
  • 1788 Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipate their slaves
  • 1797 Albany replaces New York City as capital of New York
  • 1798 Russia appoints 1st Jewish censor to censor Hebrew books
  • 1800 Dutch East Indies Company dissolves

United Kingdom Forms

1801 The Irish Parliament votes to join the Kingdom of Great Britain, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

  • 1801 The dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Italian monk Giuseppe Piazzi
  • 1803 Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam.
  • 1804 Haiti gains independence from France (National Day), making it the only state ever founded by former slaves and without slavery
  • 1807 Curacao is taken by English (until March, 1816)
  • 1808 African Benevolent Society (education) forms
  • 1808 Congress prohibits importation of slaves
  • 1808 Sierra Leone becomes a British colony
  • 1809 Holland Brigade under Brigadier-General David Hendrik Chassé reaches Madrid (Napoleonic Wars)
  • 1814 Field marshal Blucher's troops cross the Rhine at Kaub
  • 1818 Official reopening of the White House

Historic Publication

1818 Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus" is published anonymously by the small London publishing house of Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, & Jones

  • 1826 Baron Van der Capellen resigns as governor of Dutch-Indies
  • 1827 Dutch Trade Company NHM gets opium monopoly on Java

Historic Publication

1831 William Lloyd Garrison publishes 1st issue of abolitionist journal, "The Liberator"; publication continued until the 13th Amendment abolished slavery in 1865

  • 1833 British government demands Falkland islands
  • 1833 Curacao census: 2,602 whites, 6,531 free people, 5,894 slaves
  • 1834 German Tolunie goes into effect
  • 1838 1st official horse race in South Australia-Adelaide
  • 1840 1st recorded bowling match in US, Knickerbocker Alleys, NYC
  • 1842 1st illustrated weekly magazine in US publishes 1st issue, NYC
  • 1844 1st edition of New Rotterdam's Daily (3x per week)
  • 1845 The Cobble Hill Tunnel in Brooklyn is completed
  • 1846 Yucatan declares independence from Mexico
  • 1847 Michigan is 1st state to abolish capital punishment
  • 1847 Neth's Haarlem's Current newspaper starts publishing
  • 1848 Britain takes Mosquito Coast from Nicaragua
  • 1851 City of Glasgow steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line
  • 1852 1st US public bath opens in New York City
  • 1852 National debt of Britain & Ireland is 765,126,582 pounds
  • 1852 Netherlands begins issuing postage stamps
  • 1853 1st practical fire engine (horse-drawn) in US enters service
  • 1854 Lincoln University, a black college, chartered (Oxford, Pennsylvania)
  • 1858 Canada begins using decimal currency system
  • 1860 Slavery ends of in Neth Indies
  • 1861 Porfirio Diaz conquers Mexico City
  • 1862 1st US income tax (3% of incomes > $600, 5% of incomes > $10,000)
  • 1863 1st homestead under the Homestead Act claimed, near Beatrice, Nebraska
  • 1863 Battle of Galveston, Texas-Confederates recapture the city

Music History

1863 Franz Schubert's "Missa Solemnis," premieres in Leipzig

  • 1865 -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign

Historic Event

1869 War of the Triple Alliance: Paraguay's capital Asunción falls to Brazilian forces led by General João de Souza da Fonseca Costa

  • 1871 Belgium disbands salt tax
  • 1872 Moerdijk railway bridge over Hollands Diep, South Holland opens - then longest bridge in Europe
  • 1873 Origin of Japanese Era
  • 1874 New York City annexes the Bronx
  • 1876 The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.

Historic Event

1877 Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India

Music Premiere

1879 Johannes Brahms' Violin Concerto in D major premieres in Leipzig

  • 1880 Building of Panama Canal begins

Historic Event

1881 Dr John Watson is first introduced to Sherlock Holmes in story written by Arthur Conan Doyle

Appointment of Interest

1881 Ambrose Bierce is appointed editor of "The Wasp" magazine

  • 1890 The Rose Parade, then known as the Tournament of Roses, is first held in Pasadena, California
  • 1890 Eritrea is consolidated into a colony by the Italian government.
  • 1891 French troops occupy Nioro, West-Sudan, 3000 killed
  • 1891 King Pakketvaart sails to Neth Indies
  • 1892 Ellis Island opens as a US immigration inspection station - it would go on to be the gateway to the US for more than 12 million people
  • 1893 1st US college extension courses for credit, University of Chicago
  • 1893 Japan adopts the Gregorian calendar
  • 1893 The railway line from Germiston to Pretoria, South Africa, is opened to traffic
  • 1894 Denmark adopts Mid-European time
  • 1894 Manchester Ship Canal in England opens to traffic
  • 1894 South African Amateur Athletic Union is founded in Johannesburg
  • 1895 Norway adopts Mid-European time

Historic Event

1895 Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite

Scientific Discovery

1896 German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen announces his discovery of x-rays

  • 1897 1st football game between black colleges-Atlanta U 10, Tuskegee 0
  • 1898 Brooklyn merges with NY to form present City of NY
  • 1898 Lightship replaces whistling buoy at mouth of San Francisco Bay
  • 1898 Gabriele D'Annunzio's "Sogno d'un mattino di primavera," premieres in Rome
  • 1899 Cuba liberated from Spanish rule by the US, American occupation continues till 1902
  • 1900 1st date in John dos Passos' USA trilogy (The 42nd Parallel)
  • 1900 Compulsory education in Netherlands goes into effect
  • 1900 British protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria are established
  • 1901 The Commonwealth of Australia is formed when the British (Imperial) Parliament Act, the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, comes into effect
  • 1902 Nathan Stubblefield makes 1st public demonstration of radio, Pennsylvania
  • 1902 1st Rose Bowl, Tournament Park, Pasadena, California: Michigan beats Stanford, 49-0; MVP: Neil Snow, Michigan, FB

Royal Coronation

1903 In Delhi, a great durbar, or formal reception, marks the coronation of King Edward VII as Emperor of India; the British release some 16,000 prisoners in honor of the occasion

Historic Event

1903 President Theodore Roosevelt and Edith Roosevelt unveil new renovations to The White House, including a new West Wing

  • 1904 Neth Indies colony begins opium production
  • 1905 9 hour work day for diamond miners
  • 1906 Dutch law makes driver's license mandatory
  • 1906 The poll tax of £1 per head on all adult male inhabitants of Natal, South Africa, except indentured Indians and married Blacks, imposed by the Natal parliament in 1905, becomes payable.
  • 1907 US President Theodore Roosevelt shakes a record 8,513 hands in 1 day
  • 1907 Joe Gans lands a devastating right to the head of Canadian challenger Kid Herman to retain his world lightweight boxing title with an 8th round knockout in Tonopah, Nevada
  • 1908 Jack Hobbs makes his international debut in England's 2nd Test win over Australia at the MCG, scoring 83 and 28 in his two innings. Goes onto become the leading run scorer and century maker in 1st-class cricket history.
  • 1909 American Robert Fowler runs then world record marathon (2:52:45.4) at Yonkers, NY
  • 1909 Drilling begins on the Lakeview Gusher
  • 1909 In Great Britain, the Old Age Pension Law is finally instituted, providing pensions for every British subject over 70 with low income
  • 1910 England cricket underhand bowler George Simpson-Hayward takes 6-43 on debut with underarm lobs in 1st Test against South Africa in Johannesburg; SA wins by 19 runs

Historic Event

1910 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to rear-admiral

  • 1911 Belgian Mining law introduces 9½ hour work day
  • 1911 South Australia transfers Northern Territory to federal government
  • 1912 1st running of San Francisco's famed "Bay to Breakers" footrace (7.63 miles/12.3 km); first winner Robert Vlught 44:10

Historic Event

1912 Sun Yat-sen forms the Republic of China

  • 1913 US Post office begins parcel post deliveries
  • 1913 Australasian Championships Men's Tennis, Hastings, NZ: Irishman James Cecil Parke beats Alfred Beamish of England 3-6, 6-3, 1-6, 6-1, 7-5
  • 1914 1st scheduled airline flight, St Petersburg-Tampa (Tony Jannus pilot)
  • 1914 Klaas ter Laan becomes The Netherlands 1st socialist mayor (Zaandam)
  • 1914 Northern & Southern Nigeria united in British colony of Nigeria
  • 1914 The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line becomes the world's first scheduled airline, covering the 18 mile distance 23 minutes. Service ceased after three months.
  • 1915 DW Griffith shows "Clansman" at a sneak preview
  • 1915 Jews of Laibach Austria expelled
  • 1916 1st issue of "Journal of Negro History" published
  • 1916 1st first blood transfusion using stored and cooled blood is performed

Historic Event

1917 T. E. Lawrence joins the forces of the Arabian sheik Feisal al Husayn, beginning his adventures that will lead him to Damascus by October, 1918

  • 1918 Last day of the Julian calendar in Finland
  • 1919 Belorussian SSR established

Historic Event

1919 Edsel Ford succeeds his father, Henry Ford, as president of the Ford Motor Company

  • 1919 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to full admiral
  • 1920 The Belorussian Communist Organisation is founded as a separate party.
  • 1922 Vancouver, BC starts driving on the right side of road
  • 1922 Coal miners in the Transvaal, South Africa, embark on a strike in response to a wage cut, which quickly escalated into a large-scale revolt against the government, known as the Rand Rebellion.
  • 1923 Union of Socialist Soviet Republics established
  • 1923 Britain's Railways are grouped into the Big Four: LNER, GWR, SR, and LMSR.
  • 1924 Grossdeutsche Volksgemeinschaft/Volkische Block replaces NSDAP
  • 1925 Norway's capital Christiania changes name to Oslo
  • 1925 Australian cricketer Bill Ponsford becomes the first batsman to score a century in each of his first 2 Tests when he hits 128 against England in the 2nd Test in Melbourne; Australia wins by 81 runs
  • 1926 Flood in Rhine strikes Cologne
  • 1927 Communist uprising in West Java
  • 1927 Brooklyn announces release of future Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder Zack Wheat after 18 consecutive seasons with Robins; Wheat hits .324 in final season with Philadelphia A's
  • 1927 Turkey adopts the Gregorian calendar: December 18, 1926 (Julian), is immediately followed by January 1, 1927 (Gregorian).
  • 1928 1st US air-conditioned office building opens, San Antonio
  • 1928 Algemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep (AVRO) begins broadcasting (Neth)
  • 1930 Earl Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to 2nd lieutenant
  • 1930 Jurgens & Van den Berg merge with Lever Brothers to form Unilever
  • 1932 Jacob Cocey Sr chosen as Mayor of Massillon, Ohio

Historic Publication

1932 Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt publishes Himmler's wedding laws

  • 1932 The United States Post Office Department issues a set of 12 stamps commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth.
  • 1934 Alcatraz officially becomes a federal prison
  • 1934 Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (US bank guarantor) effective
  • 1934 International Telecommunication Union established
  • 1934 Nazi Germany passes the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring".
  • 1935 Associated Press inaugurates Wirephoto
  • 1935 Eastern Airlines hires Eddie Rickenbacker as GM
  • 1935 President Mustapha Kemal Pasha names himself "Ataturk: Father of Turkey"
  • 1935 1st Sugar Bowl: Tulane beats Temple, 20-14
  • 1935 1st Orange Bowl: Bucknell beats Miami (FL), 26-0
  • 1936 1st newspaper to microfilm its current issues, NY Herald Tribune
  • 1937 Anastasio Somoza García becomes President of Nicaragua
  • 1937 Count Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to captain
  • 1937 US Army Air Corps physiological research laboratory completed, Ohio
  • 1937 Safety glass in vehicle windscreens becomes mandatory in Great Britain.

Historic Event

1939 Hewlett-Packard is founded by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard in a garage in Palo Alto, California "the birthplace of Silicon Valley"

  • 1939 Sydney, Australia, swelters in 45 ˚C (113 ˚F) heat, a record for the city.
  • 1941 Netherlands begins taxing wages

Appointment of Interest

1941 Russian general Georgy Zhukov appointed chief of general staff