On This Day

Historical Events on October 23

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

42 BC Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.

Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
Roman Emperor
Augustus Caesar
Roman Politician and General Mark Antony
Roman Politician and General
Mark Antony
Roman Poet Horace
Roman Poet
  • 425 Valentinian III is elevated to Roman Emperor, at the age of 6
  • 502 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
  • 585 Burgundy king Guntram opens synod of Mâcon (Mastico)
  • 787 Byzantine empress Irene recovers Iconclastic cult at Nicaea
  • 1086 Battle of az-Zallaqah: Army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI
  • 1091 Tornado (possible T8/F4) strikes the heart of London killing two and demolishing the wooden London Bridge (OS 17 Oct)
  • 1157 The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
  • 1229 Otto II becomes earl of Gelre

CrownRoyal Coronation

1520 King Carlos I crowned German emperor Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V
  • 1588 Remnants of Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returns to Santander
  • 1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 - Catholic uprising in Ulster

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1642 Battle of Edgehill (Warwickshire): King Charles I beat English parliamentarian forces

King of England Charles I
King of England
Charles I
  • 1644 Sea battle of Fehmarn Sont: Adm Thijssen beats Denen
  • 1668 Jews of Barbados forbidden to engage in retail trade
  • 1679 Meal Tub Plot against James Duke of York (future James II of England)

  • 1684 Colony Massachusetts under authority of English crown mounted
  • 1690 Revolt in Haarlem after public ban on smoking
  • 1694 American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec
  • 1702 Battle of Bay of Vigo: Dutch & English fleet destroy & occupy Spanish silver fleet & French squadron

BattleDeclaration of War

1739 War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain

1st British Prime Minister Robert Walpole
1st British Prime Minister
Robert Walpole
  • 1760 First Jewish prayer books printed in North America
  • 1790 Slaves revolt in Haiti (later suppressed)
  • 1805 Sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland killing 340

BattleCoup d'état

1812 Failed coup against emperor Napoleon

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1813 The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
  • 1814 1st plastic surgery is performed (England)
  • 1819 1st ship sails through the Erie Canal from Rome, New York to Utica, New York
  • 1853 Maastricht-Aken railway in Netherlands opens
  • 1854 English newspaper "The Times" gives precise British positions in Crimea during Crimean War
  • 1864 Battle of Westport, Missouri: Union General Samuel R Curtis defeats Confederate General Stirling Price
  • 1867 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
  • 1871 Columbia & Sappho (US) beat Livonia (UK) in 3rd America's Cup
  • 1876 New Orleans Mint reopens as an assay office
  • 1884 1st World Series OKed by AA, Providence (NL) beats NY Mets (AA) 6-0
  • 1886 St Louis Browns win World Championship by beating Chicago 4-3 in 10

  • 1888 Pelham Bay Park in Bronx vested
  • 1890 Opera "Prince Igor" is produced (St Petersburg)
  • 1893 C. Dazey's "In Old Kentucky" premieres in NYC (27 seasons)
  • 1905 Edward Milton Royle's play "Squaw Man" premieres in NYC
  • 1910 Blanche Scott becomes the first woman to fly at a public event in the US at Fort Wayne, Indiana.
  • 1910 Philadelphia A's beat Chicago Cubs 4 games to 1 in 7th World Series
  • 1910 Ritz Hotel in Madrid opens with 200 chambers and 100 bathtubs

Declaration of WarItalo-Turkish War

1911 1st aerial reconnaissance mission is flown by an Italian pilot over Turkish lines during the Italo-Turkish War
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Italian airships bomb Turkish positions. The Italo-Turkish War was the first conflict to feature aerial bombardment.
Italian airships bomb Turkish positions. The Italo-Turkish War was the first conflict to feature aerial bombardment.
  • 1915 1st national horseshoe throwing championship (Kellerton, Iowa)

Historic CommunicationWomen's Suffrage March on Fifth Ave, New York

1915 An estimated 25,000 supporters in a women's suffrage march on New York's Fifth Ave, led by Dr. Anna Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt, founder of the League of Women Voters
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25,000 women march in New York City demanding right to vote
25,000 women march in New York City demanding right to vote
  • 1917 1st Infantry division "Big Red One" shoots 1st US shot in WW I
  • 1919 Romberg & Atteridge's musical "Passing Show" premieres in NYC
  • 1920 Chicago grand jury indicts Abe Attell, Hal Chase, & Bill Burns as go-betweens in Black Sox World Series scandal
  • 1920 African demonstrators shot in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
  • 1921 Green Bay Packers play 1st NFL game, 7-6 win over Minneapolis
  • 1921 Leos Janacek's opera "Kat'a Kabanova" premieres in Brno
  • 1922 Channing Pollock's "Fool" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1922 Conservative Andrew Bonar Law forms government in United Kingdom, replacing David Lloyd George's Liberal government

British Prime Minister Bonar Law
British Prime Minister
Bonar Law
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1923 Babe Ruth makes a postseason exhibition appearance in a Giants uniform

Baseball Legend Babe Ruth
Baseball Legend
Babe Ruth
  • 1923 Giants defeat Baltimore Orioles 9-0 to benefit former Giants owner John Day
  • 1927 Town of Netanya Israel founded by Nathan Strauss
  • 1932 "Fred Allen Show" premieres on radio

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 John Dillinger and his gang rob Central National Bank, in Greencastle, Indiana. They take $75, 000

Gangster John Dillinger
John Dillinger
FBI Agent Melvin Purvis
FBI Agent
Melvin Purvis
  • 1934 Jean Piccard & Jeanette Ridlen attain balloon height of 17.341 m (rec)
  • 1935 Gabby Hartnett selected NL MVP
  • 1935 Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1935 Mackenzie King is elected as Prime Minister of Canada for the third time

10th Prime Minister of Canada Mackenzie King
10th Prime Minister of Canada
Mackenzie King

Film release premierFilm Release

1941 Walt Disney's animated film "Dumbo" released

Animator Walt Disney
Walt Disney
  • 1942 First ships of invasion fleet to Morocco leave Norfolk
  • 1942 During WWII, Britain launches major offensive at El Alamein, Egypt
  • 1942 German units go through Red October-factory in Stalingrad
  • 1942 All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs, California. Amongst the victims is composer Ralph Rainger ("Thanks for the Memory")
  • 1943 First Jewish transport out of Rome reaches camp Birkenau
  • 1944 First Central Kitchen opens in Amsterdam
  • 1944 Gulf of Leyte battle begin
  • 1944 Soviet army invades Hungary
  • 1944 Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's flagship the heavy cruiser Atago sinks during the Battle of Leyte Gulf

AgreementContract of Interest

1945 Jackie Robinson signs Montreal Royal contract

Baseball Player Jackie Robinson
Baseball Player
Jackie Robinson
  • 1946 UN General Assembly 2nd session convenes (1st NYC-Flushing Meadows)
  • 1947 NAACP petition on racism "An Appeal to the World" presented to UN
  • 1947 Husband & wife Dr Carl Cori & Dr Gerty Cori are 1st spouses to be awarded joint Nobel Prizes

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1950 Filipino President Elpidio Quirino issues Executive Order No. 355 replacing the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO)

6th President of the Philippines Elpidio Quirino
6th President of the Philippines
Elpidio Quirino

Film release premierFilm Premier

1952 "Limelight" premieres directed, written, produced and starring Charlie Chaplin and Claire Bloom with appearance by Buster Keaton

Comedian, Actor and Filmmaker Charlie Chaplin
Comedian, Actor and Filmmaker
Charlie Chaplin
  • 1953 France grants Laos' sovereignty
  • 1953 German FR applies to NATO
  • 1953 WTRF TV channel 7 in Wheeling-Steubenville, WV (CBS) 1st broadcast
  • 1954 Britain, France & USSR agree to end occupation of Germany
  • 1954 Pakistan Governor-General Ghoelan Mohammed disbands parliament
  • 1954 WSAU TV channel 7 in Wausau, WI (CBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1955 Dominican League moves to winter baseball for 1st time
  • 1956 First video recording on magnetic tape televised coast-to-coast
  • 1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
  • 1957 First test firing of Vanguard satellite launch vehicle, TV-3
  • 1958 De Gaulle offers Algerians defiance "peace of the brave"

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1958 Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature

Novelist & Poet Boris Pasternak
Novelist & Poet
Boris Pasternak

  • 1958 USSR lends money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam
  • 1958 The Springhill Mine Bump - underground earthquake traps 174 miners in No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, deepest coal mine in North America. By 1st November rescuers had dug out 100 victims, with death toll at 74.

Television DebutThe Smurfs TV Debut

1958 The smurfs first appear in the story "Johan and Pirlouit" by Belgium cartoonist Peyo
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The Smurfs title card from the 1981 TV series
The Smurfs title card from the 1981 TV series
  • 1959 Chinese troops move into India, 17 die
  • 1961 "Kwamina" opens at 54th St Theater NYC for 32 performances
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR

United Nations <b>Speech</b>United Nations Speech

1962 Adlai Stevenson speaks at the United Nations about the Cuba crisis

US Governor and Presidential Candidate Adlai Stevenson II
US Governor and Presidential Candidate
Adlai Stevenson II
  • 1962 USAF Major Robert A Rushworth takes X-15 to 40,800m
  • 1962 WCIV TV channel 4 in Charleston, South Carolina (NBC) begins broadcasting

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1963 Neil Simon's "Barefoot in the Park" premieres in NYC

Playwright and screenwriter Neil Simon
Playwright and screenwriter
Neil Simon
  • 1964 Time Magazine uses term "op art" for 1st time
  • 1964 Japan beats the Soviet Union 3-0 to claim the inaugural Olympic women's volleyball gold medal in Tokyo; undefeated in 6-team round robin competition
  • 1964 Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia finish 8-1 in inaugural Olympic men's volleyball competition in Tokyo; Soviets win 10 team round robin on count back of sets won-lost
  • 1964 Dutch 10th dan judoka Anton Geesink wins Open gold medal in the first ever Olympic judo competition in Tokyo; prevents clean sweep of the gold medals by Japan
  • 1964 Czech gymnast Věra Čáslavská wins the balance beam at the Tokyo Olympics; her 3rd gold medal of the Games with individual all-round and vault victories
  • 1964 Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina wins the floor exercise gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics; her 2nd gold of the Games (team) and career 9th (1956, 60, 64), a gymnastics record
  • 1964 Japanese gymnast Yukio Endo wins the parallel bars gold medal in the Tokyo Olympics; his 3rd gold medal of the Games (individual all-round and team); 4th career gold (1960, 64)

OlympicsOlympic Gold

1964 Future undisputed world heavyweight boxing champion Joe Frazier dominates German Hans Huber for an easy points win and the Olympic heavyweight gold medal in Tokyo

Heavyweight Boxing Champion Joe Frazier
Heavyweight Boxing Champion
Joe Frazier
  • 1964 Hungary beats Czechoslovakia 2-1 to win the men's football gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics
  • 1966 Australian Jack Brabham is first to win F1 World Drivers Championship and International Cup for Constructors Championship in the same year; 2nd in season ending Mexican Grand Prix at Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
  • 1967 "Henry, Sweet Henry" opens at Palace Theater NYC for 80 performances
  • 1967 NJ Americans (later NY/NJ Nets) play 1st ABA game
  • 1968 "Maggie Flynn" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 82 performances
  • 1968 American swimmer Kaye Hall sets a world record 1:06.2 to beat Canadian Elaine Tanner by 0.5s and win the 100m backstroke gold medal at the Mexico City Olympics
  • 1969 "Jimmy" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 84 performances
  • 1970 Gary Gabelich sets auto speed record 622.4 mph (1,001 kph)
  • 1970 Charles Haughey and two others are found not guilty of illegal arms importation by a Dublin jury; the 'Arms Trial' began on 28 May 1970
  • 1971 WXLT (now WWSB) TV channel 40 in Sarasota-Bradenton, FL (ABC) begins
  • 1971 Two female members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) are shot dead by the British Army in the Lower Falls area of Belfast
  • 1971 Three Catholic civilians are shot dead by the British Army during an attempted robbery in Newry, County Down

  • 1972 "Pippin" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 1944 performances
  • 1972 Access credit cards introduced in Great Britain
  • 1972 WNJS TV channel 23 in Camden, NJ (PBS) begins broadcasting
  • 1972 Loyalist paramilitaries carry out raid on an Ulster Defence Regiment
  • 1972 "I'm Still in Love with You" 5th studio album by Al Green is released (Billboard Album of the Year 1973)

AgreementAgreement of Interest

1973 Richard Nixon agrees to turn over White House tape recordings to Judge John Sirica

US Federal Judge John Sirica
US Federal Judge
John Sirica
37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon
  • 1973 UN's revised International Telecommunication Convention adopted
  • 1973 Yankee GM & pres Lee MacPhail named AL president
  • 1973 Arab oil embargo extended to the Netherlands

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1973 19 year old American tennis star Chris Evert retains her WTA Tour Championship at Boca Raton, Florida; beats Nancy Richey Gunter 6-3, 6-3 in the final

Tennis Legend Chris Evert
Tennis Legend
Chris Evert
Tennis Player and Two-Time Major Champion Nancy Richey
Tennis Player and Two-Time Major Champion
Nancy Richey
  • 1974 Cubs trade Billy Williams to A's for Manny Trillo, Knowles & Locker
  • 1974 Lake Isaac in Cleveland Metroparks' Big Creek Reservation dedicated
  • 1975 Battle between Cuba & South Africa troops in Angola
  • 1975 Islander Glenn Resch's 5th shut-out opponent-Flyers 3-0
  • 1975 Women take the day off in Iceland to commemorate “International Women’s Year”, shutting the country down for a day
  • 1977 7th NYC Women's Marathon won by Miki Gorman in 2:43:10
  • 1977 8th NYC Marathon won by Bill Rodgers in 2:11:38
  • 1977 Panamanians vote 2:1 to approve new Canal treaties
  • 1977 Paleontologist Elso Barghoorn announces discovery of a 3.4-billion year old one-celled fossil, one of the earliest life forms on Earth
  • 1977 Despite not driving in season ending Japanese Grand Prix, Austrian Niki Lauda wins his second Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by 17 points from Jody Scheckter of South Africa
  • 1978 CBS raises LP prices to $8.98
  • 1978 China & Japan formally ends 4 decades of dissension

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1978 Sid Vicious attempts suicide while at Riker's Detention Center in NYC

Musician Sid Vicious
Sid Vicious
  • 1980 "Tintypes" opens at John Golden Theater NYC for 93 performances
  • 1980 McCosker (168) & Dyson (152) make 319 opening stand cricket, NSW v WA
  • 1980 Soviet PM Nikolai Tichonov succeeds Alexei Kosygin, due to illness
  • 1981 US national debt hits $1 trillion
  • 1983 13th NYC Women's Marathon won by Grete Waitz in 2:27:00
  • 1983 14th NYC Marathon won by Rod Dixon in 2:08:59
  • 1983 400,000 demonstrate in Brussels, against cruise missile

  • 1983 Suicide terrorist truck bomb kills 243 US personnel in Beirut
  • 1984 Cubs Rick Sutcliffe, selected as a unanimous choice as NL Cy Young
  • 1984 NBC airs BBC footage of Ethiopian famine
  • 1984 STS 51-A launch vehicle moves to launch pad

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1986 Artist Keith Haring commissioned to paint a mural on the Berlin wall by Checkpoint Charlie Museum 300 metres long

Artist & Social Activist Keith Haring
Artist & Social Activist
Keith Haring
  • 1987 Dutch government gives Fokker's Aircraft Ÿ212 million credit
  • 1987 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1987 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1988 Boston Celtics play Spain in Madrid
  • 1988 Robert Bork's supreme court nomination rejected by US Senate
  • 1989 Browns' Bernie Kosar sets club record with a 97-yard TD pass

Music releaseAlbum Release

1989 George Harrison releases "Best of Dark Horse 1976-89" album

Singer-Songwriter George Harrison
George Harrison
  • 1989 Hungary proclaims itself a republic & declares communist rule ended
  • 1989 US 62nd manned space mission STS 34 (Atlantis 5) returns from space
  • 1989 William Nicholson's "Shadowlands" premieres in London
  • 1990 Iraq announces release of 330 French hostages
  • 1991 "Les Miserables" opens at Mogador Theatre, Paris
  • 1991 Clarence Thomas sworn in as US Supreme Court Justice
  • 1991 Dr Jack Kevorkian's suicide machine kills 2 women

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1992 Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil

Emperor of Japan Akihito
Emperor of Japan
  • 1993 Seven people killed by IRA bomb attack in Belfast
  • 1993 Paramilitia kills 22 demonstrators at Bijbihara in Indian-controlled Kashmir
  • 1993 Blue Jays beat Philadelphia Phillies, 8-6 in Game 6 at the SkyDome, Toronto to retain Baseball World Series; Blue Jays infielder Paul Molitor MVP

Sports record brokenBaseball Record

1993 Joe Carter of the Toronto Blue Jays hits a World Series winning walk-off home run against the Philadelphia Phillies

MLB Outfielder Joe Carter
MLB Outfielder
Joe Carter
  • 1994 Solheim Cup Women's Golf, The Greenbrier: US regains Cup; beats Europe, 13-7; Americans Dottie Mochrie & Bradie Burton both win their 3 matches
  • 1996 New York Yankees set record recovering from 0-6 in Baseball World Series game to beat Braves, 8-6 in Game 4 at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium; record 7th straight post-season road win
  • 1997 "Triumph of Love" opens at Royale Theater NYC
  • 1997 At 6:11 AM San Francisco experiences a power blackout due to sabotage
  • 1997 Dow Jones drops 186.88 pts
  • 1997 Les Alexander, owner of Houston Rockets buys NHL's Edmonton Oilers

AgreementAgreement of Interest

1998 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a "land for peace" agreement.

Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat
Palestinian Leader
Yasser Arafat
Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu
Prime Minister of Israel
Benjamin Netanyahu

Music releaseMusic Single

1998 Britney Spears releases her debut single "Baby One More Time"

Pop Star Britney Spears
Pop Star
Britney Spears
  • 2000 "Monday Night Miracle", down 30-7 at the end of the third quarter, New York Jets pull together an improbable comeback with 4 touchdowns and a field goal in the fourth quarter, eventually defeating the Miami Dolphins 40-37 in overtime
  • 2001 The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks
  • 2001 Apple releases the iPod
  • 2002 Moscow Theatre Siege begins: Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage
  • 2004 A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata prefecture, northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.

Music releaseMusic Single

2006 "Irreplaceable" single released by Beyonce (Soul Train Music Awards Best R&B/Soul Single 2007, Billboard Song of the Year 2007)

  • 2006 "The Black Parade" 3rd studio album by My Chemical Romance is released

Music releaseAlbum Release

2007 "Raising Sand" a collaborative album by rock singer Robert Plant and bluegrass singer Alison Krauss is released

Country Singer and Musician Alison Krauss
Country Singer and Musician
Alison Krauss
Rock Vocalist Robert Plant
Rock Vocalist
Robert Plant

Sports record brokenNHL Record

2008 Joe Sakic scores his final career goal (#625) against the Edmonton Oilers

NHL Legend Joe Sakic
NHL Legend
Joe Sakic
  • 2009 The United Nations "Rotterdam Rules" convention regulating international maritime carriage of goods is ratified with its twentieth signature.
  • 2009 The UK markets had contracted by 0.4% in the third quarter against what was expected to be a period of growth, as a result of unexpectedly poor performance by the service sector
  • 2010 MLB National League Championship: San Francisco Giants beat Philadelphia Phillies, 4 games to 2
  • 2011 A powerful 7.2 magnitude earthquake strikes Van Province, Turkey, killing 582 people and injuring thousands.
  • 2011 7th Rugby World Cup Final, Eden Park, Auckland: Tournament favourites New Zealand edge France, 8-7; crowd 61,079
  • 2012 12 people are killed and 40 are injured in a hospital fire in Tainan, Taiwan

Film release premierFilm Premier

2012 "Skyfall", 23rd James Bond film, directed by Sam Mendes and starring Daniel Craig and Javier Bardem premieres in London

Actor Daniel Craig
Daniel Craig
Film Director Sam Mendes
Film Director
Sam Mendes
  • 2013 Boston Red Sox defeat St Louis Cardinals in game 1 of the MLB 2013 World Series