On This Day

Historical Events on March 19

  • 1227 Count Ugolino of Segna elected Pope Gregory IX
  • 1279 A Mongolian victory at the naval Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China
  • 1452 Frederick III of Hapsburg crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas V in Rome
  • 1524 Giovanni de Varrazano, a Florentine explorer in the service of King Francis I of France, lands around area of Carolinas
  • 1540 Court of Holland names Amsterdam sheriff John Hubrechtsz a "heretic"
  • 1563 Peace of Amboise: Rights for Huguenots
  • 1571 Spanish troops occupy Manila
  • 1628 Massachusetts Bay Colony granted land by England
  • 1644 200 members of Peking imperial family and court commit suicide in loyalty to the Emperor
  • 1682 Assembly of the French clergy issues a declaration stating, among other things, that the power of the King is not subject to papal authority
  • 1687 Explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle, searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River, is murdered by his own men
  • 1748 Naturalization Act passes granting Jews right to colonize North American colonies
  • 1775 4 people buried by avalanche for 37 days, 3 survive (Italy)
  • 1775 Poland & Prussia sign trade agreement
  • 1799 Joseph Haydn's "Die Schöpfung" premieres in Vienna
  • 1803 Friedrich Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina" premieres in Weimar
  • 1808 Charles IV, king of Spain, abdicates after riots and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez. His son, Ferdinand VII, takes the throne
  • 1812 The first Spanish constitution is enacted, one of the earliest constitutions ever promulgated
  • 1822 Boston, Massachusetts incorporated as a city
  • 1831 1st US bank robbery, the City Bank in New York robbed of $245,000
  • 1859 Opera "Faust" by Charles Gounod premieres in Paris
  • 1861 The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand
  • 1863 Confederate cruiser SS Georgiana destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, and medicines then valued over $1,000,000. Wreck discovered exactly 102 years later by teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence.
  • 1864 Opera "Mireille" premieres in Paris
  • 1865 Battle of Bentonville, Confederates retreat from Greenville North Carolina
  • 1866 Immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sinks in Liverpool; 738 die
  • 1870 The opera "Guarany" premieres in Milan
  • 1877 Australia beat England by 45 runs in very first Test match
  • 1880 42nd Grand National: Tommy Beasley aboard Irish 8/1 chance Empress wins by 2 lengths from defending champion The Liberator

Historic Event

1882 1st stone laid for the Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona, designed by Antoni Gaudí

  • 1883 Jan Matzeliger invents first machine to manufacture entire shoes

Historic Event

1885 Louis Riel returns to Canada, proclaims provisional government, Sask

  • 1892 3 brothers Hearne play in same Test Cricket England v South Africa (Cape Town)
  • 1895 Los Angeles Railway established to provide streetcar service
  • 1906 Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari's "Quattro Rusteghi" premieres in Munich
  • 1907 18.8 cm precipitation at Lewer's Ranch, Nevada (state record)
  • 1910 Australasian Championships Men's Tennis, Adelaide: Rodney Heath wins his 2nd and last Australasian title; beats fellow Australian Horace Rice 6-4, 6-3, 6-2
  • 1911 1st International Women's Day sees over 1 million men and women attend rallies in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. Issues discussed included women's right to vote and to hold public office, the right to work, to vocational training and an end to discrimination on the job.
  • 1914 Stanley Cup, Arena Gardens, Toronto ON: Toronto HC (NHA) defeat Victoria Aristocrats (PCHA), 2-1 for a 3-0 series sweep; final series of the "challenge" era
  • 1915 Pluto photographed for 1st time (although unknown at the time)
  • 1915 VI Summer (Modern) Olympic Games: IOC President Pierre de Coubertin writes to Associated Press indicating 1916 Berlin Games won't take place because of WWI
  • 1917 US Supreme Court uphoelds 8-hr work day for railroad employees
  • 1917 Victor Herbert and Harry Blossom's operetta "Eileen", loosely based on a novel by Herbert's grandfather, premieres at Shubert Theater, New York City
  • 1918 US Congress authorizes time zones & approves daylight saving time
  • 1918 S Potter becomes 1st US pilot to shoot down a German seaplane

Historic Publication

1919 Literary Magazine "Littérature", edited by André Breton, Philippe Soupault, and Louis Aragon publishes its first issue

Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

1920 US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for 2nd time refusing to ratify League of Nations' covenant (maintaining isolation policy)

  • 1921 Italian Fascists shoot from the Parenzana train at a group of children in Strunjan (Slovenia): two children are killed, two mangled and three wounded

Appointment of Interest

1925 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (future Pope John XXIII) becomes a bishop, appointed as Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria

  • 1927 Bloody battles between communists & Nazis in Berlin
  • 1928 "Amos & Andy" debuts on radio (NBC Blue Network-WMAQ Chicago)
  • 1930 Nakagawa Soen accepted as a student of Katsube Keigaku Roshi
  • 1931 Nevada legalizes gambling
  • 1932 The Sydney Harbour Bridge is opened in Sydney, Australia
  • 1932 England beats Scotland, 16-3 at Twickenham, London to force a 3-way share with Wales and Ireland of renewed Home Nations Rugby Championship; France expelled, alleged professionalism

Catholic Encyclical

1937 Pope Pius XI publishes encyclical Divini redemptoris against communism

  • 1937 Astronomer Fritz Zwicky publishes his research on stellar explosion in which he coins the term "supernova" and hypothesizes that they were the origin of cosmic rays
  • 1937 96th Grand National: With King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in attendance, aptly-named Royal Mail ridden by jockey Evan Williams wins at odds of 100/6; estimated crowd, 300,000
  • 1938 NHL Toronto Maple Leafs and New York Americans combine to score 8 goals in just under 5 minutes; Toronto wins game 8-5
  • 1938 Scotland beats England, 21-16 at Twickenham, London to win the Home Nations Rugby Championship, Triple Crown and Calcutta Cup
  • 1940 Failed British air raid on German base at Sylt

Historic Event

1940 French government of Édouard Daladier falls

  • 1941 Jimmy Dorsey & orchestra record "Green Eyes" & "Maria Elena"

Historic Event

1942 FDR orders men between 45 & 64 to register for non-military duty

  • 1942 Thoroughbred Racing Association of US formed in Chicago
  • 1943 Airship Canadian Star torpedoed & sinks
  • 1943 British 8th army opens assault on Mareth line, Tunisia
  • 1943 Frank Nitti, the Chicago Outfit Boss after Al Capone, commits suicide at the Chicago Central Railyard

Sports History

1943 In their third match, Jake LaMotta finally defeats Jimmy Reeves by knocking him out in the sixth round

  • 1944 Tippett's oratorium "Child of Our Time" premieres in London
  • 1945 800 killed as Kamikaze attacked USS Franklin off Japan

Historic Event

1945 Adolf Hitler issues "Nero Decree" to destroy all German factories

  • 1945 British 36th division conquers Mogok (ruby mine)
  • 1945 US Task Force 58 attacks ships near Kobe/Kure
  • 1946 French Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique & Reunion become overseas "departments" of France
  • 1946 Nikolai Mikhailovich Schwernik succeeds Kalinin as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
  • 1947 Belgian government of Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium Socialist Party) forms

Victory in Battle

1947 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek conquers Jenan

  • 1948 Lee Savold KOs Gino Buonvino in 54 seconds at Madison Square Garden, NYC
  • 1949 1st museum devoted exclusively to atomic energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

US Women's Golf Open

1950 US Open Women's Golf, Rolling Hills CC: Babe Didrikson-Zaharias wins by 9 strokes from amateur Betsy Rawls

  • 1950 City College of NY defeats Bradley to win the NIT

Golf Tournament

1950 LPGA Titleholders Championship Women's Golf, Augusta CC: Babe Didrikson Zaharias wins her 2nd of 3 Titleholders titles by 8 strokes from amateur Claire Doran

  • 1951 Herman Wouk's novel "The Caine Mutiny" published (Pulitzer Prize 1952)

Historic Event

1953 Tennessee Williams' "Camino Real" premieres in NYC

Academy Awards

1953 25th Academy Awards: "Greatest Show on Earth", Gary Cooper & Shirley Booth win (1st time televised)

  • 1954 1st color telecast of a prize fight, Giardello vs Troy in Madison Square Garden, NYC
  • 1954 1st rocket-driven sled on rails tested in Alamogordo, NM
  • 1954 US Ladies' Figure Skating championship won by Tenley Albright
  • 1954 US Men's Figure Skating championship won by Hayes A Jenkins
  • 1954 "The Three Ws" of West Indian cricket each score centuries in one innings; Clyde Walcott scores 124 following Everton Weekes (206) and Frank Worrell (167) in 1st innings of drawn 4th Test v England at Port of Spain

Sports History

1955 17th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: San Francisco beats La Salle, 77-63; Dons' future Hall of Fame center Bill Russell is named tournament Most Outstanding Player

  • 1956 Biggest NBA margin of victory - Minn Lakers-133, St Louis Hawks-75
  • 1957 Indians reject Boston's offer of $1 million for Herb Score

Historic Event

1958 Britain's first planetarium opens at Madame Tussaud's, London

  • 1958 Gary Sobers completes a century in each innings for WI vs. Pakistan
  • 1959 "1st Impressions" opens at Alvin Theater NYC for 84 performances
  • 1960 "Redhead" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 455 performances

Sports History

1960 22nd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Ohio State beats California, 75-55; Buckeyes' future Hall of Fame forward Jerry Lucas is named tournament MOP

  • 1962 "All American" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 80 performances
  • 1962 Archbishop Suenens of Mechelen-Brussels appointed cardinal

Film & TV History

1964 Sean Connery's 1st day of shooting on James Bond film "Goldfinger"

  • 1965 Indonesia nationalizes all foreign oil companies
  • 1965 Rembrandt's "Titus" sells for then record 7,770,000 guilders
  • 1965 Stoica becomes president & Ceausescu party leader of Romania
  • 1965 The wreck of the SS Georgiana, valued at over $50,000,000, said to have been most powerful Confederate cruiser, discovered by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence exactly 102 years after its destruction.
  • 1966 "Poussé Cafe" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 3 performances
  • 1966 28th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Texas Western beats Kentucky, 72-65; Miners first title in first title game
  • 1966 Belgium government of Vanden Boeynants begins
  • 1967 French Somaliland (Djibouti) votes to continue association with France
  • 1968 Howard University, Washington, D.C., students seize administration building
  • 1969 British invade Anguilla
  • 1969 Chicago 8 indicted in aftermath of Chicago Democratic convention
  • 1969 The 385 metre tall TV-mast at Emley Moor, United Kingdom, collapses due to ice build- up.
  • 1970 W German chancellor & E German premier meet
  • 1971 Philadelphia 76ers outscore Cincinnati Royals 90-80 in 2nd half enroute to a 147-127 victory
  • 1972 1st AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Immaculata beats West Chester State 52-48 in Normal
  • 1972 "To Live Another Summer" closes at Helen Hayes NYC after 173 performances
  • 1972 India & Bangladesh sign friendship treaty
  • 1972 LA Lakers beat Golden State Warriors, 162-99, by then record 63 pts
  • 1973 Dean tells Nixon, "There is a cancer growing on the Presidency"
  • 1974 Jefferson Starship begins their 1st tour
  • 1975 "Dr Jazz" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 5 performances
  • 1975 Pennsylvania is 1st state to allow girls to compete with boys in HS sports
  • 1977 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1977 Jevgeni Kulikov skates world record 1000m (1:15.33)

Television Premiere

1977 Last episode of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" premieres on CBS, with a group hug searching for a box tissues, then singing "It's a Long Way to Tipperary"

  • 1977 France beats Ireland, 15-6 at Lansdowne Road, Dublin to clinch its 6th outright Five Nations Rugby Championship and 2nd Grand Slam
  • 1978 50,000 demonstrate in Amsterdam against neutron bomb

PGA Players Championship

1978 PGA Tournament Players Championship, Sawgrass CC: Jack Nicklaus wins his 3rd TPC title, 1 stroke ahead of Lou Graham; 4th straight start for Nicklaus that ends with a top-2 finish

  • 1979 US House of Representatives begins live TV broadcasts via C-SPAN

Daytime Emmy Awards

1981 -21] Emmy 8th Daytime Awards - Susan Lucci loses for 2nd time

  • 1981 2 workers killed in space shuttle Columbia accident
  • 1981 Buffalo Sabres beat Toronto Maple Leafs 14-4
  • 1982 National Guard jet tanker crashes killing 27
  • 1982 Falklands War: Argentinian forces land on South Georgia Island, precipitating war with the U.K.
  • 1983 France (16-9 v Wales) and Ireland (25-15 v England) win final round matches to finish level and share the Five Nations Rugby Championship; no tie-break procedure exists before 1993

Television Premiere

1984 American sitcom "Kate & Allie" premieres on CBS TV starring Susan Saint James and Jane Curtin

  • 1984 John J O'Connor named 8th archbishop of New York
  • 1984 KSD-AM in St Louis MO changes call letters to KUSA
  • 1984 Mobil oil tanker spills 200,000 gallons into Columbia River

Sports History

1984 Two-time Cy Young Award winner Denny McLain is indicted on charges of drug trafficking, embezzlement and racketeering; 25 year sentence later quashed

  • 1984 STS 41-C vehicle moves to launch pad
  • 1985 "Spin Magazine" begins publishing
  • 1985 NSW wins cricket Sheffield Shield by beating Queensland by 1 wicket
  • 1985 US Senate votes 55-45 to authorize production of the MX "Peacekeeper" intercontinental ballistic missile

World Record

1987 Bonnie Blair skates ladies' world record 500 m (39.43 sec)

  • 1987 Fred Currey acquires Greyhound Bus Company
  • 1987 Hassanali inaugurated as president of Trinidad & Tobago

Historic Event

1987 American televangelist Jim Bakker resigns amid rape accusation by his secretary, Jessica Hahn

World Record

1987 Yvonne van Gennip skates ladies world record 3 km (4:16.85)

  • 1988 2 British soldiers lynched in Belfast, North Ireland
  • 1988 Yvonne van Gennip skates un-official world record 10 km (15:25.25)
  • 1988 France edges Wales, 10-9 at the National Stadium, Cardiff to share the Five Nations Rugby Championship with the Welsh with 3-1 records
  • 1989 Boeing V-22 Osprey VTOL aircraft makes maiden flight
  • 1989 Ice Dance Championship at Paris won by M Klimova & S Ponomarenko (USSR)
  • 1989 Ice Pairs World Championship at Paris won by Ekaterina Gordeeva & Sergei Grinkov (USSR)
  • 1989 Men's Figure Skating Championship in Paris won by Kurt Browning (CAN)
  • 1989 Worlds Ladies' Figure Skating Champ in Paris won by Midori Ito (Japan)
  • 1989 PGA Players Championship, TPC at Sawgrass: Tom Kite wins the title in gusty conditions, 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Chip Beck
  • 1989 Wales beats England, 12-9 at Cardiff Arms Park to allow France to claim it's 9th outright Five Nations Rugby Championship
  • 1990 1st world ice hockey tournament for women held (Ottawa)

Sports History

1991 KC Royals announce they are putting Bo Jackson on waivers

  • 1991 Sacramento Kings set NBA record of 29 consecutive road loses

Sports History

1991 St Louis Blues Brett Hull is 3rd NHLer to score 80 goals in a season

Super Bowl

1991 NFL owners strip Phoenix of 1993 Super Bowl game due to Arizona Not recognizing Martin Luther King Day

Historic Event

1991 Gorbachev says the Soviet Union will cut its oil exports by nearly half

  • 1992 "Master Builder" opens at Belasco Theater NYC for 45 performances
  • 1992 Britain's Prince Andrew & Sarah, Duchess of York, announce separation
  • 1993 Ice Dance Championship in Prague won by M Usova & A Zhulin (RUS)
  • 1993 Ice Pairs Championship in Prague won by I Brasseur & L Eisler (CAN)
  • 1993 US Supreme Court Justice Byron R White announced plans to retire
  • 1994 2,500 kilograms of cocaine intercepted in Zeewolde, Netherlands
  • 1994 Lara scores 167 for WI v England at Georgetown
  • 1994 Largest omelette (1,383sq ft) made with 160,000 eggs in Yokohama, Japan
  • 1994 NJ Devils club record 41st win of the season
  • 1994 England beats Wales, 15-8 at Twickenham, London but the Welsh take the Five Nations Rugby Championship as title decided by using points difference for the first time
  • 1995 "Translations" opens at Plymouth Theater NYC for 25 performances
  • 1995 "Uncle Vanya" closes at Circle in Sq Theater NYC after 29 performances
  • 1995 Arizona outside of Phoenix begins using new telephone area code 520
  • 1995 Bonnie Blair skates female world record point total (156.450)
  • 1995 Finnish Social Democratic Party wins parliamentary election

Sports History

1995 Michael Jordan rejoins Chicago Bulls after 17 months, beats Pacers

  • 1995 NBA NY Knicks beat NY Nets in 100th meeting (Knicks 53 Nets 47)
  • 1995 Neil Marshall skates world record 3 km (3:54.08)
  • 1997 Ice Pairs won by Mandy Woetzel & Ingo Steuer (GER)
  • 1997 Major League Baseball announces 5 year/$50M deal with Pepsi
  • 1997 US Supreme Court hears Internet indecency arguments
  • 2001 The Bank of Japan issued a monetary policy known as quantitative easing, which stimulated the Japanese economy after the burst of the dot-com bubble.

Hall of Fame

2001 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees: Aerosmith; Solomon Burke; The Flamingos; Michael Jackson; Queen; Paul Simon; Steely Dan; Ritchie Valens; James Burton; Johnnie Johnson; and Chris Blackwell

  • 2002 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda ends (started on March 2) after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters with 11 allied troop fatalities

Invasion of Iraq

2003 Airstrikes by an American and British-led coalition signal the beginning of the invasion of Iraq, without United Nations support and in defiance of world opinion

  • 2004 A truck and a bus crash head-on in Äänekoski, Finland. 24 people are killed and 13 injured.
  • 2004 A Swedish DC-3 shot down by a Russian MiG-15 in the 1950s is finally recovered after years of work. The remains of the crew are left in place, pending further investigations.
  • 2004 Taiwanese president Chen Shui-bian is shot just before the country's presidential election on March 20.
  • 2005 Wales beats Ireland, 32-20 at Millennium Stadium, Cardiff to win the Six Nations Rugby Championship and become the 1st team to complete a Grand Slam playing more games away than at home

Historic Event

2006 On the weekend of his 84th birthday, Fred Shuttlesworth gives his final sermon in front of 300 people at the Greater New Light Baptist Church

  • 2008 GRB 080319B: A cosmic burst that is the farthest object visible to the naked eye is briefly observed
  • 2011 Despite a final round 24-8 defeat to Ireland at the new Aviva Stadium in Dublin, England wins the Six Nations Rugby Championship courtesy of their opening 4 straight victories
  • 2012 Wendy's overtakes Burger King to become the second best-selling hamburger chain