On This Day

Historical Events on July 16

  • 463 Start of Lunar Cycle of Hilarius
  • 622 Muslim Era begins - Muhammad begins flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijra)
  • 1054 Beginning of the Great Schism between Western and Eastern churches when Roman Cardinal Humbert issues bull of excommunication against Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, on the altar of the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople
  • 1099 Crusaders herd Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue & set it afire
  • 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa [Battle of Al-Uqab]: combined Christian army defeats Almohad Muslim force in a turning point for Muslim power on Iberian peninsula
  • 1251 The Virgin Mary gives Simon Stock a Brown Scapular (legend)
  • 1338 The six Electors of the Holy Roman Empire signed the Agreement of Rhense confirming Emperor Louis IV.
  • 1377 Richard II aged 10 crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, succeeding his grandfather Edward III

Historic Event

1429 Joan of Arc and the French army enter the city of Rheims

  • 1439 Kissing is banned in England (to stop the Black Death from spreading)

Battle of Interest

1465 Battle at Montlhéry between Louis XI and the League of the Public Weal

The Protestant Reformation

1519 Public debate between Martin Luther and theologian Johann Eck at Pleissenburg Castle in Liepzig, during which Luther denies the divine right of the Pope

  • 1548 La Paz, Bolivia, is founded
  • 1573 Alva demands submission of Zealand/Holland
  • 1618 Captain John Gilbert patents 1st dredger in Britain

1st European Banknote

1661 1st banknotes in Europe are issued by Bank of Stockholm

  • 1683 Turkish troops under Kara Mustafa reach Vienna
  • 1683 Manchu/Chinese Qing Dynasty naval forces under commander Shi Lang defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands.

Historic Event

1755 John Adams graduates Harvard

Historic Event

1769 Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego the 1st mission in California

Music Premiere

1782 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera "Die Entführung aus dem Serail" premieres in Vienna with Mozart conducting

Historic Event

1789 French King Louis XVI reinstates Jacques Necker as finance minister following riots at his dismissal

  • 1790 Congress declares the city of Washington in the District of Columbia, the permanent capital of the United States
  • 1798 US Public Health Service forms & US Marine Hospital authorized
  • 1809 La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva led by Pedro Domingo Murillo, the 1st independent government in Spanish America

Historic Event

1819 Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen sets sail to explore Antarctica for Tsar Alexander I

  • 1856 Statue of Laurens Jansz Coster unveiled in Haarlem
  • 1857 Sir Henry Havelock arrives at Battle of Cawnpore
  • 1861 Manassas Campaign [->JUL 22]

Historic Event

1862 David Farragut is 1st Rear Admiral in US Navy

  • 1863 Utrecht-Swells railway opens
  • 1867 Amstel Hotel, "the dignified old lady" opens in Amsterdam
  • 1867 D.R. Averill of Ohio patents ready-mixed paint
  • 1867 Joseph Monier patents reinforced concrete
  • 1880 Dr. Emily Stowe becomes the first woman licenced to practise medicine in Canada.
  • 1883 Wimbledon Men's Tennis: William Renshaw wins third straight Wimbledon title; beats twin brother Ernest Renshaw 2-6, 6-3, 6-3, 4-6, 6-3
  • 1888 Wimbledon Men's Tennis: 3-time runner-up Ernest Renshaw wins his lone major title; beats defending champion Herbert Lawford 6-3, 7-5, 6-0
  • 1894 Many negro miners in Alabama killed by striking white miners
  • 1894 Treaty of Aoki-Kimberley signed between Japan & England
  • 1895 Lancashire batsman Archie MacLaren scores the first-ever quadruple-hundred (424) in first-class cricket against Somerset at Taunton
  • 1896 Indian born K S Ranjitsinhji debuts for England v Australia in 2nd Test at Old Trafford; first Indian to play Test cricket

Historic Event

1897 The South African Committee, investigating the Jameson Raid releases its report finding that it was conducted almost implicitly through the support and encouragement of Cecil Rhodes and the mining houses in the Transvaal

  • 1900 A report appears in London that all foreigners in Peking, China, have been massacred. Although soon exposed as false, the report helps mobilize support for relief of foreigners
  • 1900 Russia launch an offensive against the Chinese in Manchuria
  • 1901 The Fawcett Commission headed by Millicent Fawcett is established as a result of an outcry against the treatment of Afrikaners in concentration camps during the South African War
  • 1902 John McGraw officially becomes manager of MLB New York Giants; 30 year tenure begins (1902-32)
  • 1904 Islands of Manu'a group (Samoa) ceded to US by their chiefs
  • 1909 Det & Wash play longest scoreless game in AL history-18 innings
  • 1912 Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patents by B A Fiske
  • 1914 Socialist conference in Brussels (Kautsky, Trotski & Rosa Luxemburg)
  • 1920 15th Davis Cup: USA beats Australasia in Auckland (5-0)
  • 1920 Gen Amos Fries appointed 1st US army chemical warfare chief

Historic Event

1921 Encouraged by the British, King Constantine of Greece launches a drive to take Asia Minor from nationalists under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

  • 1924 Conference over German recovery payments begins in London
  • 1924 NY Giants George Kelly is 1st to hit HRs in 6 cons games
  • 1925 The first parliament in Iraq opened by King Feisal in Baghdad
  • 1926 Jaspar government asks authority to save Belgian franc
  • 1926 National Geographic takes 1st natural-color undersea photos
  • 1927 Augusto César Sandino begins 5½ year war against US occupation of Nicaragua
  • 1935 First automatic parking meter in the United States is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • 1936 1st x-ray photo of arterial circulation, Rochester, NY
  • 1936 NY Giants are 10½ games back in NL, & go on to win pennant

PGA Championship

1938 PGA Championship Men's Golf, Shawnee CC: 1934 champion Paul Runyan dominates the heavily favoured Sam Snead, 8 & 7; largest victory margin ever in the event's match play format

Historic Event

1940 Adolf Hitler orders preparations for the invasion of Britain (Operation Sealion)

  • 1940 NSB'er Woudenberg appointed as NVV-trustee
  • 1941 100°F (38°C) highest temperature ever recorded in Seattle, Washington

Sports History

1941 Joe DiMaggio goes 3 for 4, hitting in his 56th straight game

  • 1942 French police arrest 13,152 Jews in Paris
  • 1942 Jews transported from Holland to extermination camp
  • 1944 Dodgers score 8 unearned runs against Braves to win 8-5 & break their 16-game losing streak, they will lose another 5 in a row
  • 1945 Australian Services win 3rd Victory Test Cricket by 4 wickets
  • 1945 Cruiser Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with atom bomb
  • 1946 Attempt made to recall Mayor Lapham (1st time in San Francisco history)
  • 1946 US court martial sentences 46 members of the SS to death (Battle of Bulge crimes) in Dachau
  • 1947 Bobo Newsom wins 200th game, 1st as a Yankee & Yanks 18th straight In nightcap Vic Rashi extends streak to 19

Sports History

1948 MLB manager merry-go-round: Philadelphia Phillies - Ben Chapman out / Eddie Sawyer in; NY Giants - Mel Ott out / Leo Durocher in; Brooklyn Dodgers - Durocher out / Burt Shotton in

  • 1950 Single day 16 team HR record set at 37 (NL-25, AL-12)
  • 1950 FIFA World Cup Final, Estádio do Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Alcides Ghiggia scores a 79th minute winner as Uruguay beats Brazil, 2-1
  • 1951 King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates
  • 1951 Len Hutton scores his 100th 100, Yorkshire v Surrey at The Oval

Historic Publication

1951 Novel "Catcher in Rye" by J. D. Salinger published by Little Brown and Company

  • 1953 KROC (now KTTC) TV channel 10 in Rochester, Minnesota (NBC) 1st broadcast
  • 1955 "Golden Horseshoe Revue" 1st of 50,000+ performances, Disneyland
  • 1955 Juan Manuel Fangio of Argentina clinches his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by finishing 2nd to fellow Mercedes driver Sterling Moss in the British Grand Prix at Aintree
  • 1956 Detroit Tigers & Briggs Stadium sold for then record $5.5 million
  • 1956 Karelo-Finnish SSR becomes part of Russian SFSR
  • 1956 King Faisal of Iraq begins visit to England
  • 1956 Last Ringling Bros, Barnum & Bailey Circus under a canvas tent
  • 1960 205,000 (record sports attend) see Brazil-Uruguay World Cup soccer
  • 1960 George Crowe sets record of 12 pinch hit HRs with a runner on
  • 1961 Ralph Boston of US, sets then long jump record at 27' 2"

Sports History

1961 48th Tour de France: Jacques Anquetil of France scores his second Tour general classification category title

  • 1963 Amazon river carries 190,000 m3/sec of water (record)
  • 1964 Republican convention selects Barry Goldwater as presidential candidate
  • 1965 Mont Blanc Road tunnel between France & Italy opens
  • 1966 "Half a Sixpence" closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 512 performances
  • 1966 Number of banned persons in South Africa totals 936; the individuals are banned under various laws, most prominently the Suppression of Communism and Riotous Assembly Acts
  • 1966 Nigeria becomes the first Anglophone independent state in Africa to become an associate member of European Economic Community

LPGA Championship

1967 LPGA Championship Women's Golf, Pleasant Valley CC: Kathy Whitworth wins by 1 stroke from Shirley Englehorn

  • 1967 Prison brawl ignites barracks, killing 37 (Jay, Florida)
  • 1967 Monkees perform at Forest Hills NY, Jimi Hendrix is opening act

Baseball Record

1969 Minnesota Twins' Rod Carew steals home for his career best 7th time of the season, against Chicago

  • 1970 Iraq's constitution goes into effect
  • 1970 Reds spoil Pirates debut in Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium, 3-2
  • 1970 9th British Commonwealth Games open in Edinburgh, Scotland

Historic Event

1971 Franco appoints prince Juan Carlos as deputy in Spain

  • 1971 The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) withdraw from Stormont (North Ireland Parliament) after no inquiry is announced into the shooting dead of Seamus Cusack and Desmond Beattie
  • 1972 Dimitrios Papadopoulos becomes 269th patriarch of Constantinople
  • 1972 Smokey Robinson & Miracles final live performance
  • 1973 During Watergate hearings, Butterfield reveals existence of tapes

Election of Interest

1975 Major League Baseball owners re-elect Commissioner Bowie Kuhn to a 7-year term

  • 1976 Rock duo Loggins & Messina break-up after 6 years
  • 1977 Janelle Commissiong, of Trinidad & Tobago crowned 26th Miss Universe

Historic Event

1979 Premier/pres al-Bakr of Iraq is succeeded by Saddam Hussein

  • 1980 Polish railway workers block railway to Russia

Presidential Convention

1980 Ronald Reagan nominated for US President by Republicans in Detroit

  • 1981 India performs nuclear Test
  • 1981 Shukuni Sasaki spins 72 plates simultaneously

Historic Event

1982 George P. Shultz is sworn in as the 60th US Secretary of State

  • 1982 NASA launches Landsat 4 to thematic map the Earth
  • 1982 Sun Myung Moon sentenced to 18 months for tax fraud
  • 1982 CDC report on AIDS symptoms in three hemophiliacs
  • 1983 Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities in Britain's worst helicopter accident
  • 1985 56th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 6-1 at Humphrey Metrodome, Minn
  • 1985 All star MVP: LaMarr Hoyt (San Diego Padres)
  • 1985 Bill to abolish Greater London Council receives royal assent
  • 1987 Great Britain performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1987 Said Aouita runs world record 2000m (4:50.81)

Baseball Record

1987 Don Mattingly hits his 4th grand slam of season & ties AL record of homers in 6 straight games (on way to tie major league record of 8)

Sports History

1988 Carl Lewis runs a wind-assisted 100m in 9.78 sec

  • 1988 Florence Joyner runs 100m in women's world record 10.49 seconds
  • 1988 Jackie Joyner-Kersee sets women's heptathlete record of 7,215 pts
  • 1988 San Antonio (Texas League) beats Jackson 1-0 in 26 innings

US Women's Golf Open

1989 US Open Women's Golf, Indianwood G & CC: Betsy King wins the first of her 2 consecutive titles, 4 strokes ahead of runner-up Nancy Lopez

  • 1989 South Africa's largest labour federation, the Congress of South African Trade Unions, holds its third annual congress and intensifies its campaign against apartheid
  • 1990 400 die in a (7.7) earthquake in the Philippines
  • 1990 Bridgette LeAnn Wilson, 17, of Oregon, 8th crowned Miss Teen USA
  • 1990 Civil trial by parents of Suicide victims against Judas Priest begins
  • 1990 NYC's Empire State Building catches fire-no fatalities
  • 1990 Rick Dee's "Into the Night" premieres on ABC-TV
  • 1990 Ukraine declares independence

Historic Event

1990 The ANC send a report on police violence to President F. W. de Klerk and demanded an end to "the shocking inhumanity" of police action in rural areas of South Africa

  • 1993 President Lissouba calls emergency rule in Congo-Brazzaville
  • 1993 S van Ruysdael's "Winter Landscape" sold for £705,500 in London
  • 1993 SF outfielder Darren Lewis sets record of 267 consecutive errorless games
  • 1994 "Sisters Rosensweig" closes at Barrymore Theater NYC after 556 performances
  • 1994 Baseball Night in America premieres (no Saturday day games)
  • 1994 Comet Shoemaker-Levy 1st collides with Jupiter (collisions continue until 22 July)
  • 1994 Shreveport Pirates lose first CFL home game, 35-34 to the Toronto Argonauts at Independence Stadium in Shreveport, Louisiana
  • 1994 Spanish fishing boats sink a French fishing boat over fishing rights
  • 1995 "Buttons on Broadway" closes at Ambassador Theater NYC after 40 performances
  • 1995 "Chronicles of a Death Foretold" closes at Plymouth NYC after 55 performances

Sports History

1995 Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, TPC of Michigan: J C Snead wins his lone career major title as he birdies first playoff hole against Jack Nicklaus

  • 1995 US Open Women's Golf, The Broadmoor: Annika Sörenstam of Sweden wins her first of 10 LPGA major titles with a 1 shot victory over Meg Mallon

Plane Crash

1999 John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in a plane crash off the coast of Martha's Vineyard. The Piper Saratoga aircraft was piloted by Kennedy.

Sports History

2000 Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, TPC of Michigan: Raymond Floyd wins his 4th and final Champions Tour major by 1 stroke from Larry Nelson and Dana Quigley

Film Premiere

2001 "Jurassic Park III", starring Sam Neill and William H Macy, premieres in the US

  • 2004 Millennium Park, considered the first and most ambitious architectural project in the early 21st century for Chicago, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.

Film & TV History

2004 Martha Stewart is sentenced to five months in prison plus five months in home confinement for lying to federal investigators

Historic Publication

2005 "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince", the 6th book in the series by J. K. Rowling, is published worldwide. 9 million copies sell in 24 hrs

  • 2006 14th ESPY Awards: Lance Armstrong, Annika Sörenstam win
  • 2006 Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, TPC of Michigan: Bobby Wadkins his lone career major title by 1 stroke from Jim Thorpe
  • 2007 An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 and aftershock of 6.6 occurs off the Niigata coast, Japan, killing 8 people with at least 800 injured and damaging a nuclear power plant. See 2007 Chūetsu offshore earthquake.
  • 2008 79th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 4-3 at Yankee Stadium, New York
  • 2008 Malaysian politician Anwar Ibrahim is arrested on sodomy charges in Malaysia
  • 2011 NASA's Dawn space probe enters orbit around the protoplanet Vesta

Film Premiere

2012 "The Dark Knight Rises", directed by Christopher Nolan, starring Christian Bale and Anne Hathaway, premieres in New York

  • 2013 27 children are killed and 25 are hospitalized after eating lunch contaminated with insecticide in India
  • 2013 84th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 3-0 at Citi Field, New York

Historic Event

2014 Bashar al-Assad is sworn in for a third term as President of Syria

  • 2014 Death toll within Gaza surpasses 200 people following air strikes by Israel
  • 2014 Hamas and Islamic Jihad offer Israel a 10-year truce with 10 conditions, which include lifting the blockade and the release of prisoners; it is rejected
  • 2014 Israel intensifies strikes on Gaza
  • 2015 Scientists reveal 1st close-up pictures of Pluto, sent by the New Horizons probe
  • 2015 Shootings in Chattanooga at a US military recruitment centre and a naval reserve training center kill 5 and injure others

Historic Event

2016 Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump announces Indiana governor Mike Pence as his Vice Presidential running mate

  • 2017 BBC announces first ever female Doctor Who will be played by Jodie Whittaker

Wimbledon Men's Tennis

2017 Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Roger Federer beats Marin Čilić 6-3, 6-1, 6-4 for a record 8th Wimbledon men's title

  • 2017 US Open Women's Golf, Trump National GC: Park Sung-hyun wins by 2 shots from fellow South Korean Choi Hye-jin

Sports History

2017 Senior Players Championship Men's Golf, Caves Valley GC: Scott McCarron wins his lone career major title by 1 stroke from Brandt Jobe and Germany's Bernhard Langer

Summit of Interest

2018 US President Donald Trump appears to accept the word of Russian President Vladimir Putin over US intelligence services about Russian meddling in the 2016 US election, in an interview after the two leader's Helsinki Summit

  • 2018 12 new moons discovered orbiting Jupiter bringing planet's moon total to 79, by scientists at Carnegie Institution for Science
  • 2018 Historic cemetery (1878-1911) announced discovered near Houston, Texas, containing 95 remains though to be African Americans forced into labour