On This Day

Birthdays in History in 1844

  • Jan 7 Marie-Bernarde Soubirous, [St Bernadette of Lourdes], saint/visionary
  • Jan 16 Ismail Qemali, Albanian nationalist (d. 1919)
  • Jan 30 Moritz von Bissing, German gov-gen of Belgium (1914-17), born in Ober Bellmannsdorf, Prussia (d. 1917)
  • Feb 1 Eduard Adolf Strasburger, German botanist (Angiospermen)
  • Feb 1 Granville Stanley Hall, American psychologist
  • Feb 17 Aaron Montgomery Ward, founded mail-order business (Montgomery Ward), born in Chatham, New Jersey (d. 1913)
  • Feb 18 Willem Maris, Dutch painter (Hague School)
  • Feb 20 Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, Austrian physicist (statistical mechanics)
  • Feb 20 Joshua Slocum, Canadian seaman and adventurer (d. 1909)
  • Feb 20 Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian physicist (thermodynamics), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1906)
  • Mar 2 Dr. Schaepman [Herman Schaepman], Dutch poet, Roman Catholic priest, theologian, and politician
  • Mar 4 Josip Jurcic, Slovenian writer (10th Brother)
  • Mar 7 Anthony Comstock, American anti-vice crusader/philatelist, born in New Canaan, Connecticut (d. 1915)
  • Mar 14 King Umberto I of Italy (1878-1900), born in Turin, Italy (d. 1900)
  • Mar 19 Minna Canth, Finland, playwright (The Pastor's Family) and social activist
  • Mar 27 Adolphus Washington Greely, American Arctic explorer and recipient of the Medal of Honor, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts (d. 1935)

  • Mar 30 Paul M Verlaine, French lyric poet (Sagesse Bonbeur)
  • Mar 31 Andrew Lang, Scottish poet, novelist, literary critic, and anthropologist (Andrew Lang's Fairy Books), born in Selkirk, Scottish Borders, Scotland (d. 1912)
  • Apr 16 Anatole France [Jacques Anatole Thibault], French writer (Thaïs, Wickerwork Woman, Nobel 1921), born in Paris (d. 1924)
  • Apr 22 Lewis Powell, American Confederate soldier who was part of the conspiracy to assassinate Abraham Lincoln and who attempted to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward, born in Randolph, Alabama (d. 1865)

Person of interestElijah McCoy

May 2 Elijah McCoy, Canadian-American inventor of African descent, notable for his 57 US patents (lubrication of steam engines), born in Colchester, Ontario (d. 1929)

Inventor Elijah McCoy
Inventor
Elijah McCoy
  • May 3 Édouard Drumont, French anti-semitic journalist, born in Paris (d. 1917)
  • May 17 Julius Wellhausen, German biblical scholar (analysis of the structure and dating of the Pentateuch), born in Hamelin, Hanover, Germany (d. 1918)
  • May 21 Henri Rousseau, French post-impressionist painter (The Dream, The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope), born in Laval, France (d. 1910)
  • May 22 Mary Cassatt, American impressionist painter (Woman Bathing), born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania (d. 1926)
  • May 23 `Abdu'l-Bahá, Successor to Prophet of the Bahá'í Faith (d. 1921)
  • Jun 1 Galusha Pennypacker, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1916)
  • Jun 1 John J. Toffey, American Civil War hero (d. 1911)
  • Jun 3 Detlev [Freiherr Friedrich A von] Liliencron, German poet
  • Jun 3 Garret Hobart, American politician (R) 24th US Vice President (1897-99), born in Long Branch, New Jersey (d. 1899)
  • Jun 6 Konstantin Savitsky, Russian painter (Travellers in Auvergne), born in Taganrog, Russia (d. 1905)
  • Jun 10 Albert Neuhuys, Dutch painter of peasant families (Laren School), born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1914)
  • Jun 10 Carl Hagenbeck, German animal trainer (Von Tieren und Menschen), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1913)
  • Jun 14 Édouard Naville, Swiss Egyptologist (Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1926)
  • Jun 21 Ernest F Cambier, Belgian colonial pioneer (1st Congo railway) (d. 1909)
  • Jul 1 Verney Lovett Cameron, English explorer (Tanganyika), born in Radipole, Dorset, England (d. 1894)

  • Jul 8 Mary Johnson Lincoln, educator (Boston Cooking School)
  • Jul 11 Peter I Karadjordjevic, King of Serbia/Yugoslavia (1903-21), born in Belgrade, Ottoman Tributary Principality of Serbia (d. 1921)
  • Jul 22 William Archibald Spooner, English Oxford Don and reverend and inventor (spoonerisms), born in London, England (d. 1930)

Person of interestThomas Eakins

Jul 25 Thomas Eakins, American artist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1916)

Painter Thomas Eakins
Painter
Thomas Eakins
  • Jul 28 Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet (Windhover), born in Stratford, London (d. 1889)
  • Jul 31 Ignazio Guidi, Italian orientalist and archaeologist, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1935)
  • Aug 6 Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, born in Windsor Castle, Windsor, England (d. 1900)
  • Aug 7 Auguste Michel-Lévy, French geologist and petrologist, born in Paris (d. 1911)

Person of interestMenelik II

Aug 17 Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (1889-1913) and Negus/King of Shewa (1866–89), born in Angolalla, Ethiopia (d. 1913)

Emperor of Ethiopia Menelik II
Emperor of Ethiopia
Menelik II
  • Aug 22 George Washington De Long, American Arctic Explorer whose disastrous expedition provided evidence to support the theory of trans-Arctic oceanic drift, born in NYC, New York
  • Aug 29 Edward Carpenter, English poet and philosopher (Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure), born in Hove, Sussex, England (d. 1929)
  • Aug 30 Friedrich Ratzel, German social-geographer (Lebensraum), born in Karlsruhe, Germany (d. 1904)
  • Sep 10 Abel Hoadley, Australian confectioner (Violet Crumble), born in East Sussex, England (d. 1918)
  • Sep 20 William H. Illingworth, English-American photographer, born in Leeds, England (d. 1893)
  • Sep 28 Robert Stout, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1884-87), born in Lerwick, Shetland, Scotland (d. 1930)
  • Oct 3 Patrick Manson, Scottish physician and parasitologist (Father of tropical medicine), born in Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (d. 1922)
  • Oct 5 Francis William Reitz, 5th State President of the Orange Free State, born in Swellendam, Cape Colony (d. 1934)

Person of interestHenry John Heinz

Oct 11 Henry John Heinz, German-American entrepreneur who founded prepared-foods company (H.J. Heinz Company-57 varieties), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1919)

Founder of Heinz Henry John Heinz
Founder of Heinz
Henry John Heinz
  • Oct 12 George W. Cable, American writer (Northampton Years), born in New Orleans, Louisiana (d. 1925)

Person of interestFriedrich Nietzsche

Oct 15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia (d. 1900)

Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Oct 18 Harvey W. Wiley, American chemist known for leadership in the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, born in Kent, Indiana (d. 1930)

Person of interestLouis Riel

Oct 22 Louis Riel, Canadian politician, founder of the province of Manitoba and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies, born in Red River Colony, Rupert's Land, British North America (d. 1885)

Politician Louis Riel
Politician
Louis Riel
  • Oct 23 Robert Bridges, English poet (Testament of beauty) and British Poet Laureate (1913-30), born in Walmer, Kent (d. 1930)
  • Oct 24 Karl Lueger, Austrian politician, cofounder and leader of the Austrian Christian Social Party, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1910)
  • Oct 27 Klas Arnoldson, Swedish politician and pacifist (Nobel Peace 1908), born in Gothenburg, Sweden (d. 1916)
  • Oct 29 Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild, Austrian banker and member of the Rothschild banking family of Austria, born in Vienna, Austrian Empire (d. 1911)
  • Nov 2 Mehmed V, 35th Ottoman Sultan (1909-18), born in Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (d. 1918)
  • Nov 10 Henry Eyster Jacobs, American Lutheran theologian, born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (d. 1932)

Person of interestKarl Benz

Nov 25 Karl Benz, German inventor, engine designer and automobile manufacturer (Mercedes-Benz), born in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg (d. 1929)

Automobile Engineer and Inventor Karl Benz
Automobile Engineer and Inventor
Karl Benz
  • Dec 1 Alexandra, Danish princess/Queen of Great Britain/Ireland
  • Dec 4 Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus, born in Rottweil, Württemberg (d. 1914)
  • Dec 18 Lujo [Ludwig J von] Brentano, German economist