Historical Events on March 23

  • 1026 Conrad II crowns himself King of Italy
  • 1066 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet

Treaty of Interest

1153 Treaty of Konstanz between Frederick I "Barbarossa" & Pope Eugene III

  • 1174 Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow
  • 1490 1st dated edition of Maimonides "Mishneh Torah", a code of Jewish religious law is published
  • 1534 Aragonese legal code formally recognised
  • 1568 Treaty of Longjumeau: French huguenots go on strike
  • 1579 Friesland joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1593 English Separatist Puritans John Greenwood and Henry Barrowe tried and sentenced to death on the charge of devising and circulating seditious books
  • 1630 French troops occupy Pinerolo Piedmont
  • 1657 France & England form alliance against Spain; England gets Dunkirk
  • 1708 Pretender to the English throne James III attempts to land at Firth of Forth, Scotland, but is turned away by the British Royal Navy

Music Premiere

1743 George Frideric Handel's oratorio "Messiah" premieres at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London

  • 1752 Pope Stephen II elected to succeed Zacharias, dies 2 days later

Historic Event

1775 Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death" in speech in favour of Virginian troops joining US Revolutionary war

  • 1782 Novel "Les Liaisons dangereuses" (Dangerous Liaisons) by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos is published by Durand Neveu
  • 1794 Josiah Pierson patents a "cold-header" (rivet) machine

Historic Event

1808 Napoleon's brother Joseph takes the throne of Spain

  • 1821 Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence
  • 1839 1st recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] (Boston's Morning Post)
  • 1840 John William Draper takes 1st successful photo in US of the Moon (daguerreotype), in New York City
  • 1848 The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
  • 1849 Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert vs Italian republic)

Historic Event

1857 Elisha Otis installs his 1st elevator at 488 Broadway in New York City

  • 1858 Streetcar patented (E A Gardner of Philadelphia)
  • 1861 London's 1st tramcars, designed by Mr Train of NY, begins operating
  • 1862 Battle of Kernstown Virginia, Jackson begins his Valley Campaign
  • 1864 Encounter at Camden, Arkansas

Historic Event

1865 General Sherman and Cox' troops reach Goldsboro, North Carolina

Historic Event

1867 Congress passes 2nd Reconstruction Act over President Andrew Johnson's veto

  • 1868 University of California founded in Oakland, California
  • 1877 39th Grand National: Fred Hobson aboard 15/1 shot Austerlitz wins by 4 lengths from Congress
  • 1878 English FA Cup Final, Kennington Oval, London: Wanderers beat Royal Engineers, 3–1; Wanderers' back-to-back and 5th title overall
  • 1879 War of the Pacific fought between Chile and the joints forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully takes over Arica and Tarapacá, leaving Bolivia a landlocked country.
  • 1880 Flour rolling mill patented (John Stevens of Wisconsin)
  • 1881 Boers & Britain sign peace accord; end 1st Boer war
  • 1881 Gas lamp sets fire to Théâtre Municipal” opera house in Nice, France; 70 die, and building completely destroyed
  • 1882 The Edmunds Act (Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act) is adopted by the US to suppress polygamy. 1300 men are later imprisoned under the act

Music Premiere

1886 Tchaikovsky's "Manfred" symphony premieres in Moscow, Russia, conducted by Max Erdmannsdörfer

  • 1888 50th Grand National: George Mawson aboard 40/1 outsider Playfair easily wins by 10 lengths from Frigate
  • 1889 The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London
  • 1896 The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels
  • 1896 Umberto Giordano's opera "Andrea Chénier" premieres in Milan

Music History

1901 Australian opera star Dame Nellie Melba reveals secret of her now famous toast

  • 1903 The Wright brothers 1st file a patent for a flying machine, which is granted 3 years later
  • 1908 American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in hospital two days later
  • 1915 Zion Mule Corp formed by the British Army
  • 1917 Tornadoes kills 211 over 4 days in Midwest US
  • 1918 Alick Wickham dives 200' into Australia's Yarra River
  • 1918 German forces advance 14 miles to the Somme River (WW1)
  • 1918 Germany begins using long-range gun, the 'Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz' ('Emperor William Gun'), aka 'Paris Gun' to shell Paris from Crépy-en-Laonnais, 75 miles away; over several days, 303 rounds kill 256 and wound over 600
  • 1918 Lithuania proclaims independence

Historic Event

1919 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party re-establishes a five-member Politburo which becomes the center of political power in the Soviet Union. Original members Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky

  • 1919 Bashkir ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted

Historic Event

1919 Benito Mussolini forms Fascist movement in Milan Italy

  • 1920 Perserikatan Communist of India (PKI) political party forms
  • 1921 Germany announces it will be unable to meet its Great War reparation payments
  • 1922 1st airplane lands at the US Capitol in Washington, D.C.
  • 1922 KMJ-AM in Fresno CA begins radio transmissions
  • 1922 WEW-AM in Saint Louis MO begins radio transmissions
  • 1923 82nd Grand National: Capt. Tuppy Bennett wins aboard 13-year-old 100/6 shot Sergeant Murphy; first US bred horse to win race
  • 1923 Frank Silver and Irving Conn publish their hit song "Yes, We Have No Bananas"

Historic Event

1929 1st telephone installed at the President’s desk under the Hoover administration at the White House

Sports History

1930 US Mens Figure Skating championship won by Roger Turner


1931 Indian independence fighters Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar are hanged after conducting an assassination and a bombing. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused.

Historic Event

1933 Enabling Act: German Reichstag grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers

  • 1933 Kroll Opera in Berlin opens
  • 1934 93rd Grand National: Gerry Wilson wins aboard 8/1 Golden Miller in race record 9:20.04; becomes only horse to win both UK's premier steeplechases with Cheltenham Gold Cup victory 1934
  • 1936 Italy, Austria & Hungary sign Pact of Rome

Historic Event

1936 Physician Joseph G. Hamilton injects a leukemia patient with a sodium radioisotope, first intravenous injection of a human with a radioisotope

  • 1937 LA Railway Co starts using PCC streetcars

Contract of Interest

1938 MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis frees 74 St Louis Cardinals minor league players from their contracts

Music Premiere

1939 1st performance of Béla Bartók's 2nd Violin Concerto at the Concertgebow, Amsterdam with Zoltán Székely on violin and Willem Mengelberg conducting the Concertgebouw Orchestra

  • 1940 1st radio broadcast of "Truth or Consequences" on CBS
  • 1940 The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore), calling for independent Muslim state(s), is adopted by the All-India Muslim League
  • 1942 2,500 Jews of Lublin massacred or deported
  • 1942 Japanese forces occupy Andaman Islands in Indian Ocean
  • 1943 German counter attack on US lines in Tunisia
  • 1944 Italian resistance group bombs occupying German police at Via Rasella, Rome; killing 33 and wounding 110 of the 156 man force; retaliation kills 335 civilians

Battle of Okinawa

1945 Battle of Okinawa: US Navy ships bomb the Japanese island of Okinawa in preparation for the Allied invasion; it would become the largest battle of the Pacific War in World War II

  • 1945 British 7th Black Watch crosses the Rhine into Germany
  • 1945 British Prime Minister Churchill visits Montgomery's headquarter in Straelen

Historic Event

1945 Lt. Gen. Miles Dempsey becomes the first British commander to cross the Rhine during the Allied invasion of Germany

Historic Event

1945 The Swallow Sidecar Company headed by William Lyons agrees to change its name to Jaguar

  • 1946 8th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Oklahoma State beats North Carolina, 43-40; Cowboys' back-to-back titles and center Bob Kurland MOP for 2nd straight year
  • 1948 10th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Kentucky beats Baylor, 58-42; Wildcats' first victory in first title game
  • 1948 John Cunningham sets world altitude record (54,492' (18,133 m))
  • 1949 Sidney Kingsley's "Detective Story" premieres in NYC
  • 1950 "Great to Be Alive" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 52 performances
  • 1950 Frances Farmer is released from Western State Hospital
  • 1950 Sophocles Venizelos forms liberal Greek government
  • 1950 UN World Meteorological Org established
  • 1951 Wages in France increase 11%
  • 1952 NY Rangers blow 6-2 lead, lose 7-6 to Chicago Black Hawks; Bill Mosienko scores fastest hat trick in NHL history, 21 seconds
  • 1956 Pakistan proclaimed an Islamic republic in Commonwealth (National Day)
  • 1956 Sudan becomes independent

Sports History

1957 19th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: North Carolina beats Kansas, 54-53 (3 OT); Wilt Chamberlain of Kansas 4th player to be named tournament MOP despite not playing for the championship team

  • 1957 US army sells last homing pigeons
  • 1960 NASA's Explorer (8) fails to reach Earth orbit

Historic Event

1962 JFK visits San Francisco

  • 1962 Nawab of Pataudi captains India cricket v WI age 21 years 77 days
  • 1962 Wake Forest coach "Bones" McKinney becomes 2nd person to play and coach
  • 1962 William DeWitt buys Cincinnati Reds for $4,625,000
  • 1963 25th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Loyola-Chicago beats Cincinnati, 60-58 (OT); Ramblers' first title in first title game
  • 1963 8th Eurovision Song Contest: Grethe and Jorgen Ingmann for Denmark win singing "Dansevise" in London
  • 1963 Rolf Hochhuth's play "Der Stellvertreter" (The Representative) premieres in Berlin

Historic Publication

1964 "In His Own Write", a book of short stories, poems and drawings by John Lennon is published

  • 1964 UNCTAD 1 world conference opens in Geneva
  • 1965 Gemini 3 launched, 1st US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young)
  • 1965 Moroccan army shoots on demonstrators, about 100 killed
  • 1966 1st official meeting after 400 years of Catholic & Anglican Church
  • 1968 30th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: UCLA beats North Carolina, 78-55; Bruins back-to-back titles; Lew Alcindor tournament Most Outstanding Player for the 2nd of 3 consecutive years
  • 1968 France retains the Five Nations Rugby Championship with an 14-9 win over Wales at the National Stadium, Cardiff; first Grand Slam victory for France

Album Release

1968 Reprise Records releases "Song To A Seagull", Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell's debut studio album

  • 1968 Rev Walter Fauntroy, is 1st non-voting congressional delegate from DC
  • 1969 Rally for Decency in Miami
  • 1970 "Hello Darlin'" single released by Conway Twitty (Billboard Song of the Year, 1970)
  • 1970 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1971 Dutch 2nd Chamber accept simplified divorce
  • 1971 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1972 Geoge Harrison and Friends' "The Concert for Bangladesh" concert film, directed by Saul Swimmer released in the US
  • 1972 NY Yankees agree to continue playing ball in the Bronx
  • 1973 After a 5½ year run soap "Love is a Many Splendored Thing" ends
  • 1973 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Music History

1973 Yoko Ono is granted permanent residence in USA

  • 1974 AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Immaculata beat Mississippi College 68-53 in Manhattan, Kansas
  • 1976 International Bill of Rights goes into effect (35 nations ratifying)

Music Concert

1977 Elvis Presley begins his final concert tour

  • 1978 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Boxing Title Fight

1979 Larry Holmes TKOs Osvaldo Ocasio in 7 for heavyweight boxing title

  • 1979 Wings release "Goodnight Tonight"

Sports History

1980 18-year old American tennis star Tracy Austin wins her only WTA Tour Championship; upsets Martina Navratilova in the final 6–2, 2–6, 6–2 in NYC

  • 1980 AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Old Dominion beat Tennessee 68-53 at Mount Pleasant

Cricket History

1980 Australian cricketer Allan Border becomes the first and only batsman to reach 150 in each innings of a test, in the 3rd test vs Pakistan in Lahore

Historic Event

1980 Deposed Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi arrives in Egypt

  • 1980 France performs nuclear test
  • 1980 Nicaraguan National Literary Crusade begins: crusade teachers swear in plazas across the country to exterminate ignorance in just five months (will successfully reduce illiteracy from 50% to 12%) [1]

PGA Players Championship

1980 PGA Tournament Players Championship, Sawgrass Country Club (Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida): Lee Trevino wins by 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Ben Crenshaw

  • 1981 PGA Tournament Players Championship, Sawgrass CC: Raymond Floyd beats Barry Jaeckel and Curtis Strange on the first hole of a sudden death playoff in a rain affected Monday finish
  • 1981 US Supreme Court rules states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls sought abortions
  • 1981 US Supreme Court upholds law making statutory rape a crime only for men

Coup d'état

1982 Guatemala military coup under General Efraín Rios Montt, President Romeo Lucas flees

NHL Record

1982 Isle's Mike Bossy's 20th career hat trick-4 goals

Historic Event

1983 US President Ronald Reagan introduces Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars")

  • 1984 Andrea Schone skates ladies world record 3 km (4:20.91)
  • 1984 Ice Pairs Championship at Ottawa won by Underhill & Paul Martini (CAN)
  • 1984 Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Ottawa won by Katarina Witt (GDR)

Sports History

1984 Men's Figure Skating Championship in Ottawa won by Scott Hamilton (USA)

Sports History

1984 World Ice Dancing Championship won by Jayne Torvill & Christopher Dean (GRB) in Ottawa, Canada

  • 1985 Julian Lennon's 1st concert (San Antonio Texas)
  • 1985 Space Shuttle Discovery moves to Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (Florida) for mating of STS 51-D mission
  • 1985 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1986 6th Golden Raspberry Awards: "Rambo: First Blood Part II" wins

Sports History

1986 First of 2 WTA Tour Championships of the year; change of tennis schedule; Martina Navratilova wins 4th straight and 7th overall title 6–2, 6–0, 3–6, 6–1 against Hana Mandlíková in NYC

Historic Event

1987 Former West German Chancellor Willy Brandt resigns as chairman of the Social Democratic Party

  • 1987 Soap "Bold & Beautiful" premieres
  • 1987 US offers military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf
  • 1988 Geffen Records releases "Chalk Mark In A Rain Storm", Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell's 13th studio album
  • 1989 2 Utah scientists claim they have produced fusion at room temperature
  • 1989 Joel Steinberg sentenced to 25 yrs for killing his adopted daughter
  • 1990 Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood ordered to help clean up Prince William Sound & pay $50,000 in restitution for 1989 oil spill
  • 1991 1st World League of American Football games, London beats Frankfurt 24-11, Sacramento beats Raleigh-Dur 9-3 & Mont beats Birmingham 20-5
  • 1991 20 Tornadoes kill 5 in Tennessee
  • 1991 Sergei Bubka pole vaults world record indoor (6.12m)
  • 1992 Florida Marlins begin selling tickets
  • 1993 Belgian government of Jean-Luc Dehaene resigns
  • 1993 NY Knicks & Phoenix Suns get into a major brawl

Historic Event

1994 Amy Fisher's lover Joey Buttafuoco is released from jail after 4 months & 9 days

  • 1994 Graeme Obree bicycles world record 10 km (11:28)

Film & TV History

1994 Howard Stern formally announces his Libertarian run for NY governor

Cricket History

1994 Last day of Test cricket for Kapil Dev

  • 1994 Richard Jacobs buys naming rights to Indians new ball park at Gateway for $13.8 million (renamed Jacobs Field)
  • 1994 Russian Airbus A-310 crashes in Siberia (74-75 killed)

NHL Record

1994 Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 802 goals scored

  • 1995 Dollar equals 88.41 yen (record)
  • 1995 Revival of Frank Loesser's musical "How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying" opens at Richard Rodgers Theater, NYC; runs for 548 performances
  • 1996 Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
  • 1997 "Mandy Patinkin in Concert" closes at Lyceum Theater NYC
  • 1997 17th Golden Raspberry Awards: "Striptease" wins
  • 1997 WrestleMania XIII, Rosemont Horizon, IL: Undertaker beats Sycho Sid for WWF Heavyweight title

Music Single

1999 "Livin' la Vida Loca" sung by Ricky Martin released - goes on to sell over 8 million copies

  • 1999 Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña

NHL Record

2000 Joe Sakic records his 400th career goal and becomes the Quebec Nordiques/Colorado Avalanche all-time leading point scorer

  • 2001 The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji
  • 2002 22nd Golden Raspberry Awards: "Freddy Got Fingered" wins

Academy Awards

2003 75th Academy Awards: "Chicago" (Best Picture), Adrien Brody (Best Actor - "The Piano") & Nicole Kidman (Best Actress - "The Hours") win

Cricket World Cup

2003 Cricket World Cup, Wanderers Stadium, Johannesburg, RSA: Ricky Ponting scores 140 no as defending champions Australia beat India by 125 runs; Sachin Tendulkar, Player of Series

  • 2003 In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • 2004 Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India

Album Release

2004 Usher releases his 4th studio album “Confessions” (2004 Billboard Album of the Year, Grammy Award Best Contemporary R&B Album 2005)

  • 2005 Major explosion and fire at the BP's Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers in Texas City, Texas
  • 2005 The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube
  • 2006 The Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply

Film & TV History

2007 After some initial hesitation, Emma Watson signs on to appear as Hermione in the final three Harry Potter films

  • 2007 Burnley Tunnel catastrophe occurs in Melbourne, Australia
  • 2007 Iranian Navy seize Royal Navy personnel in Iraqi waters