On This Day

Historical Events on October 20

  • 1097 1st Crusaders arrive in Antioch during the First Crusade

Treaty of Interest

1528 Treaty of Gorinchem signed between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Duke Charles of Guelders

Historic Event

1536 King Christian III of Denmark & Norway leads reform in Catholic possessions

  • 1576 Spanish troops occupy & plunder Maastricht
  • 1587 Battle at Coultras: Henri van Navarra beats Catholic League
  • 1600 Battle of Sekigahara sets Tokugawa clan as Japan's rulers (shoguns)
  • 1603 Chinese uprising in the Philippines fails after 23,000 killed

Historic Event

1634 British King Charles I disbands new "Ship Money" tax

Royal Coronation

1714 Georg Ludwig von Hannover crowned as Britain's King George I at Westminster Abbey

  • 1740 Maria Theresa becomes ruler of Austria, Hungary & Bohemia
  • 1751 Royal ship Duc de Bourgogne launched at Rochefort
  • 1774 American Continental Congress orders discouragement of entertainment
  • 1786 Harvard University organizes 1st astronomical expedition in US
  • 1803 US Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase
  • 1813 German Kingdom of Westphalia abolished
  • 1817 1st Mississippi "Showboat" leaves Nashville on maiden voyage
  • 1818 49th parallel forms as border between US & Canada
  • 1818 US and Britain agree to joint control of Oregon country
  • 1822 1st edition of London Sunday Times
  • 1827 Naval Battle of Navarino (off the Peloponnese coast): English, Russian, French combined fleet beat a Turkish and Egyptian force, paving the way for Greek independence
  • 1835 HMS Beagle leaves Galapagos Archipelago to sail to Tahiti
  • 1839 Margaret Fuller is appointed editor of new US Transcendental Magazine "The Dial"
  • 1843 1st Chinese immigrant arrives in Suriname
  • 1847 12 year old English boy William Nelman poisons his grandpa with arsenic, would become famous court case
  • 1856 Arnhem-Oberhausen railway in Netherlands opens
  • 1862 Amnesty proclaimed for escaped slaves of Suriname

Music Premiere

1877 Franz Schubert's 2nd Symphony in B premieres

  • 1880 Amsterdam Free University opens
  • 1883 Max Bruch's "Kol Nidre" 1st performed
  • 1883 Treaty of Ancon; Peru cedes Tarapaca to Chile
  • 1888 Chicago and All America baseball teams play exhibition in Auckland, New Zealand

Theater Premiere

1889 Gerhart Hauptmann's play "Vor Sonnenaufgang" (Before Dawn) premieres in Berlin to a scandalous reception

  • 1891 1st International 6 day bike race at New York's Madison Square Garden begins
  • 1898 NC Mutual & Provident Insurance Company forms
  • 1899 Battle at Talana Hill, Natal: British army vs Boers
  • 1899 American yacht Columbia beats the Shamrock challenge from Royal Ulster Yacht Club in 11th America's Cup
  • 1902 The Chamber of Deputies appoints a committee to consider questions on the separation of Church and State in France
  • 1903 US wins disputed boundary between District of Alaska & Canada
  • 1904 Bolivia and Chile sign a treaty ending the War of the Pacific; recognizing Chile's possession of the coast, providing for construction of a railway linking La Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast
  • 1905 Great General Strike in Russia begins; lasts 11 days

Historic Event

1905 Russian Tsar Nicholas II allows the Poles to speak Polish to help quell the revolution in the Kingdom of Poland

  • 1906 Dr Lee DeForest demonstrates his electrical vacuum tube (radio tube)
  • 1908 King Leopold II sells Congo to Belgium
  • 1910 1st appearance of cork centered baseball in World Series
  • 1910 Soccer team KFC forms in Alkmaar
  • 1910 The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, launched from Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland

Film & TV History

1911 Helen Hayes Theater (Folies Bergere) opens at 210W 46th St, NYC

Historic Event

1911 Norwegian Roald Amundsen sets out a race to the South Pole

  • 1912 Cort Theater opens at 148 W 48th St NYC
  • 1912 Hannes Kolehmainen runs world record marathon (2:29:39.2)

Historic Event

1917 US suffragette Alice Paul begins a 7 month jail sentence for peacefully picketing in support of the women's Suffrage (right to vote) Amendment at the White House in Washington, D.C.

End of World War I

1918 In order to secure a WWI armistice, Germany agrees to further concessions

  • 1920 "1st Year" with Frank Craven premieres in NYC
  • 1921 Germany and Allies comes to an agreements over reparation payments in a meeting at Wiensbaden
  • 1921 The French and Mustafa Kemal nationalists sign a treaty at Ankara fixing the Turko-Syrian border
  • 1922 Kennelworth in Bronx renamed Dwight Place
  • 1924 1st Negro League World Series: KC Monarchs shuts out Hilldales, 5-0
  • 1926 Hurricane in Cuba, kills 600

Historic Event

1928 Wien Alaska Airways, Inc. incorporated; the first airline in Alaska and one of the 1st in the US with Noel Wien as president

  • 1929 Bayshore Highway opens (San Francisco)
  • 1930 Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, premieres on NBC radio
  • 1930 British White Paper restricts Jews from buying Arab land
  • 1931 Frankie Frisch of the Cards named MVP
  • 1932 Journalist Robert Trout joins CBS

Sports History

1934 MLB All-Star team led by Connie Mack and including Babe Ruth, Jimmie Foxx and Lou Gehrig sails to Japan for 18-game series against Big-Six University League

Music Release

1934 Richard Strauss completes his opera "Die Schweigsame Frau"

  • 1935 400,000 demonstrators against fascism in Madrid
  • 1935 Anti-fascist People's Front forms in Brussels

Sports History

1935 Detroit Tigers future Baseball Hall of Fame first baseman Hank Greenberg is named AL MVP by the BWAA; Boston Red Sox pitcher Wes Ferrell is runner-up

Historic Event

1935 Communist forces end their Long March at Yan'an, in Shaanxi, China, bringing Mao Zedong to prominence

Sports History

1936 Carl Hubbell, 26-6, edges out Dizzy Dean, 24-13, for MVP honors in NL

  • 1936 Spanish government moves to Barcelona

Music History

1939 "All the Things You Are" recorded by Tommy Dorsey Orchestra

Catholic Encyclical

1939 Pope Pius XII publishes his 1st encyclical Summi pontificatus

  • 1940 Cheese rationed in the Netherlands
  • 1940 Greenhouse rationing begins in the Netherlands
  • 1941 Nazi occupiers murder 500 inhabitants of Kragujevac Serbia
  • 1942 "Durham Manifesto" issued by the Southern Conference on Race Relations held in Durham, North Carolina, calls for fundamental changes in race relations
  • 1944 Liquid-gas tanks in Cleveland, Ohio, explode, 135 die, and 3,600 are left homeless
  • 1944 Revolution by workers & students in Guatemala
  • 1944 Soviet and Yugoslav troops free Belgrade
  • 1944 US 1st army wins battle of Aachen on Germany's western border
  • 1946 Frank Seno returns kickoff 105 yd, Chicago Cards vs NY Giants
  • 1947 HUAC opens hearings into alleged Communist influence in Hollywood
  • 1947 Radio rights for the Baseball World Series sell for $475,000 for 3 years

Historic Event

1947 Robinson Jeffers' play "Medea" adapted from Euripides premieres in NYC

  • 1949 Eugenie Anderson becomes 1st woman US ambassador (to Denmark)

Historic Event

1950 Chemists Archer John Porter Martin and James Lovelock give the first demonstration of gas chromatography at a meeting of the Biochemical Society. The technique is rapidly adopted by the petrochemical industry.

  • 1951 The "Johnny Bright Incident" occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma
  • 1952 Emergency crisis proclaimed in Kenya
  • 1953 WRAU (now WHOI) TV channel 19 in Peoria, IL (ABC) begins broadcasting

Music Premiere

1954 Leigh, Charlap, Styne, Comden and Green's musical "Peter Pan", starring Mary Martin and Cyril Ritchard, opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC; runs for 152 performances

  • 1955 "No Time for Sergeants" opens on Broadway, starring Andy Griffith
  • 1955 Harry Belafonte records "Day-O" (Banana Boat Song)
  • 1955 Yanks begin 16-game exhibition in Japan

Historic Publication

1955 Publication of "The Return of the King", the 3rd and final volume of "The Lord of the Rings" by J. R. R. Tolkien by George Allen and Unwin in London

  • 1956 58°F (15°C), Esperanza Station, Antarctica (then Antarctic record high)
  • 1956 Hannes Lindemann begins journey across Atlantic in a 17' craft
  • 1957 Karachi A (277-0d) beat Sind A by an innings without losing a wicket

Historic Event

1957 Walter Cronkite begins hosting weekly documentary

Nobel Prize

1957 Lester B. Pearson is the first Canadian to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his aid in resolving the Suez Crisis

  • 1959 Clark Griffith of Senators says team will not move the franchise
  • 1959 WABG TV channel 6 in Greenwood-Greenville, MS (ABC) 1st broadcast
  • 1960 1st fully mechanized post office opened, Providence, Rhode Island

Sports History

1960 Ralph Houk, 41, replaces Casey Stengel as Yankee manager

#1 in the Charts

1962 Peter, Paul and Mary's debut folk album "Peter, Paul and Mary" reaches No. 1 on US album charts

  • 1962 Musical "Mr President" opens at St James Theater New York for 265 performances
  • 1962 Chinese army lands in India
  • 1962 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island

Historic Event

1963 Alec Douglas-Home's Conservative Party forms British government

  • 1963 France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker, Algeria

NFL Record

1963 Jim Brown sets NFL single-season rushing record, 1,863 yds

Historic Event

1963 South Africa begins trial of Nelson Mandela & 8 others on conspiracy charges

  • 1963 WITV TV channel 7 in Charleston, South Carolina (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1964 "Golden Boy" opens at Majestic Theater NYC for 569 performances
  • 1964 Mad Dog Vachon beats Verne Gagne in Minneapolis, to become NWA champ
  • 1964 Riot at Rolling Stones show in Paris leads to 150 arrests
  • 1964 Ann Packer of Great Britain runs a world record 2:01.1 to win the women's 800m gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics
  • 1964 Tamara Press of the Soviet Union wins her second gold medal in 2 days by taking out the women's shot put at the Tokyo Olympics; Press' second consecutive Olympic shot put title

NHL All-Star Game

1965 19th NHL All-Star Game, Montreal Forum, Montreal, QC: All-Stars beat Montreal Canadiens, 5-2; MVP: Henri Richard, Montreal, C

  • 1965 Beatles receive a gold record for "Yesterday"
  • 1965 Mass arrests of communists in Indonesia

Nobel Prize

1966 Nobel Prize for Literature awarded jointly to Jewish writers Shmuel Yosef Agnon and Nelly Sachs

  • 1967 All white federal jury convicts 7 in murder of 3 civil rights workers in Meridan Mississippi
  • 1967 Charlie Finley names Bob Kennedy 1st manager of Oakland A's
  • 1967 KMXN (now KJTV) TV channel 34 in Lubbock, TX (IND) begins broadcasting
  • 1967 A purported bigfoot is filmed at Bluff Creek by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin in Northern California
  • 1968 "Her 1st Roman" opens at Lunt Fontanne Theater NYC for 17 performances
  • 1968 Mamo Wolde wins 16th Olympic marathon (2:20:26.4)
  • 1968 Kenyan runner Kip Keino wins 1,500m gold medal at the Mexico City Olympics in 3:34.91 despite a severe gall bladder infection
  • 1968 American Dick Fosbury using his unconventional technique wins the men's high jump gold medal with 2.24m at the Mexico City Olympics; "Fosbury Flop" becomes accepted most efficient technique
  • 1968 American sprinter Jim Hines anchors US men's 4 x 100m relay team to win his second gold medal at the Mexico City Olympics; with teammates Charles Greene, Mel Pender & Ronnie Ray Smith sets world record 38.24s
  • 1968 US men's 4 x 400m relay team of Vincent Matthews, Ron Freeman, Larry James & Lee Evans runs world record 2:56.16; easily beats Kenya & West Germany into the minor medals at the Mexico City Olympics
  • 1968 US women's 4 x 100m relay team sets world record 42.88s to win the gold medal at the Mexico City Olympics; Margaret Bailes, Barbara Ferrell, Mildrette Netter & Wyomia Tyus
  • 1968 Margitta Gummel of East Germany throws world record 19.61m to beat teammate Marita Lange by 0.83m and win the women's shot put gold medal at the Mexico City Olympics
  • 1969 WKYH (now WYMT) TV channel 57 in Hazard, KY (NBC) begins broadcasting
  • 1970 American agronomist Norman Borlaug awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to world food supply
  • 1970 Zond 8 Launches to orbit the Moon
  • 1971 "Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death" musical by Melvin Van Peebles opens at Barrymore Theater, NYC; runs for 325 performances

Nobel Prize

1971 West German Chancellor Willy Brandt is awarded Nobel Peace Prize

  • 1971 The Nepal stock exchange collapses.
  • 1971 US Senator Edward Kennedy calls for a withdrawal of British troops from Northern Ireland and all-party negotiations to establish a United Ireland
  • 1972 Queen Juliana visits Yugoslavia

Appointment of Interest

1972 John Betjeman is appointed British Poet Laureate by Queen Elizabeth II

TV Show Appearance

1973 Mariette Hartley appears on "The Bob Newhart Show" in the episode "Have You Met Miss Dietz?"

Sports History

1973 US President Nixon proclaims Jim Thorpe to have been the greatest athlete of the 1st half of the 20th century

  • 1973 US President Nixon accepts the resignations of Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William D. Ruckelshaus as they refuse orders to discharge Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, in what has become known as "The Saturday Night Massacre"
  • 1973 The Family Station Inc buys shortwave Radio Station WNYW, changes calls to WYFR & moves station from NYC to Scituate Mass
  • 1974 1st broadcast of "Derrick" on ZDF
  • 1974 Bard's presentation of "Richard III" opens at Lincoln Center NYC
  • 1975 Supreme Court rules teachers could spank their pupils after warning
  • 1975 Soviet orbiter Venera 9 becomes the 1st spacecraft to orbit Venus
  • 1976 70 die as Norwegian tanker Frosta collides with George Prince
  • 1976 NY Nets Julius "Dr J" Erving sold to Philadelphia 76ers

Historic Event

1977 David Mamet's "Life in the Theater" premieres in NYC

  • 1977 Revival of stage play "Dracula" premieres in NYC starring Frank Langella as Dracula
  • 1977 Plane chartered by rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd runs out of fuel and crashes in a wooded area near Gillsburg, Mississippi. Six people are killed, including band members Ronnie Van Zant, Steve Gains, and Cassie Gaines, and road manager Dean Kilpatrick
  • 1978 Paul Vanden Boeynants forms Belgium government
  • 1978 Police's 1st US concert (NYC's CBGBs)
  • 1978 US dollar devalued below Dutch Ÿ2

Historic Event

1979 John F. Kennedy Library dedicated in Boston

  • 1979 John Tate beats Gerrie Coetze in 15 for heavyweight boxing title

Album Release

1980 Geffen records release their first album, Donna Summer's "The Wanderer"

  • 1981 1st NBA game at Meadowlands Arena, NJ Nets lose to NY Knicks 103-99
  • 1981 3 members of Weather underground arrested for armored truck robbery
  • 1981 Bomb attack on Antwerp Belgium synagogue, 1 dead, 80 injured

Sports History

1982 Billy Martin fired as manager of Oakland A's

  • 1982 Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to George Stigler
  • 1982 Sri Lanka President Jayewardene re-elected
  • 1982 Baseball World Series: St. Louis Cardinals beat Milwaukee Brewers, 6-3 at Busch Stadium for 4 games to 3 series triumph; MVP: St. Louis catcher Darrell Porter
  • 1982 During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.
  • 1983 IBM-PC DOS Version 2.1 released
  • 1984 Cleveland Metroparks' Valley Parkway All Purpose Trails are completed

NHL Record

1984 Islander's Mike Bossy's 30th career hat trick-4 goals

  • 1984 The Monterey Bay Aquarium opens in Monterey Bay, California.
  • 1986 Tupolev-134 crashes in Southern Africa
  • 1987 10 die as US Air Force jet crashed into a Ramada Inn near Indianapolis
  • 1987 Dow-Jones increases 102.27 pts/608,120,000 shares traded (record)
  • 1987 Subway vigilante Bernhard Goetz sentenced to 6 months in jail
  • 1988 Britain ends suspects' right to remain silent in crackdown on IRA
  • 1988 Gastineau sacks Jets, retires from football "for personal reasons"

Sports History

1988 Baseball World Series: LA Dodgers beat Oakland A's, 5-2 at Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum to clinch 4-1 series win: MVP: LA pitcher Orel Hershiser

  • 1988 Man armed with explosives blows himself up in 125 St subway station (NYC)
  • 1988 Reggie Rogers, Det Lion's # 1 pick, kills 3 by driving intoxicated
  • 1989 Pakistan win Sharjah Trophy over India & WI on round-robin
  • 1989 US Senate impeaches US District Judge Alcee L Hastings
  • 1990 3 members of 2 Live Crew acquitted on obsenity charges in Florida
  • 1990 Antiwar protest marches begin in 20 US cities (US-Iraq)
  • 1990 Baseball World Series: Cincinnati beats A's, 2-1 at Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum to sweep Oakland and win Reds' 5th title; MVP: Reds' pitcher José Rijo
  • 1991 "Andre Heller's Wonderhouse" opens at Broadhurst NYC for 9 performances
  • 1991 6.1-7.1 earthquake in Uttar Kashi, India, about 670 die
  • 1991 Formal opening ceremony of Intl One Mind Zen center in Crestone, Colo

Sports History

1991 Brazilian McLaren driver Ayrton Senna clinches his 2nd straight, and 3rd overall F1 World Drivers Championship by finishing 2nd in the Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka

  • 1992 1st Baseball World Series game is played outside United States; Toronto Blue Jays beat Atlanta Braves, 3-2 in Game 3 at SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario
  • 1992 David Houghton scores Zimbabwe's 1st Test hundred (121 v India, debut)
  • 1992 Mr Johnson surrenders Monrovia, Liberia & is exiled to Nigeria
  • 1993 Highest scoring, longest lasting World Series game - Toronto Blue Jays score 6 runs in 8th inning to defeat Philadelphia Phillies 15-14, in 4 hr-14 min slugfest at Veterans Stadium, Philadelphia