On This Day

Historical Events on November 20

Historic Event

284 Roman soldier Diocletian proclaimed Emperor by the army

  • 762 Bögü, Khan of the Uyghurs, conquers Lo-Yang, capital of the Chinese Empire
  • 1168 Giovanni di Struma elected anti-Pope
  • 1194 Palermo, Sicily, is conquered by Emperor Henry VI

Historic Event

1272 Edward I proclaimed King of England after death of his father, Henry III. He would take two years to return to England from the Ninth Crusade.

  • 1342 Pope Clemens VI names John IV of Arkel as bishop of Utrecht
  • 1347 Cola di Rienzo, later Roman Tribunal, addresses a meeting of on the Capitol during people's revolt in Rome
  • 1407 A truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.
  • 1431 First meeting of Order of the Golden Fleece
  • 1461 Astronomer Regiomontanus returns with Cardinal Basilios Bessarion's to his house in Rome, home to one of largest libraries in Europe
  • 1520 Friesland hit by heavy hail storm
  • 1521 Arabs attribute shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine
  • 1583 Duke of Parma conquers Aalst
  • 1616 Bishop Richelieu becomes French minister of Foreign affairs/War
  • 1637 Peter Minuit & 1st Swedish immigrants to Delaware sail from Sweden
  • 1695 Zumbi, the last King of the Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil and ex-slave, is executed and decapitated, his head displayed on a pike to dispel any legends of his immortality
  • 1719 Sweden & Hannover sign for peace Treaty of Stockholm
  • 1759 -22] Battle in Bay of Quiberon, British beat French

Bill of Rights

1789 New Jersey is 1st state to ratify Bill of Rights

  • 1795 Curacao government forbids slave work on Sunday

Music Premiere

1805 Ludwig van Beethoven's "Fidelio", his only opera, premieres at Vienna's Theater an der Wien

Treaty of Interest

1815 Second Treaty of Paris: France and her allies agree France will pay indemnities after Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars

  • 1815 Russia, Prussia, Austria and England sign an Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" on the same day as the Treaty of Paris
  • 1820 Whaling ship Essex attacked and sunk by a sperm whale in the southern Pacific, only eight of the 20 crew men eventually survive (through cannibalism). Inspiration for the novel "Moby-Dick"
  • 1829 Jews expelled from Nikolayev & Sevastopol, Russia
  • 1852 Charles Reade and Tom Taylor's historical comedy play "Masks & Faces" premieres in London
  • 1861 Secession ordinance is filed by Kentucky's Confederate government
  • 1862 Confederate armies of Mississippi and Kentucky merge as Army of Tennessee, under General Braxton Bragg
  • 1866 First national convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
  • 1866 Howard University founded in Washington, D.C.
  • 1866 French inventor Pierre Lallement patents rotary crank bicycle
  • 1886 Sherlock Holmes's first story "A Study in Scarlet" is accepted by publisher Ward and Lock with payment of £25
  • 1888 Willard Bundy patents timecard clock
  • 1889 Gustav Mahler's 1st Symphony premieres in Budapest and is not well received

Catholic Encyclical

1890 Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Slavery in the Missions"

  • 1894 US intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua

Music Premiere

1901 Opera "Grisélidis" by Jules Massenet, Armand Silvestre and Eugène Morand premieres in Paris

Sports History

1902 Geo Lefevre and Henri Desgrange create Tour de France bicycle race

Theater Premiere

1906 George Bernard Shaw's play "Doctor's Dilemma" premieres in London

  • 1909 Jack Williams of Canadian football team Ottawa Rough Riders kicks 9 singles in a game
  • 1910 Revolution breaks out in Mexico, led by Francisco I. Madero
  • 1911 Gustav Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" (Song of the Earth) premieres in Munich

Historic Event

1911 The funeral of Paul and Laura Lafargue (daughter of Karl Marx) in Paris is attended by Lenin; the two socialists died in a suicide pact in the belief that their political usefulness was at an end

  • 1914 US State Department starts requiring photographs for passports
  • 1915 CFL Grey Cup, Varsity Stadium, Toronto: Hamilton Tigers win 2nd title; beat Toronto Rowing Association, 13-7
  • 1917 1st successful tank use in battle, at the Battle of Cambrai in World War I as Britain uses the new technology to break through German lines
  • 1917 Ukrainian Republic declared
  • 1919 1st municipally owned airport in US opens in Tucson, Arizona
  • 1922 Zoe Akins' play "Texas Nightingale" premieres in NYC
  • 1923 Garrett Morgan patents his traffic signal design, an important development in automobile safety
  • 1923 Rentenmark replaces the Papiermark as the official currency of Germany at the exchange rate of one Rentenmark to One Trillion (One Billion on the long scale) Papiermark

Sports History

1928 Boston Gardens opens, Montreal Canadiens beat Boston Bruins, 1-0

  • 1928 WGH-AM in Newport News VA begins radio transmissions
  • 1929 First broadcast of "Goldbergs" on US radio

Historic Event

1929 Salvador Dali's first one-man show

  • 1931 Commercial teletype service begins (AT&T)
  • 1932 Earthquake at Uden, Netherlands

Sports History

1934 17 year old pitcher Eiji Sawamura gives up just 1 hit, a Lou Gehrig HR, as US All Stars beat Japan, 1-0

Historic Event

1934 Lillian Hellman's "Children's Hour" premieres in NYC

  • 1934 New Belgian government of Theunis, Francqui & Gutt (3 bankers)
  • 1934 Toronto Maple Leafs left wing Busher Jackson becomes first NHL player to score 4 goals in a period in 5-2 win over St. Louis Eagles at St. Louis Arena
  • 1936 Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange is killed by a republican execution squad
  • 1938 1st documented anti-semitic remarks over US radio (by Father Coughlin)
  • 1940 World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers
  • 1941 Adm Nomura & Kurusu hands over Japanese last diplomatic note
  • 1941 German "auxiliary cruiser" (armed merchant raider) Kormoran sinks near Australia
  • 1942 26th Soviet Armoured Corps recaptures Perelazovski
  • 1942 British 8th Army recaptures Benghazi, Libya
  • 1942 NHL abolishes regular season OT until WW II is over
  • 1943 U-538 sinks in Atlantic Ocean
  • 1943 US forces land on Tarawa & Makin Atoll in Gilbert Island
  • 1944 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack (Ulithi Atol, Carolines)
  • 1944 Amsterdam: Vondelpark closed because of kappen of trees
  • 1944 Dutch Prince Bernhard establishes staff in Breda, Netherlands

Music Premiere

1945 Dmitri Shostakovich's 9th Symphony under J Mravinski premieres

Historic Event

1945 Queen Wilhelmina opens Dutch parliament in Hague

  • 1946 Lillian Hellman's play "Another Part of the Forest" premieres in NYC
  • 1947 1st permanent TV installed on seagoing vessel (New Jersey)

Catholic Encyclical

1947 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Mediator Dei

  • 1947 UN General assembly begins debate on printing their own stamps
  • 1948 US balloon reaches height of 42.7 km (record)
  • 1949 Jewish population of Israel reaches 1,000,000
  • 1951 Snowdonia becomes a British National Park
  • 1952 Chicago Cubs slugging left fielder Hank Sauer wins NL MVP
  • 1952 George Axelrod's play "Seven Year Itch" premieres in NYC

Historic Event

1952 Slánský trials begin - a series of Stalinist and anti-Semitic show trials in Czechoslovakia.

  • 1953 Scott Crossfield in Douglas Skyrocket, 1st to break Mach 2 (1,300 MPH)
  • 1954 KTRK TV channel 13 in Houston, TX (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 Kripal Singh scores 100 on Test Cricket debut, India v NZ
  • 1955 Polly Umrigar scores India's 1st Test Cricket double century, 223 v NZ

Theater Premiere

1957 Morton Wishengrad's dramatic play "Rope Dancers", starring Art Carney, Siobhán McKenna, and Theodore Bikel, premieres at Cort Theatre, NYC; runs for 189 performances

  • 1959 UN adopts Universal Declaration of Children's Rights
  • 1959 WABC fires Alan Freed over payola scandal
  • 1960 Australian driver Jack Brabham finishes 4th in season-ending US Grand Prix at Riverside Raceway to retain his F1 World Drivers Championship by 9 points from Bruce McLaren of New Zealand
  • 1961 WPLG TV channel 10 in Miami, FL (ABC) begins broadcasting

Sports History

1962 Mickey Mantle wins AL MVP for the 3rd time

  • 1962 USSR agrees to remove remaining Ilyushin Il-28 bomber jets from Cuba, US lifts blockade
  • 1964 Dmitri Shostakovich's 9th/10th String Quartet premieres in Moscow
  • 1965 Cyril Ornadel and Leslie Bricusse's musical "Pickwick", based on Charles Dicken's novel "The Pickwick Papers", closes at 46th St Theater, NYC, after 56 performances
  • 1965 UN Security council calls for boycott of Rhodesia
  • 1965 WCNY TV channel 24 in Syracuse, NY (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1966 John Kander and Fred Ebb's "Cabaret" opens at Broadhurst Theater, NYC; runs for 1166 performances, wins 8 Tony Awards
  • 1966 Dallas sacks Pittsburgh QBs an NFL record 12 times
  • 1966 Men in Zurich vote against female suffrage
  • 1967 At 11 AM, Census Clock at Department of Commerce ticks past 200 million

Sports History

1967 Mets pitcher Tom Seaver (16-12) is named NL Rookie of Year

  • 1968 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Music Awards

1968 2nd Country Music Association Award: Glen Campbell and Tammy Wynette win

  • 1969 Alcatraz Island, off San Francisco, is seized by militant Native Americans
  • 1969 Gundappa Viswanath scores 137 on Test Cricket debut v Australia Kanpur

Sports History

1969 Brazilian soccer icon Pele scores his 1,000th goal

  • 1970 UN General Assembly accepts membership of People's Republic of China
  • 1971 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Sports History

1971 21st NASCAR Sprint Cup: Richard Petty wins

  • 1972 2 British soldiers are killed in a booby trap bomb in Cullyhanna, County Armagh
  • 1974 Rangers' Jeff Burroughs wins AL MVP
  • 1974 The US files antitrust suit to break-up AT&T

Historic Event

1975 Ronald Reagan announces candidacy for Republican nomination for US President

Music History

1976 George Harrison appears on "Saturday Night Live": haggling with Lorne Michaels; performing "Here Comes the Sun" and "Homeward Bound" with Paul Simon; and airing two music videos

Historic Event

1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat becomes the 1st Arab leader to address Israeli Knesset

  • 1977 Steve Largent begins NFL streak of 177 consecutive game receptions

NFL Record

1977 Walter Payton (Bears) rushes for NFL record 275 yards

  • 1977 27th NASCAR Sprint Cup: Cale Yarborough wins
  • 1979 Islamic extremists led by Juhayman al-Otaybi occupy the Grand Mosque of Mecca, declare the arrival of the Mahdi (the "redeemer of Islam") in the form of Mohammed Abdullah al-Qahtani and call for the overthrow of the House of Saud. Siege lasts two weeks with 100s killed and sets Saudi Arabia on an ultra-conservative path. [1]
  • 1979 US's 1st artificial blood transfusion occurs at University of Minnesota Hospital
  • 1980 Steve Ptacek in Solar Challenger makes 1st solar-powered flight
  • 1980 United Artists withdraws $44 million movie "Heaven's Gate" for re-editing
  • 1980 United Nations Gulf War mediator Olof Palme makes first unsuccessful peace shuttle between Tehran and Baghdad

Sports History

1981 Russian Anatoly Karpov retains world chess championship

  • 1981 Burundi adopts its constitution
  • 1981 El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens "limited offensive"

Album Release

1981 Ringo Starr releases album "Stop & Smell Roses"

Film & TV History

1982 Drew Barrymore at age 7 hosts "Saturday Night Live"

  • 1983 "Marilyn: An American Fable" opens at Minskoff Theater, NYC; runs for 17 performances
  • 1983 100 million watch ABC TV movie "The Day After" about nuclear war
  • 1983 Cleveland Browns shutout Patriots 30-0
  • 1983 NY Giants Butch Woolfolk ties NFL record of 43 attempts rushing

Film Premiere

1983 "Terms of Endearment" from the book by Larry McMurtry, directed by James L. Brooks and starring Shirley MacLaine and Debra Winger premieres in New York (Best Picture 1984)

Sports History

1984 Mets pitcher Dwight Gooden wins NL Rookie of Year

  • 1984 SETI Institute (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) is founded.

Sports History

1985 NY Yankee Don Mattingly easily wins AL MVP

  • 1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released
  • 1986 Afghanistan President Babrak Karmal flees
  • 1986 World Health Organization announces first global effort to combat AIDS
  • 1988 Boston College beats Army 38-24 in the 'Emerald isle Classic' at Dublin's Lansdowne Road Stadium, the first NCAA American Football game to be played in Europe
  • 1988 "Les Miserables" opens a Bus & Truck tour in Tampa

Sports History

1988 38th NASCAR Sprint Cup: Bill Elliott wins

  • 1988 Argentine tennis star Gabriela Sabatini beats Pam Shriver 7–5, 6–2, 6–2 to win her first WTA Tour Championship at Madison Square Garden, NYC
  • 1989 Milwaukee Brewers center fielder Robin Yount wins AL MVP

Sports History

1990 Oakland's Rickey Henderson wins AL MVP

  • 1990 Sacramento Kings last NBA win on the road for over a year

Leadership Contest

1990 British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher fails to defeat Michael Heseltine's bid for leadership of the Conservative Party

  • 1990 US 68th manned space mission STS 38 (Atlantis 7) returns from space

Historic Event

1990 Saddam Hussein announces plans to release German hostages

  • 1990 Soviet Union shows reluctance to endorse the use of force against Iraq
  • 1991 Atlanta Braves Terry Pendleton wins NL MVP
  • 1992 Queen Elizabeth's home Windsor Castle catches fire

Sports History

1992 Home crowd favourite Boris Becker claims his 2nd ATP Tour World Championship tennis title beating American Jim Courier 6–4, 6–3, 7–5 in the final in Frankfurt, Germany

  • 1993 Jakovlev-42 crashes into mountain at Ohrid Macedonia, 116 killed

Murder of Interest

1993 Winnie Mandela's driver and bodyguard murdered in Johannesburg

  • 1993 Savings and Loan scandal: The United States Senate Ethics Committee issues a stern censure of California senator Alan Cranston for his "dealings" with savings-and-loan executive Charles Keating.
  • 1994 "Flying Karamzov Brothers..." opens at Helen Hayes NYC for 50 performances
  • 1994 "Shadow Box" opens at Circle in Sq Theater NYC for 49 performances
  • 1994 Russian Kosmos satellites 2294, 2295 and 2296 launch
  • 1994 Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign the Lusaka Protocol in Zambia, ending 19 years of civil war
  • 1994 Unseeded Argentine tennis star Gabriela Sabatini claims WTA Tour Championship with a 6-3, 6-2, 6-4 win over American Lindsay Davenport at Madison Square Garden, NYC

Sports History

1994 American tennis star Pete Sampras beats Boris Becker 4–6, 6–3, 7–5, 6–4 to win his second ATP Tour World Championship title in Frankfurt, Germany

  • 1995 "Beatles' Anthology, Vol 1" released
  • 1995 "Racing Demon" opens at Vivian Beaumont Theater NYC for 48 performances
  • 1995 FDA approves new therapy for use as an initial AIDS treatment, 3TC
  • 1995 NASA Space Shuttle STS 74 (Atlantis 15), lands back at Kennedy Space Center
  • 1997 "Ivanov" opens at Vivian Beaumont Theater NYC for 51 performances

Sports History

1997 Flyers Eric Lindros tries to bite San Jose defenseman Marty McSorley

  • 1997 Last original Florida Marlin, Jeff Conine, traded to KC Royals
  • 1997 Mavericks' A C Green sets NBA record of 907 consecutive games played
  • 1997 NY Islanders lose, beginning a 10 game losing streak
  • 1997 Yohannes Haile-Selassie discovers the partial skull of a 2.5 million year old human ancestor, confirming and establishing the new species Australopithecus garhi, in Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia
  • 1997 Iraq's Revolution Command Council formally endorses an agreement, arranged by Russia, that enables UN weapons inspection teams to resume operations in Iraq

Historic Event

1998 Court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden "a man without a sin" in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania

  • 1998 First module of the International Space Station, Zarya, is launched
  • 2000 52nd NASCAR Sprint Cup: Bobby Labonte wins

Historic Event

2001 US President George W. Bush dedicates the US Department of Justice headquarters the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, on what would have been his 76th birthday

Album Release

2001 Josh Groban releases his debut album "Josh Groban"; sales exceed over 5 million units

Film Release

2002 "Die Another Day", 20th James Bond film released, directed by Lee Tamahori, starring Pierce Brosnan and Halle Berry

  • 2003 After the November 15 bombings, a second day of the 2003 Istanbul Bombings occurs in Istanbul, Turkey, destroying the Turkish head office of HSBC Bank AS and the British consulate.
  • 2005 57th NASCAR Sprint Cup: Tony Stewart wins

Sports History

2005 David Nalbandian of Argentina outlasts defending champion Roger Federer 6–7, 6–7, 6–2, 6–1, 7–6 in Shanghai, China to win his only career season-ending Tennis Masters Cup title

Contract of Interest

2006 Moises Alou signs a one year-contract with the New York Mets worth $7.5 million

  • 2006 58th NASCAR Sprint Cup: Jimmie Johnson wins
  • 2008 After critical failures in the US financial system began to build up after mid-September, the Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level since 1997.
  • 2009 The Mexican government declares its economy technically out of recession after 2.93% GDP growth in the third quarter of 2009; Mexico had been in a severe economic crisis for over a year prior to its economic rebound
  • 2011 Presidents Cup Golf, Royal Melbourne GC: Jim Furyk wins all 5 of his matches as US beats International team, 19-15
  • 2012 Toshiba unveils a robot designed to help in nuclear disasters