On This Day

Historical Events on October 16

  • 456 Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Roman Empire.
  • 1311 Council of Vienne (15th ecumenical council) opens
  • 1384 Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, despite being a woman
  • 1418 Milan Cathedral's high altar consecrated by Pope Martin V

Historic Event

1492 Christopher Columbus' fleet anchors at "Fernandina" (Long Island, Bahamas)

  • 1502 Storm ravages Friese coast
  • 1551 English Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset re-arrested
  • 1600 Olivier van Noorts ships reach Philippines
  • 1674 Emperor Leopold I fires chancellor Fürst Wenzel Lobkowitz
  • 1710 British troops occupies Port Royal, Nova Scotia
  • 1757 Austrian troops occupy Berlin
  • 1775 Portland, Maine burned by British
  • 1780 Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont last major raid of the American Revolutionary War
  • 1793 Battle of Wattignies: French defeat Allied forces and lift siege of Maubeuge
  • 1795 M von Böhms "Oorlogscantate" premieres

Victory in Battle

1813 Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in Europe prior to WWI, Napoleon's forces defeated by Prussia, Austria and Russia

  • 1829 Tremont Hotel, 1st US modern hotel opens (Boston)
  • 1834 Much of the ancient structures of the Palace of Westminster (parliament) in London is burnt down
  • 1841 Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, is chartered
  • 1843 Sir William Rowan Hamilton comes up with the idea of quaternions, a non-commutative extension of complex numbers.
  • 1846 Dentist William T Morton demonstrates effectiveness of ether

Historic Publication

1847 Charlotte Brontë's book "Jane Eyre" published

  • 1848 1st US homeopathic medical college opens in Pennsylvania
  • 1849 Avery College establishes in Allegheny, Pennsylvania
  • 1849 British seize Tigre Island in Gulf of Fonseca from Honduras
  • 1852 Dutch government recognize Catholics right to organize

Historic Event

1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia

  • 1861 Confederacy starts selling postage stamps
  • 1863 Grant is given command of Union forces in West

Gregory Conquers Julius Caesar

1867 Alaska adopts Gregorian calendar, crosses international date line

  • 1869 Hotel in Boston becomes 1st to have indoor plumbing
  • 1875 1st Quebec vs Ontario football game, Ontario wins
  • 1876 Race riot at Cainhoy SC (5 whites & 1 black killed)
  • 1882 The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business.
  • 1900 Great Britain and Germany sign the Anglo-German Treaty, agreeing to maintain territorial integrity of China and support 'open door' policy called for by US Secretary of State
  • 1901 Baron Hayashi of Japan begins negotiations in London to make an alliance with the British and strengthen Japan's position against Russians

Historic Event

1901 Booker T. Washington and his family are invited to dine at the White House with Teddy and Edith Roosevelt, prompting condemnation from the South

  • 1903 Homel, 1st Jewish self defense organization founded in Russia
  • 1904 Russian Baltic fleet departs to Port Arthur
  • 1905 The Partition of Bengal (India) occurred.
  • 1907 Belasco Theater opens at 111 W 44th St NYC
  • 1907 David Belasco's "Grand Army Man," premieres in NYC
  • 1908 Edmonton Rugby Foot-ball Club re-organizes as Esquimoux

Boxing Title Fight

1909 In his 4th title defence Jack Johnson KOs Stanley Ketchel in the 12th round at Mission St Arena, Colma, California to retain his heavyweight boxing crown

  • 1909 Baseball World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates beat Detroit Tigers, 8-0 at Bennett Park to clinch 4-3 series win; Tigers' third straight WS defeat

Music History

1912 Arnold Schoenberg's "Pierrot Lunaire," premieres at the Berlin Choralion-Saal sung by Albertine Zehme

  • 1912 Baseball World Series: Boston Red Sox beat NY Giants, 3-2 at Fenway Park to clinch a 4-3-1 series win; series extended to 8 games as one game tied due to darkness

Theater Premiere

1913 George Bernard Shaw's play "Pygmalion" premieres in Hofburg Theatre in Vienna, Austria

  • 1913 Booth Theater opens at 222 W 44th St NYC
  • 1915 Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria
  • 1916 Dodger manager Wilbert Robinson given $5,000 bonus

Historic Event

1916 Margaret Sanger opens 1st birth control clinic in the US at 46 Amboy St, Brooklyn

Meeting of Interest

1916 T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) meets with Fasal Hoessein

  • 1921 Jim Conzelman takes over as coach of Rock Island Independents from Frank Coughlin-only mid-game coaching change in NFL history
  • 1923 Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio founded
  • 1923 John Harwood patents self-winding watch (Switzerland)
  • 1925 Peace accord of Locarno signed (Rhine Pact)
  • 1925 Texas School Board prohibits teaching of evolution
  • 1926 Mohammed Nadir Khan begins coup in Afghanistan, 1200 killed
  • 1926 Troop ship sinks in Yangtze River, killing 1,200
  • 1928 Mickey Cochrane wins AL MVP honors, edging Heinie Manush by 2 points
  • 1931 US trunk murderess Winnie Ruth Judd murders two friends then dismembers one of them in Phoenix

Historic Event

1934 Mao Zedong and 25,000 troops begin their 6,000 mile Long March from the south of China to the north and west

Sports History

1936 Lou Gehrig, is voted AL MVP by BBWAA

Historic Event

1936 Jean Batten reaches Auckland, New Zealand after flying solo from Kent, England in a record 11 days and 45 minutes

Music History

1938 Aaron Copland's & Eugene Loring's ballet "Billy the Kid" premieres in Chicago

  • 1939 Sugar rationing begins in Netherlands

Music History

1939 George Kaufman and Moss Hart's comedy "The Man Who Came to Dinner" opens at the Music Box Theatre, NYC; runs for 739 performances

  • 1940 Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. is promoted to brigadier general, the first African-American person to become a general in the US military
  • 1941 "Gordo" comic strip (by Gus Arriola) 1st appears in newspapers
  • 1941 Germany advances within 60 miles (96 K) of Moscow

Historic Siege

1941 Romanian Legionnaires enter Odessa, Russia during the siege of Odessa, part of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union

  • 1942 Aaron Copland and Agnes de Mille's ballet "Rodeo," premieres in NYC
  • 1942 Cyclone in Bay of Bengal kills some 40,000 south of Calcutta India
  • 1942 National Boxing Association freezes titles of those serving in armed services
  • 1943 Anti Jewish riot in Rome
  • 1943 Chicago Mayor Ed Kelly opens city's new subway system
  • 1943 Jewish quarter of Rome surrounded by Nazis, they are sent to Auschwitz
  • 1943 US 1st Army establishes headquarter in Bristol
  • 1944 Hungary: Horthy government falls/nazi count Szalasi becomes premier
  • 1945 UN's Food & Agriculture Organization comes into existence

Nuremberg Trials

1946 10 Nazi leaders are hanged as war criminals after Nuremberg war trials, including Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop and Alfred Jodl

  • 1948 Revival of Victor Herbert and Henry Blossom's operetta "The Red Mill" opens at Ziegfeld Theater, NYC; rums for 831 performances

Historic Event

1948 Demonstration by Moscow Jews honoring Israeli ambassador Golda Meir

  • 1949 WDAF TV channel 4 in Kansas City, MO (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1949 1st NASCAR Sprint Cup: Red Byron wins

Historic Event

1950 The first edition of C.S. Lewis' "The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe" is released in London

  • 1951 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated by Said Akbar in Rawalpindi
  • 1952 Pakistan's 1st Test starts, v India at Delhi
  • 1952 Woolworth's at Powell & Market (San Francisco) opens

Historic Event

1953 Fidel Castro sentenced to 15 years (Havana)

Historic Event

1957 Queen Elizabeth & Prince Philip visits Williamsburg Virginia

  • 1957 USAF sends 2 aluminium bullets into space

Music History

1958 Benjamin Britten's "Nocturne," premieres

  • 1958 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1960 NL votes to admit Houston & NY to league
  • 1962 Byron R White becomes a Supreme Court Justice

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis begins as JFK is shown photos confirming the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba

  • 1962 KTXT TV channel 5 in Lubbock, TX (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1962 Baseball World Series: NY Yankees win 20th championship; beat SF Giants, 1-0 at Candlestick Park for 4 games to 3 series victory; MVP: Yankees pitcher Ralph Terry
  • 1963 2 secret US military satellites launched from Cape Canaveral
  • 1963 NY newspaper "Mirror" last edition
  • 1964 China becomes world's 5th nuclear power

Election of Interest

1964 Harold Wilson's Labour party wins British election

  • 1964 Indians' directors vote to keep franchise in Cleveland, rejecting bids by Seattle, Oakland & Dallas
  • 1964 US men's 4 × 100m medley relay team of Thompson Mann, Bill Craig, Fred Schmidt & Steve Clark swim world record 3:58.4 to beat Germany by 3.2s and win gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics
  • 1964 In an incredibly close women's 100m final at the Tokyo Olympics American sprinter Wyomia Tyus runs 11.4s to beat teammate Edith McGuire by 0.2s; Ewa Kłobukowska of Poland takes bronze with the same time as McGuire
  • 1964 American swimmer Sharon Strouder sets world record 1:04.7 to beat Ada Kok of the Netherlands by 0.9s and win the women's 100m butterfly at the Tokyo Olympics
  • 1965 "Drat! - The Cat!" closes at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 8 performances
  • 1967 Joean Baez and 123 other anti-draft protesters are arrested in Oakland, California
  • 1967 WETK TV channel 33 in Burlington, VT (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1967 WGNO TV channel 26 in New Orleans, LA (ABC) begins broadcasting
  • 1968 China reports removal of president Li Sjao-tji
  • 1968 Czechoslovakia & Russian "accord" rules allies Soviet forces

Black Power Salute

1968 Americans Tommie Smith (gold 19.83 WR) and John Carlos (bronze) famously give the Black Power salute on the 200m medal podium during the Mexico City Olympics to protest racism and injustice against African-Americans

  • 1968 Milwaukee Bucks play their 1st game losing 89-84 to Chicago Bulls
  • 1968 Jim Dorey sets Toronto Maple Leaf penalty records (48 mins on 9 penalties in a game & 44 minutes on 7 penalties in a period)
  • 1968 The People's Democracy (PD), formed on Oct 9, organise a march of 1,300 students from the Queen's University of Belfast to the City Hall in the centre of the city, Northern Ireland
  • 1968 American Bob Seagren, Claus Schiprowski of West Germany and East German Wolfgang Nordwig all record 5.40m in the final of the pole vault at the Mexico City Olympics; Seagren awarded gold on countback
  • 1969 Baseball World Series: 100-1 shot NY Mets beat Baltimore Orioles, 5-3 at Shea Stadium for upset 4-1 series win; MVP: Mets 1B Donn Clendenon
  • 1969 Soyuz 6 returns to Earth
  • 1969 Met Cleon Jones awarded 1st base when shoe polish on ball proves he is hit by a pitch, he scores on a HR in World Series

Historic Event

1970 Pierre Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act as a response to the October Crisis, the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act in Canadian history.

  • 1971 Amphitheater in McLaren Park is dedicated in San Francisco
  • 1972 "Pacific Paradise" opens at Palace Theater NYC for 5 performances
  • 1972 Rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival break up
  • 1972 2 members of the Official Irish Republican Army are shot dead by the British Army in County Tyrone
  • 1972 A Protestant youth member (15) of the Ulster Defence Association, and a UDA member (26) are run over by British Army vehicles during riots in east Belfast
  • 1973 Israeli tanks under Gen Sharon move through Suez Canal

Nobel Prize

1973 Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho controversially awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam that later failed

  • 1973 Maynard Jackson elected 1st black mayor of Atlanta
  • 1973 Monks Heng Yo & Heng Ju, start 1000 mile SF to Seattle pilgrimage
  • 1973 The Gulf Six (Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) unilaterally raise the posted price of Saudi Light marker crude-oil by 17 percent
  • 1974 As' Ken Holtzman, who hasn't batted all season, belts 3rd inning home run in Game 4 & gets the win, 5-2
  • 1976 Soyuz 23 returns to Earth
  • 1976 Toronto Maple Leaf Lanny McDonald scores a hat trick in 2 min 54 sec
  • 1978 Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to Herbert A Simon

Papal Inauguration

1978 Polish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected Pope John Paul II

Sports History

1978 Test debut of Kapil Dev, India v Pakistan at Faisalabad

Film & TV History

1979 Comedy sketch show "Not the Nine O'Clock News" debuts starring Rowan Atkinson, Chris Langham, Pamela Stephenson and Mel Smith on BBC 2

  • 1979 First global telenovela Mexican "Los ricos también lloran" (The Rich Also Cry) premieres, second foreign series to be screened in the Soviet Union
  • 1980 "Brigadoon" opens at Majestic Theater NYC for 133 performances
  • 1980 China performs nuclear test at Lop Nor, PRC
  • 1981 2nd Dutch government of Van Agt resigns
  • 1981 Harvey Fierstein's "Torch Song Trilogy," premieres in NYC
  • 1982 Mt Palomar Observatory 1st to detect Halley's comet on 13th return

Historic Event

1982 Secretary of State George P. Shultz warns the US will withdraw from the UN if they vote to exclude Israel

  • 1982 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1983 "Zorba" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 362 performances

Ryder Cup

1983 Ryder Cup Golf, PGA National GC: US wins 14½-13½; Bernard Gallacher's missed 3-foot putt for bogey gives Tom Watson 2 & 1 win and the US winning point

  • 1983 Baseball World Series: Baltimore Orioles beat Philadelphia Phillies, 5-0 for 4 games to 1 series victory; MVP: Baltimore catcher Rick Dempsey

Nobel Prize

1984 Desmond Tutu, South African Anglican Archbishop, wins Nobel Peace Prize

  • 1985 Challenger vehicle moves to launch pad for STS 61A mission

Historic Event

1985 Intel introduces 32-bit 80386 microcomputer chip

  • 1985 KC Royals & St Louis Cardinals win their league championships
  • 1985 Nobel prize for chemistry awarded to Herbert Hauptman & Jerome Karle
  • 1985 MLB National League Championship: St. Louis Cardinals beat Los Angeles Dodgers, 4 games to 2
  • 1985 MLB American League Championship: Kansas City Royals beat Toronto Blue Jays, 4 games to 3
  • 1986 "Raggedy Ann" opens at Nederlander Theater NYC for 5 performances
  • 1986 Armand Hammer returns to US with Jewish refusenik David Goldfarb

Historic Event

1986 US government shuts down due to disputes between President Reagan and the House

  • 1986 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Nobel Prize

1986 Wole Soyinka, Nigerian playwright and poet, becomes the first African to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature

  • 1987 338,500,000 shares traded on NY stock exchange (record)
  • 1987 Dow Jones for 1st time falls more than 100 pts (108.35)
  • 1987 Jessica McClure rescued 58 hrs after falling 22' into a well shaft

Boxing Title Fight

1987 Defending champion Mike Tyson beats Tyrell Biggs by TKO in round 7 at Convention Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey; retains unified heavyweight boxing title

  • 1987 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1987 Great Storm of 1987: 175-kph hurricane force winds hit London and much of the South of England killing 23 people and causing widespread blackouts
  • 1988 "Smile Jamaica" concert for Hurricane Gilbert victims held in London
  • 1988 Orel Hirsheiser, 1st to pitch shutout in playoff & World Series
  • 1989 Bikenibau Paeniu installed as premier of Tuvalu
  • 1989 Jan Syse becomes premier of Norway
  • 1990 "Stand Up Tragedy" closes at Criterion Theater NYC after 13 performances
  • 1990 Reds Eric Davis is 22nd player to homer in his 1st World Series at bat
  • 1990 Reds beat A's 7-0, ending Oakland's 10-game post-season winning streak
  • 1990 US forces reach 200,000 in Persian Gulf
  • 1991 George Jo Hennard, 35, kills 23 & himself & wounds 20 in Texas
  • 1991 US Supreme Court begins to hear Joseph Doherty case
  • 1991 Dallas Mavericks Roy Tarpley becomes 7th to be banned from NBA for life under the league's anti-drug agreement
  • 1991 Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha is founded at a conference in Ranchi, India.

Film & TV History

1992 "Gilligan's Island" TV pilot filmed in 1964 is 1st shown on TV (TBS)

Appointment of Interest

1993 General Omar al-Bashir appointed Sudan president

  • 1993 IRA bomb attack on fish & chips restaurant in Belfast, 10 killed
  • 1993 Anti-Nazi riot breaks out in Welling in Kent, after police stop protesters approaching British National Party headquarters
  • 1994 Raul Julia, actor (Addams Family), suffers a stroke
  • 1994 Shreveport Pirates win first Canadian Football League game, 24-12 at home to Sacramento Gold Miners; fold 1995
  • 1995 Allan Donald takes 8-71 as South Africa defeat Zimbabwe

Sports History

1995 Brian Lara scores 169 in Sharjah ODI versus Sri Lanka

  • 1995 Million Man March held in Washington, D.C. (over 830,000 African American men attend)
  • 1995 ODI in Sharjah WI 7-333 in 50 overs beat Sri Lanka 329 all out
  • 1996 Eighty-four people are killed and more than 180 injured as 47,000 football fans attempt to squeeze into the 36,000-seat Estadio Mateo Flores in Guatemala City.
  • 1997 "Side Show," opens at Richard Rodgers Theater NYC for 91 performances

Murder of Interest

1998 Former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a Spanish warrant requesting his extradition on murder charges

  • 2000 MLB National League Championship: New York Mets beat St. Louis Cardinals, 4 games to 1
  • 2001 The US Coast Guard lifts a ban on liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers entering Boston Harbor to make deliveries to Distrigas' Everett LNG terminal that had been imposed on September 26 in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11
  • 2002 Bibliotheca Alexandrina in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, is officially inaugurated.