On This Day

Historical Events on July 23

  • 636 Arabs gain control of most of Palestine from the Byzantine Empire
  • 685 John V begins his reign as Catholic Pope

Historic Siege

1148 Crusaders begin siege of Damascus during Second Crusade (abandoned 28 July)

  • 1215 Frederick II crowned King of the Romans (King of the Germans) in Aachen
  • 1253 Jews are expelled from Vienne, France by order of Pope Innocent IV
  • 1298 Rindfleisch ("Beef") Persecutions - Jewish community in Wurzburg Germany massacred

Victory in Battle

1453 Battle at Gavere: Philip the Good beats Gentse rebellion

Historic Event

1532 Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League sign Peace of Nuremberg

  • 1540 Turkey recognizes Janos Sigismund Zapolyai as vassal king of Hungary
  • 1558 Battle of Grevelingen: Lamoraal, Count of Egmont beat France
  • 1572 William of Orange's troops occupy Roermond on the Spanjaarden
  • 1594 Dutch city Groningen held by Spain surrenders to Dutch and England army led by Maurice of Orange
  • 1599 Italian painter Caravaggio gets his first public commission, the Contarelli Chapel in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  • 1632 Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe, France
  • 1664 4 British ships to drive Dutch out of NY, arrive in Boston

Historic Event

1745 Charles Edward Stuart, "the Young Pretender", lands at Eriskay Island, Hebrides

  • 1764 James Otis publishes views on taxation without representation
  • 1793 The Prussians conquer Mainz

Victory in Battle

1798 Napoleon Bonaparte captures Alexandria, Egypt

  • 1803 Republican Robert Emmet leads Irish rebellion against the British Crown in Dublin
  • 1812 Battle of Mogilev: first significant fighting during Napoleon's invasion of Russia results in minor French victory
  • 1827 1st US swimming school opens (Boston, Massachusetts)

1st U.S. Typographer

1829 William Austin Burt patents America's first "typographer" (typewriter)

  • 1833 Cornerstones are laid for the construction of the Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio
  • 1834 HMS Beagle anchors in Bay of Valparaiso (Chile)
  • 1840 Union Act passed by British Parliament, uniting Upper & Lower Canada
  • 1848 Battle of Custoza-Italian War of Independence, starts
  • 1850 17th Postmaster General: Nathan K. Hall of NY takes office
  • 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux signed by Sioux Indians and US
  • 1852 Private John Brown becomes the 1st interment in the National Cemetery at the Presidio in San Francisco, California
  • 1858 Jewish Disabilities Removal Act passed by British Parliament
  • 1863 Alexandra Park opens in North London, England
  • 1866 Cincinnati Baseball club (Red Stockings) forms
  • 1868 All England Lawn Tennis Club is founded as The All England Croquet Club; 1877 name changed to The All England Croquet & Lawn Tennis Club

Historic Event

1870 Emperor Napoleon III appoints Empress Eugenie as Regent of France

Historic Invention

1872 African American inventor Elijah McCoy is granted a patent for lubricators for steam-engines

  • 1874 Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos is appointed the Archbishop of the Portuguese colonial enclave of Goa
  • 1877 1st US municipal railroad, Cincinnati Southern, begins operations
  • 1877 1st telephone and telegraph line in Hawaii completed
  • 1886 American civilian Steve Brodie allegedly survives plunge from Brooklyn Bridge (135-feet)
  • 1888 John Boyd Dunlop applies to patent pneumatic tire
  • 1900 First Pan-African Congress meets in London, organized by Trinidadian Henry Sylvester Williams, makes plea for African self-government
  • 1900 The Canadian government reviews immigration policy, prohibiting criminals and paupers from landing in Canada
  • 1902 Dutch Excelsior soccer club is established in Rotterdam (Eerste Divisie winners 1973-4, 78-79, 2005-06)
  • 1904 Ice cream cone created during St Louis World Fair - the 1st cone reputedly by Charles E. Menches
  • 1906 Pogroms against Jews in Odessa, Russia

Sports History

1907 International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Wimbledon: Norman Brookes beats Herbert Roper Barrett 6-2, 6-0, 6-3 to give Australasia a 3-2 win over British Isles

  • 1913 Arabs attack Jewish community of Rechovot, Palestine
  • 1914 Austria-Hungary presents an ultimatum to Serbia; demanding acceptance within 48 hours making peacekeeping difficult
  • 1917 Cleveland Metropolitan Park District established in Greater Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1920 British East Africa renamed Kenya and becomes a British crown colony
  • 1921 Chinese communist party forms under guidance of Henk Sneevliet
  • 1921 Edward Gourdin of US sets long jump record at 25' 2 3/4"
  • 1922 16th Tour de France won by Firmin Lambot of Belgium

Sports History

1925 NY Yankee Lou Gehrig hits his 1st of 23 career grand slammers

  • 1926 National Railway Company of Belgium forms (NMBS/SNCFB)
  • 1926 French government of Raymond Poincaré forms
  • 1929 The Fascist government in Italy bans the use of foreign words
  • 1930 Earthquake strikes Ariano in Italy, 1,500 killed
  • 1930 Pitts Pie Traynor ends both games with HRs (1st in 9th, 2nd in 13th)
  • 1931 Ashmore & Cartier Islands in Indian Ocean transferred to Australia
  • 1931 France announces it can't afford to send a team to 1932 LA Olympics
  • 1933 27th Tour de France won by Georges Speicher of France

Sports History

1934 Australian cricket batting legend Don Bradman completes 304 in drawn 4th Test vs England at Leeds; 430 minutes, 43 x fours, 2 x sixes

  • 1937 Isolation of pituitary hormone announced (Yale University)
  • 1938 Australian cricketer Don Bradman scores 103 in 178 mins on a Headingley sticky, 3rd Test
  • 1942 German troops conquer Rostow

Historic Event

1942 Adolf Hitler's Directive number 45: order for army to advance on Stalingrad

  • 1942 World War II: Operation Edelweiss (a German plan to gain control over the Caucasus) begins
  • 1943 Battle of Koersk, USSR ends in Nazi defeat (6,000 tanks)
  • 1943 US 45th Infantry division occupies north coast of Termini (Sicily)
  • 1944 Chicago Cubs Bill Nicholson hits 4 HRs in a doubleheader
  • 1944 Conference of Bretton Woods signed; IMF operations begin
  • 1944 Soviet Army marches into Lublin, Poland
  • 1944 US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II
  • 1944 US troops occupy Pisa, Italy

Historic Event

1945 Marshal Philippe Pétain, leader of the French Vichy collaborationist regime during World War II goes on trial

Historic Event

1946 Menachem Begin's Zionist militant group Irgun bombs the King David Hotel, the then British administrative headquarters for Palestine

  • 1947 1st (US Navy) air squadron of jets, Quonset Point, Rhode Island
  • 1948 Progressive party convention nominates Henry Wallace for President
  • 1949 Test Cricket debut of England's Brian Close aged 18 years 149 days
  • 1952 General Neguib seizes power, Monarchy overthrown in Egypt (National Day)
  • 1955 NY Yankees Bob Cerv and E Howard are 1st to hit consecutive pinch HRs
  • 1955 English speed ace Donald Campbell drives Bluebird K7 to new water speed record at Ullswater in English Lakes District; first boat past 200 mph: 202.32 mph (325.60 km/h)
  • 1956 Bell X-2 rocket plane sets world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph
  • 1956 The Loi Cadre is passed by the French Republic in order to order French overseas territory affairs
  • 1958 1st 4 women named to peerage in House of Lords (UK)

Historic Event

1959 US Vice President Richard Nixon begins visit to the USSR

US Women's Golf Open

1960 US Open Women's Golf, Worcester CC: Betsy Rawls wins her 4th Open title, 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Joyce Ziske

Music Concert

1961 American opera singer Grace Bumbry becomes the first black singer to perform at the Bayreuth Festival, Germany, she earns 42 curtain calls

  • 1962 The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed
  • 1964 Kansas City A's Bert Campaneris HRs on 1st pitch he sees from Twins' Jim Kaat, adds a 2nd HR later, also off of Kaat (in Minnesota)
  • 1964 Egyptian munition ship "Star of Alexandria" explodes at dockside in Bone, Algeria. 100 die, 160 injured, $20 million damage
  • 1965 The Beatles' single "Help" is released in the UK
  • 1965 Dick Stuart homers in a major league-record 23rd different park
  • 1966 Cavern Club in Liverpool reopens
  • 1966 John Pennel pole vaults record (5.34 m)
  • 1966 Napoleon XIV releases "They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha! Ha!"

#1 in the Charts

1966 Frank Sinatra's album "Strangers In The Night" hits #1 on the US charts, (Grammy for Record Of The Year and Best Male Vocal Performance)

  • 1967 -27] 43 die in race riot in Detroit (2,000 injured, 442 fires)
  • 1967 Pirate Radio Swinging Scotland closes down for financial reasons
  • 1967 54th Tour de France won by Roger Pingeon of France
  • 1967 First successful liver transplant, on 19 month old Julie Rodriguez by Dr Starzl at the University of Colorado
  • 1968 Fred Blasie wins 5th wrestling world championship belt
  • 1968 PLO's 1st hijacking of an El Al plane
  • 1968 Race riot in Cleveland, 11 including 3 police officers killed

Sports History

1969 40th MLB All Star Game, RFK Memorial Stadium, Washington, D.C.: NL beats AL, 9-3; MVP: Willie McCovey, SF Giants, 1B

  • 1969 USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1970 Qaboos bin Said al Said becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Sa'id ibn Taimur
  • 1970 A ban on parades and public processions until January 1971 is announced by the Stormont government (North Ireland Parliament)
  • 1971 The British Army carry out early morning raids across Northern Ireland and arrest 48 people
  • 1972 1st Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) is launched
  • 1973 Ozark AL Flight 809 knocked out of air by lightning landing in St Louis, killing 38
  • 1973 USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1973 US President Richard Nixon refuses to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation
  • 1974 45th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 7-2 at 3 Rivers Stadium, Pitts

Sports History

1974 All star MVP: Steve Garvey (LA Dodgers)

  • 1974 Greek military dictatorship collapses
  • 1975 Alan Ayckbourn's "Absent Friends" premieres in London
  • 1975 LA Dodgers W Crawford and Lee Lacy are 5th to hit consecutive pinch HRs
  • 1976 42nd NFL Chicago All Star Game: Pittsburgh 24, All Stars 0 (52,895)

Baseball Record

1976 Baltimore Oriole Reggie Jackson homers in 6th straight game

  • 1976 France performs nuclear Test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1976 USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1976 Wings release single "Let 'em In"
  • 1977 Washington jury convicts 12 Hanafi Muslims on hostage charges
  • 1978 US Open Women's Golf, CC of Indianapolis: Hollis Stacy successfully defends title by 1 stroke from Sally Little and JoAnne Carner
  • 1978 Israeli government rejects Sadat's call for return of 2 Sinai areas

Sports History

1978 Phillies Steve Carlton becomes 78th pitcher to win 200

  • 1978 Mayence returns to helps Yankees win their 5th straight game
  • 1978 65th Tour de France won by Bernard Hinault of France
  • 1978 Franklin Bradshaw is murdered in Salt Lake City by his grandson Marc Schreuder at the instigation of his mother Frances Schreuder

Baseball Record

1979 George Brett gets his 1,000th hit

Historic Event

1980 River of No Return Wilderness Area designated by Jimmy Carter

  • 1980 Soyuz 37 ferries 2 cosmonauts (1 Vietnamese) to Salyut 6
  • 1981 14th San Diego Comic-Con International opens at El Cortez Hotel
  • 1982 FCC approves AM stereo radio, KTSA San Antonio goes stereo
  • 1982 International Whaling Commission votes for total ban on commercial whaling (starting 1985)
  • 1983 Gimli Glider: Air Canada Flight 143 runs out of fuel and makes a deadstick landing at Gimli, Manitoba.
  • 1984 KC Royals Dan Quisenberry gets his 200th career save
  • 1984 Suzette Charles (NJ), 21, replaces Williams as 57th Miss America 1984

Famous Photo

1984 Vanessa Williams, 1st African American Miss America, resigns after Penthouse publishes unauthorized nude photos of her

Meeting of Interest

1986 Moroccan King Hassan II meets with Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres

  • 1987 Petra Felke (E Ger) throws javelin 78.89 m (women's record)
  • 1987 RNI (Brooklyn New York pirate radio station) begins broadcasting on 1620 AM
  • 1987 Red Sox waive Bill Buckner, the goat of last year's World Series
  • 1987 Said Aouita of Morocco runs world record 5,000 m (12:58.39)
  • 1988 Saskatchewan's Dave Ridgway kicks record 8 field goals vs Edmonton

British Golf Open

1989 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Troon: American Mark Calcavecchia wins his only major title in first ever 4-hole aggregate playoff with Australians Greg Norman and Wayne Grady

  • 1989 FOX-TV tops ABC, NBC & CBS for 1st time (America's Most Wanted)
  • 1989 Winds gust to 85 MPH at Fort Smith, Arkansas
  • 1989 76th Tour de France won by Greg LeMond of USA
  • 1990 Rosie Jones (St Louis), 26, crowned 22nd Miss Black America
  • 1990 South Africa workers' union leader Billy Nair arrested
  • 1991 James Farentino of "Dynasty" arrested in Canada for cocaine possession
  • 1991 Rob Dibble back from 3-game suspension, is ejected for throwing at and hitting Cubs baserunner Doug Dascenzo Cubs win, 8-5

Music History

1992 Bruce Springsteen begins a world tour, his first with musicians other than the E Street band

Sports History

1993 David Boon completes 17th Test Cricket century, 107 at Headingley

  • 1993 China Northwest Airlines BAe146-300 crashes at Yinchuan, 55 killed
  • 1993 Chris Boardman cycles a world record 1 hour distance of 52.27 km
  • 1993 NY Yankee Mark Hutton is 1st Australian to be a starting pitcher, He beats Angels 5-2; Yanks, Red Sox, Blue Jays 3 way tie for 1st
  • 1994 All 40,000 ceiling tiles in Kingdome must be replaced
  • 1994 Amy Osmond of Utah, 17, crowned America's Junior Miss

Music History

1994 American dancer, actor, and director Gene Kelly suffers a mild stroke

Sports History

1994 Don Mattingly becomes 6th NY Yankee to get 2,000 hits

  • 1994 Goodwill Games open in St Petersburg
  • 1994 Longest baseball rain delay (3:39) as Giants beat Mets 4-2 in NYC
  • 1994 Space shuttle STS-65: Columbia 17, lands after record 14 days 55 mins
  • 1994 British Senior Open Men's Golf, Royal Lytham & St Annes GC: American Tom Wargo wins by 2 strokes from Bob Charles and Doug Dalziel
  • 1995 "Hamlet" closes at Belasco Theater NYC after 121 performances
  • 1995 British Open Men's Golf, St. Andrews: Controversial American John Daly wins his 2nd major title by 4 strokes in a 4-hole playoff with Costantino Rocca of Italy
  • 1995 Comet Hale-Bopp is discovered and becomes visible to the naked eye nearly a year later

Sports History

1995 Tour de France: Miguel Induráin of Spain wins 5th consecutive Tour, 4' 35" ahead of Alex Zülle; Laurent Jalabert points winner

  • 1997 Dallas TV Station KXAS settle with Dallas Cowboys Michael Irvin and Erik Williams for reporting false sex assault allegations against them
  • 1997 The US State Department rules that Turkey's agreement to purchase $23 billion worth of natural gas from Iran does not violate the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act
  • 1999 Crown Prince Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan is crowned King Mohammed VI of Morocco on the death of his father
  • 1999 ANA Flight 61 is hijacked in Tokyo, Japan.
  • 2000 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Lytham & St. Annes: Tiger Woods beats Thomas Bjørn and Ernie Els by 8 shots to win his first Open title; becomes youngest player at 24 to win all 4 major titles
  • 2000 US Open Women's Golf, Merit Club: Australian Karrie Webb wins by 5 strokes ahead of runners-up Cristie Kerr and Meg Mallon; third of Webb's 7 major titles

Sports History

2000 87th Tour de France: no winner (Lance Armstrong disqualified)

  • 2005 Three bombs explode in the Naama Bay area of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, killing 88 people
  • 2006 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Liverpool GC: Tiger Woods wins his 2nd consecutive Open Championship title and 3rd overall; holds off fellow American Chris DiMarco by 2 strokes
  • 2006 93rd Tour de France won by Oscar Pereiro of Spain
  • 2008 Cape Verde joins the World Trade Organization, becoming its 153rd member.
  • 2009 Mark Buehrle of the Chicago White Sox becomes the 18th pitcher to throw a perfect game in MLB history, defeating Tampa Bay Rays 5-0
  • 2009 The Bank of Canada announces the end of the recession even though it remains nascent and still dependent on government stimulus money
  • 2009 42nd San Diego Comic-Con International opens at San Diego Convention Center

Music History

2010 One Direction is formed during the X Factor show as Niall Horan, Harry Styles, Liam Payne, Zayn Malik and Louis Tomlinson join together

  • 2012 A series of attacks across Iraq kill 103 people
  • 2013 19 people are killed and 22 are injured after a tour bus collides with a truck in Saraburi, Thailand
  • 2014 20th Commonwealth Games open in Glasgow, Scotland
  • 2014 44 people are killed after TransAsia Airways Flight 222 crashed into buildings in Taiwan
  • 2015 NASA's Kepler mission announces discovery of the most Earth-like planet yet - Kepler-452b, 1,400 light years from Earth

Film & TV History

2015 Supreme Court rejects Bill Cosby's petition against a civil case of his alleged sexual assault of 15-year-old girl at the Playboy Mansion in 1974

  • 2016 Suicide bomb in Kabul kills 80 during a protest march, Islamic State claim responsibility
  • 2017 104th Tour de France won by Chris Froome of Great Britain, his 4th win
  • 2017 Women's Cricket World Cup: England beat India by 9 runs in the final at Lords in London
  • 2017 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Birkdale GC: American Jordan Spieth wins by 3 strokes from countryman Matt Kuchar