Birthdays in History on August 31

Caligula

12 Caligula [Gaius Caesar], 3rd Roman Emperor (37-41 AD), born in Anzio, Italy (d. 41)

Commodus

161 Commodus, Roman Emperor (180-192 AD), born in Lanuvium, Italy (d. 192)

  • 1569 Jahangir, 4th Mughal Emperor of India (1605-27), born in Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal Empire (d. 1627)
  • 1602 Amalia, countess of Solms-Braunfels, wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange
  • 1663 Guillaume Amontons, French physicist, born in Paris (d. 1705)
  • 1721 George Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol, British statesman (d. 1775)
  • 1741 Husein Gradaščević, Bosniak general, born in Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina (d. 1834)
  • 1749 Alexander Radishchev, Russian writer (Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow), born in Moscow (1802)
  • 1811 Goode Bryan, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Hancock County, Georgia (d. 1885)
  • 1811 Théophile Gautier, French writer, historian and poet (Albertus, La Chanson de Roland, Émaux et camées), born in Tarbes, France (d. 1872)
  • 1821 Hermann von Helmholtz, German physician and physicist, born in Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1894)
  • 1822 Fitz John Porter, American Major General (Union Army), born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (d. 1901)
  • 1823 Galusha Aaron Grow, American politician, born in Ashford, Connecticut (d. 1907)
  • 1828 George Leonard Andrews, American professor, civil engineer, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts (d. 1899)
  • 1843 Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (1917-18), born in Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1919)
  • 1847 Arthur Verhaegen, Belgian architect and worker's union leader, born in Brussels (d. 1917)
  • 1852 Joris Helleputte, Belgian Catholic minister, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1925)

Maria Montessori

1870 Maria Montessori, Italian educator (spontaneous response), born in Chiaravalle, Marche, Italy (d. 1952)

  • 1871 James E. Ferguson, American Democratic politician and Texan Governor (1915-17), born in Salado, Texas (d. 1944)
  • 1874 Edward Thorndike, American psychologist (father of modern educational psychology), born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts (d. 1949)
  • 1879 Yoshihito [Taishō], 123rd Emperor of Japan (1912-26), born in Akasaka Palace, Tokyo City, Japan (d. 1926)

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands

1880 Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Queen of the Netherlands (1890-1948), born in Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1962)

  • 1884 George Al Sarton, Belgian-American chemist and historian, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1956)
  • 1885 DuBose Heyward, American novelist (Porgy, Star Spangled Virgin), born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1940)
  • 1887 Friedrich A Paneth, Austrian-British chemist, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1958)
  • 1888 Ramon de Basterra, Spanish writer and diplomat (La Obra de Trajano), born in Bilbao, Spain (d. 1928)
  • 1894 Albert Facey, Australian writer (A Fortunate Life), born in Maidstone, Victoria, Australia (d. 1982)
  • 1896 Félix-Antoine Savard, French Canadian priest and novelist, born in Quebec, Canada (d. 1982)
  • 1897 Marianne Bruns, German writer, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1994)
  • 1899 Paul E Garber, American founder/1st curator of National Air & Space Museum, born in Atlantic City, New Jersey (d. 1992)
  • 1900 Gino Lucetti, Italian anarchist, born in Carrara, Italy (d. 1943)
  • 1903 Vladimir Jankélévitch, French philosopher, born in Bourges, France (d. 1985)
  • 1905 Sal Tas, Dutch journalist & CIA agent (Het Parool) [or 1897]
  • 1906 Vivienne Byerley, English theater press agent, born in London, England (d. 1995)
  • 1907 Altiero Spinelli, Italian citizen and advocate of European federalism, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1986)
  • 1907 Augustus F. Hawkins, American politician (Rep-D-CA, 1963-75), born in Shreveport, Louisiana (d. 2007)

Ramon Magsaysay

1907 Ramon Magsaysay, 7th President of the Philippines (US Legion of Merit-1952), born in Iba, Zambales, Philippines (d. 1957)

  • 1907 William Shawn, American magazine editor (New Yorker, 1952-87), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1992)
  • 1908 William Saroyan, American novelist and playwright (Time of Your Life), born in Fresno, California (d. 1981)
  • 1909 Marie-Louise Grog-Carven, French fashion designer (Ma Griffe perfume), born in Châtellerault, Poitou-Charentes (d. 2015)
  • 1911 Hilde Jarecki, German-English educationist (The Kindertransport, Playgroups) (d. 1995)
  • 1913 Bernard Lovell, English radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank Observatory, born in Oldland Common, Bristol (d. 2012)
  • 1913 Michiel P. Gorsira, 1st Dutch Antillean in charge of Curacao (1951-67)
  • 1919 Amrita Preetam, Indian poet and author, born in Gujranwala, Pakistan (d. 2005)
  • 1921 Raymond Williams, Welsh academic and novelist (Second Generation), born in Llanfihangel Crucorney, Wales (d. 1988)
  • 1926 Georgiy Petrovich Katys, Russian cosmonaut (Voskhod 1 backup)
  • 1926 Jan de Koning, minister of Agriculture/Social Businesses (CDA)
  • 1928 Jeremy Maas, British art dealer and writer, born in Penang, British Malaya (d. 1997)
  • 1929 Julio Ramon Ribeyro, Peruvian writer, born in Lima, Peru (d. 1994)
  • 1930 Owen B. Pickett, American politician (Rep-D-Virginia 1987-2001), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 2010)
  • 1932 Robert [Franklin] Adams, American sci-fi author (Castaways in Time)
  • 1935 Eldridge Cleaver, American Black Panther leader turned Republican, born in Wabbaseka, Arkansas (d. 1998)
  • 1936 Marva Nettles Collins, American educator (West Side Preparatory School), born in Monroeville, Alabama (d. 2015)
  • 1942 Eugenio Trías Sagnier, Spanish philosopher, born in Barcelona, Spain (d. 2013)
  • 1943 Leonid Ivashov, Russian general, born in Frunze, Kirghiz SSR, Soviet Union
  • 1945 Leonid Popov, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 35/37, 40, T-7), born in Oleksandriia, Ukrainian SSR. Soviet Union
  • 1946 Jerome Corsi, American writer and conspiracy theorist, born in East Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1947 Luca di Montezemolo, Italian businessman (Chairman of Ferrari, NTV trains), born in Bologna, Italy
  • 1947 Yumiko Ōshima, Japanese manga artist (The Star of Cottonland), born in Otawara, Japan
  • 1952 Herbert Reul, German politician, born in Langenfeld,, West Germany
  • 1953 György Károly, Hungarian poet and author, born in Budapest, Hungary (d. 2018)
  • 1953 Marcia Clark [Kleks], American LA DA (O.J. Simpson Case), born in Berkeley, California
  • 1956 Masashi Tashiro, Japanese television performer

Tsai Ing-wen

1956 Tsai Ing-wen, Taiwanese politician, academic and 7th President of the Republic of China (Democratic Progressive Party: 2016-), born in Taipei, Taiwan

  • 1958 David H. Mattheisen, American engineer and astronaut (STS 73 alt), born in Blue Island, Illinois
  • 1960 Hassan Nasrallah, leader of the Lebanese terrorist group Hizbollah, born in Bourj Hammoud, Lebanon
  • 1964 Raymond P. Hammond, American poet and editor
  • 1966 Jan Einar Thorsen, Norwegian Alpine skier
  • 1969 Andrew Cunanan, American serial killer (killed Gianni Versace),born in National City, California (d. 1997)
  • 1970 Rania Al-Abdullah, Queen consort of Jordan, born in Kuwait City
  • 1973 Mary Peltola, American politician (1st Alaskan Native elected to Congress), born in Anchorage, Alaska
  • 1980 Laura Mulleavy, American fashion designer (Rodarte), born in California
  • 1982 G. Willow Wilson, American journalist and comic book writer
  • 1984 Matti Breschel, Danish road cyclist
  • 1984 Ted Ligety, American alpine skier

Mohammed bin Salman

1985 Mohammed bin Salman, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia (2017-) and Saudi Defense Minister (2015-), born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia