On This Day

Historical Events on October 1

Events 1 - 200 of 343

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

331 BC Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela

Macedonian King and Conqueror of Persia Alexander the Great
Macedonian King and Conqueror of Persia
Alexander the Great
  • 366 St Damasus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 704 Aengibald gives away bishop Willibrord estate in Waalre
  • 911 During a siege in Constantinople, the Theotokos (Mary, the mother of Jesus) appeared at the church in Blachernae holding her veil over the praying faithful, among them St. Andrew of Constantinople.
  • 959 Edgar I, the Peaceful, becomes king of all England
  • 965 John XIII Crescentii elected to succeed Pope Leo VIII
  • 1189 Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184, is killed in the Siege of Acre
  • 1273 Count Rudolf van Habsburg becomes King of the Germans
  • 1529 -3] Meeting between Maarten Luther & Huldrych Zwingli

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1569 Duke of Norfolk arrested by Queen Elizabeth I for conspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots

Queen of England and Ireland Elizabeth I
Queen of England and Ireland
Elizabeth I
  • 1574 -2] Storm breaks Leiden dike; drowns 20,000 Spanish soldiers
  • 1606 Spanish troops under Spinola occupies fort Rhine birch
  • 1632 Battle at Castelnaudary: Duke Henri de Montmorency's rebel army loses
  • 1653 Russian parliament accepts annexation of Ukraine
  • 1657 Treaty of Raalte: Willem II no longer viceroy of Overijssel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1661 Yachting begins in England; King Charles II beats his brother James, Duke of York racing from Greenwich to Gravesend

King of England Charles II
King of England
Charles II

  • 1670 -4] Battle at Simbirsk a/d Wolga: Russian army beats Boers
  • 1688 Prince Willem III of Orange accepts invitation of take up the British crown
  • 1705 Parliament declares Hungary independently/French Rákóczi becomes king
  • 1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to France
  • 1768 British troops under General Thomas Gage land in Boston
  • 1787 Russians under Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.
  • 1791 1st session of new French legislative assembly
  • 1795 France annexes Southern Netherlands
  • 1795 Belgium is conquered by France.
  • 1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
  • 1801 Britain & France sign Preliminary of London

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1814 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, which redrew Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1827 The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia
  • 1829 South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
  • 1830 General Trade Journal newspaper begins publishing in Amsterdam
  • 1837 "Racer's" Hurricane (Gulf of Mexico)
  • 1837 Treaty with Winnebago Indians
  • 1838 Civil Code enforced (- Jan 1, 1992)
  • 1843 News of the World begins publication in London

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1844 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt departs Jimbour, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs, to begin his exploration of Australia's Northern Territory from Moreton Bay to Port Essington

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt

  • 1847 Maria Mitchell discovers a non-naked-eye comet

InventionHistoric Invention

1847 German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske

Industrialist and Inventor Werner von Siemens
Industrialist and Inventor
Werner von Siemens
  • 1851 1st Hawaiian stamps issued

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1852 Alfred Russel Wallace returns to the U.K. after four years of travel, collecting, and research in South America

Naturalist, biologist, and explorer Alfred Russel Wallace
Naturalist, biologist, and explorer
Alfred Russel Wallace
  • 1854 The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.
  • 1863 5 Russian warships welcomed in NYC
  • 1863 Dutch Breda-Tilburg railway opens
  • 1864 Cyclone strikes Calcutta: 70,000 killed
  • 1864 John Summerfield Staples is paid $500 as a substitute for US President Abraham Lincoln
  • 1866 Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1867 Karl Marx' "Das Kapital" published

Communist Philosopher Karl Marx
Communist Philosopher
Karl Marx
  • 1868 1st edition of Maasbode published

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1868 "Little Women" by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston

  • 1869 1st postcards are issued (Vienna, Austria)
  • 1871 General Dutch Werkliedenverbond (ANWV), forms in Utrecht
  • 1874 Rotterdam opens drinking water pipes
  • 1879 Cincinnati Enquirer publishes first report on Baseball's reserve clause; rights to players retained by team upon the contract's expiration; replaced by free agency

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1880 John Philip Sousa becomes new director of US Marine Corps Band

  • 1885 Special delivery mail service begins in US
  • 1886 US mint at Carson City, Nevada, closes
  • 1887 Balochistan conquered by the British Empire.
  • 1888 National Geographic magazine publishes for the 1st time
  • 1889 Dutch soccer club HFC Haarlem is founded; National champions 1946; bankrupt in 2010; merge with HFC Kennemerland, new club Haarlem Kennemerland
  • 1889 Washington voters adopt state constitution in referendum
  • 1890 Congress creates Weather Bureau
  • 1890 Congress establishes Yosemite National Park (California)
  • 1890 Germany's anti-socialist laws lapse

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1891 Stanford University, California opens its doors after being founded by Leland Stanford and his wife Jane with a $40m donation (1891 dollars). It's 1st student, future US President Herbert Hoover.

Business Tycoon and Politican Leland Stanford
Business Tycoon and Politican
Leland Stanford
31st US President Herbert Hoover
31st US President
Herbert Hoover
  • 1892 University of Chicago opens
  • 1893 3rd worst hurricane in US history kills 1,800 (Mississippi)
  • 1894 Civic organization, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben founded in Omaha, Nebraska
  • 1894 First meeting of The Owl Club of Cape Town
  • 1895 Romanians in Costantinople massacred
  • 1898 Dutch railway Alkmaar-Receiver opens
  • 1898 Henry Huntington buys LA Railway
  • 1898 Jews are expelled from Kiev, Ukraine
  • 1898 Tsar Nikolay II expels Jews from major Russian cities
  • 1898 The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1903 First Baseball World Series game ever played; Pittsburgh Pirates beat Boston Americans 7-3 at Huntington Avenue; Jimmy Sebring hits first home run; Deacon Phillippe is winning pitcher and Cy Young the loser

MLB Pitcher Cy Young
MLB Pitcher
Cy Young
  • 1904 JB van Heutsz becomes governor general of Dutch East Indies
  • 1904 Netherlands & Portugal lay down bounderies splitting Timor
  • 1905 František Pavlík is killed in a demonstration in Prague, inspiring Leoš Janáček to the piano composition 1. X. 1905.
  • 1907 Plaza Hotel (5th Av & 59th Str, NY) opens

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1907 A downturn in the stock market leads to a run on the dollar; US President Theodore Roosevelt will be forced to call on financier J. P. Morgan to help manage the financial crisis

Industrialist and Banker J. P. Morgan
Industrialist and Banker
J. P. Morgan
26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1908 1st Dutch electric railway in use (Rotterdam-The Hague)

Historic InventionModel T

1908 Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)
Learn More >>

The 1910 Model T Ford
The 1910 Model T Ford

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1908 Future Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Jack Chesbro records final victory for the NY Highlanders before waived and claimed by Red Sox; beats Walter Johnson and Washington Senators, 2-1

MLB Pitcher Walter Johnson
MLB Pitcher
Walter Johnson
  • 1910 Berkshire Cattle Fair held in Pittsfield Mass (1st state fair)
  • 1910 Explosion at LA Times kills 21
  • 1910 Regina Rugby Club (to become CFL Saskatchewan Roughriders) plays first game, losing to Moose Jaw Tigers, 16-6
  • 1911 United Dutch Diamond workers get 8-hr day
  • 1914 The Prince of Asir, the southern region of Arabia, rises in revolt against the Turks; his actions will inspire other Arab leaders to revolt
  • 1914 The first division of Canadian troops, 33,000 sail for Britain; most Canadians are volunteers, anxious to prove their loyalty to the Commonwealth

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1918 World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") capture Damascus

Soldier and Writer T. E. Lawrence
Soldier and Writer
T. E. Lawrence
  • 1919 Infamous 'Black Sox' Baseball World Series begins with Cincinnati Reds' Dutch Ruether pitching a 6-hitter and hitting 3 RBI on 2 triples and a single for a 9-1 rout of White Sox

  • 1920 Dutch law provides for an 8 hour working day
  • 1920 Sir Percy Cox landed in Basra to assume his responsibilities as high commissioner in Iraq.
  • 1921 WJZ, Newark NJ begins broadcasting

Sport awardPGA Championship

1921 PGA Championship Men's Golf, Inwood CC: Walter Hagen beats former champion Jim Barnes of England 3 & 2; Hagan's third major title

Golfer Walter Hagen
Walter Hagen
  • 1922 Former Chicago Staleys play first NFL game as Chicago Bears; beat Racine Legion, 6-0 at Horlick Field, Racine, Wisconsin
  • 1922 Cardinals 2nd baseman Rogers Hornsby hits 3-for-5 in 7-1 regular season ending win v Cubs; improves batting average to .401; only MLB player to bat .400 and hit 40 HRs in same season
  • 1924 1st Dutch airliner, the Fokker F.VII takes off from Amsterdam for Batavia (Java)

Sports record brokenWorld Record

1924 Finnish distance runner Paavo Nurmi runs world record 4 mile (19:15.4) & 5 mile (24:06.2)at Vilpuri, Russia

Runner nicknamed the
Runner nicknamed the "Flying Finn"
Paavo Nurmi
  • 1924 MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Landis bans NY Giants outfielder Jimmy O'Connell & coach Cozy Dolan from World Series after they attempt to bribe Phillies shortstop Heinie Sand
  • 1926 An oil field accident cost aviator Wiley Post his left eye, but he used the settlement money to buy his first aircraft.
  • 1927 Pittsburgh Pirates with a team including 5 future Baseball Hall of Famers clinch NL pennant with 9-6 win v Cincinnati Reds; Pirates' last NL pennant until 1960
  • 1928 Finnish distance runner Paavo Nurmi runs 15k world record 46:49.6 and 10 miles 50:15.0 in Berlin, Germany
  • 1928 USSR launches its first 5-year plan
  • 1931 Spanish Cortes accept general female suffrage
  • 1931 Philadelphia Athletics seek 3rd straight World Series baseball title; beat St. Louis Cardinals, 6-2 in opener at Sportsman's Park; lose series, 4-3
  • 1931 The second (and current) Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is opened in New York.
  • 1932 Oswald Mosley forms British Union of Fascists

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1932 Babe Ruth’s legendary call; sledged by Cubs dugout, points to center-field before homering into the Wrigley Field bleachers in 5th inning, Game 3 of the World Series; NY Yankees win, 7-5

Baseball Legend Babe Ruth
Baseball Legend
Babe Ruth

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 New York Giants make no 1st downs, but still beat the Green Bay Packers, 10-7 in a week 3 NFL matchup at Borchert Field, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

American Football Player Mel Hein
American Football Player
Mel Hein
  • 1933 Washington Senators coach Nick Altrock plays in a MLB game at age 57 as a pinch-hitter; faces Rube Walberg of the Philadelphia A's; goes hitless in 3-0 loss
  • 1933 Babe Ruth makes his final pitching appearance in MLB; pitches all 9 innings in a season ending 6-5 win v Boston Red Sox at Yankee Stadium; hits his 34th home run of the season in 5th inning

AgreementTreaty of Interest

1934 Adolf Hitler expands German army and navy, violating Treaty of Versailles

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1936 Generalissimo Francisco Franco establishes state of Spain

Spanish Dictator and General Francisco Franco
Spanish Dictator and General
Francisco Franco
  • 1937 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
  • 1938 Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia) following the Munich Agreement

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1939 Winston Churchill calls Russia a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"

Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill
  • 1939 After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile forces entered the city.
  • 1940 Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
  • 1941 D Sjostakovitch plane evacuated in Moscow
  • 1941 H Martin/R Blane's musical "Best Foot Forward" premieres in NYC

  • 1942 Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
  • 1942 Little Golden Books (children's books) begins publishing
  • 1943 Allied forces captured Naples during WW II
  • 1943 Averell Harriman named US ambassador to Moscow
  • 1943 Germans attack Jews in Denmark
  • 1943 1st King's Dragoon Guards (Royal Amoured Corps) liberates suburbs of Naples
  • 1944 Newspaper editor Alejandro Córdova assassinated in Guatemala
  • 1944 St Louis Browns beat New York Yankees 5-2 at Sportsman's Park III to win their only AL pennant; lose World Series 4-2 to neighbour Cardinals

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 World heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis is discharged from US army after being awarded the Legion of Merit

Boxer and World Heavyweight Champion Joe Louis
Boxer and World Heavyweight Champion
Joe Louis
  • 1945 US Office of Strategic Services (OSS), precursor to the CIA, disbands
  • 1946 12 Nazi war criminals sentenced to death in Nuremberg
  • 1946 St. Louis Cardinals beats Brooklyn Dodgers, 4-2 in first MLB play-off game for a league championship (NL); St Louis wins series, 2-0
  • 1946 Cleveland Indians pitcher Bob Feller claims his MLB record 348th strikeout of season in a 4-1 win v Detroit; record stands for 19 years
  • 1947 1st helicopter air mail & express service, LA, Ca
  • 1947 US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
  • 1947 William Wister Haines' "Command Decision" premieres in NYC
  • 1947 The F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
  • 1948 California Supreme Court voids state statute banning interracial marriages
  • 1948 Radio Denmark begins transmitting

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Zedong (National Day)

Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party Mao Zedong
Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party
Mao Zedong
  • 1949 Republic of China (Taiwan) forms on island of Formosa
  • 1950 Philadelphia Phillies clinch NL pennant on Dick Sisler's 3-run home run in a season ending 4-1 win v Brooklyn Dodgers; Phillies first pennant since 1913
  • 1950 New York Giants beat Cleveland Browns, 6-0 at Cleveland Stadium; sets Browns club record for fewest points scored by both teams; Browns go on to win NFL Championship
  • 1950 South Korean troops cross the 38th parallel into North Korea

Sport awardUS Women's Golf Open

1950 US Open Women's Golf, Rolling Hills CC: Babe Zaharias ties Open scoring record, -9 291 to beat amateur Betsy Rawls by 9 strokes

LPGA Golfer Betsy Rawls
LPGA Golfer
Betsy Rawls
  • 1951 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador-Eugenie Anderson (US ambassador to Denmark)
  • 1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black US military unit, deactivated
  • 1952 1st ultra high frequency (UHF) television station, Portland Or
  • 1952 Liberal Party wins Japanese elections
  • 1952 Monte Bello-Island (Great Britain 1st atom bomb explosion)

  • 1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
  • 1953 KJEO TV channel 47 in Fresno, CA (CBS/ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 KYTV TV channel 3 in Springfield, MO (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 WATE TV channel 6 in Knoxville, TN (ABC/NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1953 WREX TV channel 13 in Rockford, IL (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1954 British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation
  • 1955 "Honeymooners" premieres
  • 1955 Piet Lieftinck becomes director v/h IMF (World bank)
  • 1955 WORA TV channel 5 in Mayaguez, PR (TCI) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 Baltimore Colts fullback Alan Ameche becomes the first rookie in NFL history to top 100 yards rushing in his first 2 games; totals 153 against Detroit Lions after 194 yards in debut v Chicago Bears
  • 1956 American jockey Johnny Heckmann becomes first to ride 7 winners at Hawthorne Race Course at Stickney/Cicero near Chicago, Illinois
  • 1956 Zestienhoven airport at Rotterdam official opens
  • 1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
  • 1957 First appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency.
  • 1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
  • 1958 US space agency NASA begins operations incorporating earlier National Advisory Council on Aeronautics and other bodies
  • 1959 Chicago White Sox beat LA Dodgers, 11-0 in Game 1 of the Baseball World Series at Comiskey Park; White Sox first WS appearance since 1919 'Black Sox Scandal'; LA wins series 4-2
  • 1960 Nigeria becomes the 99th member of the United Nations
  • 1960 14th NHL All-Star Game, Montreal Forum, Montreal, QC: All-Stars beat Montreal Canadiens, 2-1
  • 1960 KCBY TV channel 11 in Coos Bay, OR (CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1960 Nigeria gains independence from Britain (National Day)
  • 1961 The Beach Boys record their debut single "Surfin", introducing a new musical style
  • 1961 A volcanco believed to be extinct erupts in Tristan da Cunha
  • 1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
  • 1961 KGIN TV channel 11 in Grand Island, NB (CBS) begins broadcasting

Music releaseMusic Premiere

1961 Premiere of Dmitri Shostakovich's 12nd Symphony

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1961 NY Yankees right-fielder Roger Maris becomes MLB’s all-time home run leader when he passes Babe Ruth's mark with No. 61 off Boston rookie Tracy Stallard in 1-0 win at Yankee Stadium

Baseball Player Roger Maris
Baseball Player
Roger Maris
  • 1961 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1961 WOLO TV channel 25 in Columbia, SC (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1961 WYAH TV channel 27 in Portsmouth, VA (IND) begins broadcasting

AgreementContract of Interest

1962 Barbra Streisand signs her 1st recording contract (with Columbia)

Singer-Songwriter and Actress Barbra Streisand
Singer-Songwriter and Actress
Barbra Streisand
  • 1962 Brian Epstein signs a contract to manage Beatles through 1977
  • 1962 James Meredith becomes the 1st black student at the University of Mississippi

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1962 Johnny Carson hosts his 1st "The Tonight Show", Joan Crawford guests

Comedian and TV Host Johnny Carson
Comedian and TV Host
Johnny Carson
Actress Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
  • 1962 The Lucy Show premieres
  • 1962 UN gives Netherlands control of New Guinea
  • 1962 US National Radio Astronomy Obs gets a 300' (91m) radio telescope
  • 1962 WEDH TV channel 24 in Hartford, CT (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1963 Nigeria enacts a new constitution and becomes a republic
  • 1964 1st official broadcast of Trans World Radio on Bonaire
  • 1964 2nd Dutch televisienet begins broadcastings
  • 1964 Free Speech Movement launched at University of California, Berkley
  • 1964 San Francisco cable cars declared a national landmark
  • 1964 WSJU TV channel 18 in Carolina, PR begins broadcasting
  • 1964 WTSJ TV channel 18 in San Juan, PR (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1964 WWAY TV channel 3 in Wilmington, NC (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1965 Failed coup under lt col Untung in Indonesia
  • 1965 France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria
  • 1966 Newspaper magnate Thomson purchases "The Times"