On This Day

Historical Events on July 25

Roman Empire

306 Constantine I is proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops

  • 864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings
  • 1139 Count Alfonso I of Portugal proclaimed King
  • 1261 Constantinople recaptured by Nicaean forces under Alexios Strategopoulos for Emperor Michael VIII, re-establishing Byzantine Empire
  • 1360 Jews are expelled from Breslau, Silesia
  • 1510 Spanish conquest of Tripoli by Pedro Navarro for Aragon crown; over 3,000 killed and more than 5,000 inhabitants enslaved

Historic Event

1511 Portuguese forces under Afonso de Albuquerque first assault the prosperous trading city of Malacca, Malay Peninsula

  • 1519 San Cristobal de la Habana forms in Cuba
  • 1521 About 300 heretics burned in Vrijdagmarkt Gent
  • 1536 Sebastián de Belalcázar on his search of El Dorado founds the City of Santiago de Cali
  • 1538 The City of Guayaquil is founded by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana and given the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil

Royal Coronation

1547 Henry II of France is crowned

  • 1564 Maximilian II succeeds his father Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1567 Don Diego de Losada founds the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela

Treaty of Interest

1570 Battle of Arnay-le-Duc, Burgundy: Huguenot victory forces Charles IX of France to agree to a peace treaty that ends the Third War of Religion

  • 1585 Amsterdam bans 45 roman catholics

Historic Event

1593 France's Protestant King Henry IV converts to Roman Catholic faith

  • 1652 Nikita Minin becomes patriarch of Russian Orthodox Church
  • 1670 Austrian Emperor Leopold I expels 4,000 Jews from Vienna
  • 1670 Don Juan Domingo Zuniga y Fonseca becomes governor-general of Southern Netherlands
  • 1693 Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, México
  • 1722 The Three Years War begins along the Maine and Massachusetts border
  • 1729 North Carolina becomes a royal colony

Historic Event

1745 Jacoibite Rising Bonnie Prince Charlie lands on Eriskay, Hebrides

  • 1758 Seven Years' War: the island battery at Fortress Louisbourg in Nova Scotia is silenced and all French warships are destroyed or taken
  • 1759 British capture Fort Niagara from French (7 Years' War)
  • 1792 Dutch patriots exiles found "Bataafs Legion"
  • 1792 The Brunswick Manifesto issued to population of Paris promising vengeance if French Royal Family harmed
  • 1795 The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid

Historic Event

1797 Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife (Spain)

Victory in Battle

1799 French-Egyptian forces under Napoleon I beat Turks at Battle of Abukir

  • 1814 Battle of Niagara Falls (Lundy's Lane); Americans defeat British

Historic Event

1814 English engineer George Stephenson introduces his first steam locomotive, a travelling engine designed for hauling coal on the Killingworth wagonway named Blücher

Royal Coronation

1822 General Agustin de Iturbide crowned Agustin I, 1st Emperor of Mexico

  • 1824 Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.

Historic Event

1830 Charles X signs the July Ordinances, suspending freedom of the press, among other effects

  • 1832 1st railroad accident in US, Granite Railway, Quincy, Massachusetts, kills 1
  • 1835 Ibrahim Pasha's army attacks Jewish settlers of Hebron Palestine
  • 1837 The first commercial use of an electric telegraph successfully demonstrated by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone between Euston and Camden Town in London
  • 1848 1st battle at Custozza: Austrians under Radetzky beat Italian
  • 1850 Gold discovered in Oregon (Rogue River)
  • 1853 Joaquin Murrieta, the famous Californian bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed by California Rangers

Historic Invention

1854 Walter Hunt is awarded the first U.S. patent for a paper shirt collar

  • 1860 1st US intercollegiate billiard match (Harvard vs Yale)
  • 1861 Washington, D.C. - Crittenden resolution is passed stating that the war is to be fought to preserve union and uphold the Constitution, not to alter slavery
  • 1861 Skirmish at Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory - Rebels attack Union troops
  • 1863 Skirmish at Barbee's Crossroads, Virginia
  • 1866 25th US Postmaster General: Alexander W Randall of Wisconsin takes office
  • 1866 David Faragut appointed as 1st admiral in US Navy
  • 1868 US Congress forms Wyoming Territory (Dakota, Utah & Idaho)
  • 1871 Carousel patented by Wilhelm Schneider, Davenport, Iowa
  • 1897 Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories
  • 1898 1st US troops land & occupy Puerto Rico, at Guanica Bay
  • 1900 Gloucestershire captain Gilbert Jessop hits his second century (139 in 95 minutes) before lunch in same County Cricket match (104 previous day); Yorkshire wins by 40 runs
  • 1901 Emily Hobhouse addresses public meetings in Britain on the concentration camps during the South African War

Boxing Title Fight

1902 3 years after winning the title from English boxer Bob Fitzsimmons, American champion James J. Jeffries repeats the dose with an 8th round KO in San Francisco for the heavyweight crown

  • 1903 Castle on top of Telegraph Hil, San Francisco closes
  • 1907 Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan
  • 1908 Ajinomoto Co. is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers a key ingredient in Konbu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), patents a process for manufacturing it.
  • 1909 France's Louis Bleriot, makes 1st airplane flight across English Channel
  • 1912 Comoros proclaimed a French colonies
  • 1913 Carl Weilman strikes out 6 times in a 15 inning game
  • 1913 Pittsburgh Pirates future Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder Max Carey scores 5 runs without a hit, reaching first base on an error and 4 walks, as the Bucs beat Philadelphia Phillies, 12-2
  • 1913 A meeting in Johannesburg, called by the South African Native National Congress, now African National Congress, is attended by a large number of people from South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland
  • 1914 Germany Socialist-Democrat Party declares: "No German blood for Austrian tyrant" in response to German support of Austria-Hungary

Sports History

1914 Last day of club cricket for English legend W. G. Grace at age 66: makes unbeaten 69 runs for Eltham against Grove Park

  • 1914 Serbia meets the deadlines of Austria-Hungary's ultimatum and gives a conciliatory reply, though Serbia is mobilizing
  • 1916 Explosion at Lake Erie and Cleveland Waterworks
  • 1917 Sir Thomas Whyte introduces the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
  • 1918 Annette Adams sworn in as 1st woman district attorney of US, California
  • 1918 Race riot in Chester Pennsylvania (3 blacks and 2 whites killed)
  • 1922 AT&T begins broadcasting on WBAY (NYC-later WEAF, WNBC, WRCA & WFAN)
  • 1923 German mark devalued to 600,000 Mark=$1
  • 1930 Philadelphia Athletics triple steal in 1st and 4th innings vs Cleveland

Radio Premiere

1933 1st Dutch live radio concert: Duke Ellington

  • 1934 Failed Nazi coup in Austria
  • 1936 115 acre Orchard Beach opens in the Bronx

Music History

1936 Jazz saxophonist Charlie "Bird" Parker marries his childhood sweetheart Rebecca Ruffin

  • 1937 31st Tour de France won by Roger Lapebie of France
  • 1938 Jewish artisans not allowed in Germany
  • 1938 Revolutionary offensive of Ebro Spain (Hollander Piet)
  • 1939 5th and last Dutch government of Colijn, forms
  • 1939 New York Yankees starting pitcher Atley Donald sets American League rookie record for consecutive wins; beats St. Louis Browns 5-1 for his 12th straight victory
  • 1940 American John Sigmund begins swimming for 89 hours, 46 minutes from St. Louis to Caruthersville, Missouri in the Mississippi River; 292 miles, longest solo swim of all time

Historic Event

1941 FDR bans selling benzine/gasoline to Japan

  • 1941 41-year-old Lefty Grove wins his 300th and final MLB career game as the Boston Red Sox defeat Cleveland Indians, 10-6 at Fenway Park
  • 1942 German troops strike at Tsym Lyanskaja
  • 1943 1st warship named after an African American launched - USS Leonard Roy Harmon, a Buckley class destroyer

Fall of Benito Mussolini

1943 Benito Mussolini dismissed as Italian Premier and arrested on the authority of King Victor Emmanuel III

  • 1943 Opposition group Zwaantje forms in Delfzijl
  • 1943 RAF bombs Fokker airplane factory in Amsterdam
  • 1944 Japanese banzai-attack on Guam
  • 1944 1st jet fighter used in combat (Messerschmitt 262)
  • 1944 Operation Cobra: US forces begin major offensive in Normandy with air bombardment
  • 1944 World War II: Operation Spring - one of Canada's bloodiest days, 18,444 casualties and 5,021 killed
  • 1946 US detonates an underwater atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands (5th atomic explosion)

Music History

1946 At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team

  • 1948 35th Tour de France: Italian cyclist Gino Bartali wins both general and mountain classifications for the second time (1938)

Sports History

1949 St Louis Cardinal Stan Musial hits for the cycle beating Bkln 14-1

  • 1952 Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing US commonwealth (Constitution Day)
  • 1953 NYC transit fare rises from 10 cents to 15 cents, 1st use of subway tokens
  • 1956 46 die in collision of the SS Andrea Doria and the MS Stockholm off the coast of Nantucket
  • 1956 Jordan attacks UN Palestine force
  • 1957 Monarchy in Tunisia abolished in favor of a republic
  • 1957 Peter Loader takes a cricket hat-trick for England v WI at Headingley
  • 1957 US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1958 The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.
  • 1959 SR-N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais to Dover in just over 2 hours.
  • 1960 Companie Industrielle et Forestere (Indufor) forms in Brussels

Baseball Record

1961 Roger Maris hits home runs 37, 38, 39 & 40 in a doubleheader

Historic Event

1961 In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO

  • 1963 Belgian Senate accept Law on language regulations
  • 1963 US, Russia & Britain sign nuclear Test ban treaty
  • 1964 "Here's Love" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 338 performances
  • 1964 Beatles' album "A Hard Day's Night" goes #1, stays #1 for 14 weeks
  • 1964 Australian cricket captain and opening batsman Bob Simpson hits 311 v England in the drawn 4th Test in Manchester
  • 1964 Race riot in Rochester, NY

Music History

1965 Bob Dylan is booed by sections of the crowd at the Newport Folk Festival for performing with an electric guitar, beginning of folk-rock

  • 1966 Brian Jones' final performance as a Rolling Stone

Music Single

1966 The Supremes release single "You Can't Hurry Love"

Hall of Fame

1966 Yankee manager Casey Stengel elected to Hall of Fame

  • 1967 Construction begins on San Francisco MUNI METRO (Market Street subway)

Catholic Encyclical

1968 Pope Paul VI publishes encyclical "Humanae vitae (Of Human Life)" which rejects any artificial forms of birth control

Music History

1969 70,000 attend Seattle Pop Festival (across 3 days); performers included: Bo Diddley, Flying Burrito Brothers, Ten Years After, Guess Who, Santana, Tim Buckley, Byrds, Ike & Tina Turner Revue, Chicago Transit Authority, Chuck Berry, Led Zeppelin, and The Doors

  • 1969 Edward Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving scene of an accident a week after the Chappaquiddick car accident that killed Mary Jo Kopechne
  • 1970 "(They Long to Be) Close to You" sung by the Carpenters reaches #1

Sports History

1972 43rd MLB All Star Game, Atlanta Stadium, Atlanta, GA: NL beats AL, 4-3; MVP: Joe Morgan, Cincinnati Reds, 2B

  • 1972 US health officials concede African American were used as guinea pigs in 40 year syphilis experiment

Music Concert

1973 George Harrison pays £1,000,000 tax on his Bangladesh concert & album

  • 1973 USSR launches Mars 5

Music Single

1975 David Bowie releases single "Fame"

  • 1976 Annegret Richter runs 100m (11.01)

Sports History

1978 Robert Granville "Bob" Lemon replaces Billy Martin as Yankee manager

Baseball Record

1978 Cincinnati Red Pete Rose sets NL record hitting in 38 consecutive games

Music History

1978 John Lydon forms rock group Public Ltd Image

  • 1978 The Cerro Maravilla Incident occurs.
  • 1979 109 cm rainfall at Alvin Texas (state record)
  • 1980 Train crash at Winsum, 9 die
  • 1980 US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1981 Anti-apartheid protesters in Hamilton, New Zealand, force the cancellation of a rugby test between New Zealand's All Blacks and South Africa’s Springboks by invading the pitch during the game
  • 1982 20th Tennis Fed Cup: USA beats Germany in Santa Clara USA (3-0)

US Women's Golf Open

1982 US Open Women's Golf, Del Paso CC: Janet Anderson shoots final round 68 (−4) to claim her only LPGA Tour win, 6 strokes ahead of Beth Daniel, Donna White, JoAnne Carner and Sandra Haynie

  • 1982 France performs nuclear Test
  • 1982 69th Tour de France won by Bernard Hinault of France
  • 1982 Zail Singh is sworn in as the seventh President of India

Album Release

1983 Metallica's debut album Kill 'Em All is released on Megaforce Records

  • 1983 1st non-human primate (baboon) conceived in a lab dish, San Antonio
  • 1983 Washington Public Power Supply System defaulted $2.25 billion
  • 1983 US Senior Open Men's Golf, Hazeltine National GC: Billy Casper wins with birdie on first extra hole after an 18-hole playoff with Rod Funseth
  • 1984 Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes 1st woman to walk in space

Film & TV History

1985 Spokeswoman for Rock Hudson confirms he has AIDS

  • 1985 Steve Cram runs world record mile (3:46.32)
  • 1985 US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1985 USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1985 Uganda suspends constitution following coup
  • 1986 Sikhs extremist kill 16 hindus in Muhktsar India
  • 1987 Sherri Martel beats Fabulous Moolah for WWF Woman's Championship Belt
  • 1987 USSR launches Kosmos 1870, 15-ton Earth-study satellite
  • 1987 R. Venkataraman becomes the eighth President of India
  • 1988 Mindy Duncan, 16, of Oregon, crowned 6th Miss Teen USA
  • 1989 Brandi Sherwood of Idaho crowned 7th Miss Teen USA
  • 1990 "Les Miserables" opens at Princess Elizabeth Theatre, Vancouver

Sports History

1990 KC Royal George Brett hits for the cycle

  • 1990 Nadezhda Ryashkina of USSR sets 10K walk woman's record (41:56.23)

Sports History

1990 Roseanne Barr sings the National Anthem at Cincinnati Reds-San Diego Padres MLB game

  • 1990 US Ambassador tells Iraq, US won't take sides in Iraq-Kuwait dispute
  • 1990 US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1991 Howard Stern adds a 4th radio market (KLSX FM-97.1 Los Angeles)
  • 1991 Seattle Jay Buhner hits a 479' HR in Yankee Stadium
  • 1991 Pittsburgh Steelers guard Terry Long treated for an apparent suicide attempt after he learned he tested positive for steroid use
  • 1992 Army refused to overturn 127 year old conviction against Dr Mudd
  • 1992 25th Olympic Games open in Barcelona, Spain
  • 1993 31st Tennis Fed Cup: Spain beats Australia in Frankfurt Germany (3-0)
  • 1993 US Open Women's Golf, Crooked Stick GC: Lauri Merten fires a final round 68 (−4) to win her lone major title, 1 stroke ahead of runners-up Donna Andrews and Helen Alfredsson
  • 1993 Israeli offensive against terrorist bases in South Lebanon
  • 1993 The St James' Church massacre in Kenilworth, Cape Town by Azanian Peoples' Liberation Army

Sports History

1993 Tour de France: Spaniard Miguel Induráin makes it 3 straight Tour titles; Djamolidine Abdoujaparov points winner

Federation Cup

1993 Federation Cup Women's Tennis, Frankfurt, Germany: Spain wins 2nd title with 3-0 win over Australia; Arantxa Sánchez Vicario clinches victory with 6-2, 6-3 win against Nicole Provis

  • 1994 Jordan and Israeli end 46 year state of war (Washington, D.C.)
  • 1995 A gas bottle explodes in Saint Michel station of line B of the RER (Paris regional train network). Eight are killed and 80 wounded.
  • 1996 Kim LaPlante of Washington state crowned Mrs United States

Film & TV History

1997 Autumn Jackson, found guilty of trying to extort $40M from Bill Cosby

  • 1997 Carroll O'Connor found not guilty of slandering Harry Perzigian
  • 1997 Howard Stern is fired from radio station, KEGL Dallas
  • 1997 QB Brett Favre, re-signs with Green Bay Packers for $50M for 7 yrs
  • 1997 Rocker Rick Danko (The Band) gets suspended sentence in Japan for drug smuggling
  • 1997 Vincent "The Chin" Gigante found guilty of racketeering in NYC
  • 1997 K. R. Narayanan is sworn-in as India's 10th president and the first Dalit, formerly called "untouchable" to hold the office
  • 1997 Scientists announce the first human stem cells to be cultured in a laboratory using tissue taken from aborted human embryos

Sports History

1999 86th Tour de France: Lance Armstrong wins 1st of 7 consecutive Tour de France titles but is later disqualified for drug cheating

  • 1999 British Senior Open Men's Golf, Royal Portrush GC: Irishman Christy O'Connor Jr wins by 3 strokes from John Bland of South Africa
  • 2000 Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde supersonic passenger jet, F-BTSC, crashes just after takeoff from Paris killing all 109 aboard and 4 on the ground.
  • 2001 Faced with declining oil prices, OPEC ministers agree to cut crude oil production quotas by about 4%, or 1 million barrels per day
  • 2002 17th Commonwealth Games open in Manchester, England
  • 2004 91st Tour de France: no winner (Lance Armstrong disqualified)

Sports History

2004 British Senior Open Men's Golf, Royal Portrush: Pete Oakley wins by 1 stroke from fellow American Tom Kite and Eduardo Romero of Argentina

  • 2004 Copa América Final, Estadio Nacional, Lima: Brazil beats Argentina, 4-2 on penalties; 2-2 after extra time