Historical Figures Born in 1844

  • Jan 7 St Bernadette of Lourdes [Marie-Bernarde Soubirous], French saint and visionary (her visions led to establishment of Shrine of Lourdes), born in Lourdes, France (d. 1879)
  • Jan 16 Ismail Qemali, Albanian nationalist (d. 1919)
  • Jan 30 Moritz von Bissing, German gov-gen of Belgium (1914-17), born in Ober Bellmannsdorf, Prussia (d. 1917)
  • Jan 30 Richard T. Greener, African-American pioneering scholar and diplomat who was Harvard College's 1st Black graduate, University of South Carolina 1st Black professor and America's 1st Black diplomat to a white country, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1922) [1]
  • Feb 1 Eduard Adolf Strasburger, German botanist (Angiospermen)
  • Feb 1 Granville Stanley Hall, American psychologist
  • Feb 17 Aaron Montgomery Ward, American retailer, founded mail-order business (Montgomery Ward), born in Chatham, New Jersey (d. 1913)
  • Feb 18 Willem Maris, Dutch painter (Hague School)
  • Feb 20 Joshua Slocum, Canadian-American seaman and adventurer, born in Mount Hanley, Nova Scotia (d. 1909)
  • Feb 20 Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian physicist (thermodynamics), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1906)
  • Feb 20 Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, Austrian physicist (statistical mechanics)
  • Mar 2 Dr. Schaepman [Herman Schaepman], Dutch poet, Roman Catholic priest, theologian, and politician
  • Mar 4 Josip Jurcic, Slovenian writer (10th Brother)
  • Mar 7 Anthony Comstock, American anti-vice crusader/philatelist, born in New Canaan, Connecticut (d. 1915)
  • Mar 14 Umberto I of Italy, King of Italy (1878-1900), born in Turin, Italy (d. 1900)
  • Mar 19 Minna Canth, Finland, playwright (The Pastor's Family) and social activist
  • Mar 27 Adolphus Washington Greely, American Arctic explorer and recipient of the Medal of Honor, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts (d. 1935)
  • Mar 30 Paul Verlaine, French lyric poet (Sagesse Bonbeur), born in Metz, France (d. 1896)
  • Mar 31 Andrew Lang, Scottish poet, novelist, literary critic, and anthropologist (Andrew Lang's Fairy Books), born in Selkirk, Scottish Borders, Scotland (d. 1912)
  • Apr 16 Anatole France [Jacques Anatole Thibault], French writer (Thaïs, Wickerwork Woman, Nobel 1921), born in Paris (d. 1924)
  • Apr 19 Sir Alexander Ogston, British surgeon (discovered Staphylococcus), educator, and military doctor, born in Aberdeen, Scotland (d. 1929)
  • Apr 22 Lewis Powell, American Confederate soldier who was part of the conspiracy to assassinate Abraham Lincoln and who attempted to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward, born in Randolph, Alabama (d. 1865)

Elijah McCoyElijah McCoy (1844-1929)

May 2 Canadian-American inventor of African descent, notable for his 57 US patents (lubrication of steam engines), born in Colchester, Ontario

  • May 3 Édouard Drumont, French anti-semitic journalist, born in Paris (d. 1917)
  • May 17 Julius Wellhausen, German biblical scholar (analysis of the structure and dating of the Pentateuch), born in Hamelin, Hanover, Germany (d. 1918)
  • May 21 Henri Rousseau, French post-impressionist painter (The Dream, The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope), born in Laval, France (d. 1910)
  • May 22 Mary Cassatt, American impressionist painter (Woman Bathing), born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania (d. 1926)
  • May 23 `Abdu'l-Bahá, Successor to Prophet of the Bahá'í Faith (d. 1921)
  • Jun 1 Galusha Pennypacker, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1916)
  • Jun 1 John J. Toffey, American Civil War hero (d. 1911)
  • Jun 3 Detlev [Freiherr Friedrich A von] Liliencron, German poet
  • Jun 3 Garret Hobart, American politician (R) 24th US Vice President (1897-99), born in Long Branch, New Jersey (d. 1899)
  • Jun 6 Konstantin Savitsky, Russian painter (Travellers in Auvergne), born in Taganrog, Russia (d. 1905)
  • Jun 10 Albert Neuhuys, Dutch painter of peasant families (Laren School), born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1914)
  • Jun 10 Carl Hagenbeck, German animal trainer (Von Tieren und Menschen), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1913)
  • Jun 14 Édouard Naville, Swiss Egyptologist (Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1926)
  • Jun 21 Ernest F. Cambier, Belgian colonial pioneer (1st Congo railway) (d. 1909)
  • Jul 1 Verney Lovett Cameron, English explorer (Tanganyika), born in Radipole, Dorset, England (d. 1894)
  • Jul 8 Mary Johnson Lincoln, American cooking teacher and author (Boston Cooking School), born in n South Attleboro, Massachusetts (d. 1921)
  • Jul 11 Peter I Karadjordjevic, King of Serbia/Yugoslavia (1903-21), born in Belgrade, Ottoman Tributary Principality of Serbia (d. 1921)
  • Jul 22 William Archibald Spooner, English Oxford Don and reverend and inventor (spoonerisms), born in London, England (d. 1930)

Thomas EakinsThomas Eakins (1844-1916)

Jul 25 American artist (The Gross Clinic), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • Jul 28 Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet (Windhover), born in Stratford, London (d. 1889)
  • Jul 31 Ignazio Guidi, Italian orientalist and archaeologist, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1935)
  • Aug 6 Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, born in Windsor Castle, Windsor, England (d. 1900)
  • Aug 7 Auguste Michel-Lévy, French geologist and petrologist, born in Paris (d. 1911)

Menelik IIMenelik II (1844-1913)

Aug 17 Emperor of Ethiopia (1889-1913) and Negus/King of Shewa (1866–89), born in Angolalla, Ethiopia

  • Aug 22 George Washington De Long, American Arctic Explorer whose disastrous expedition provided evidence to support the theory of trans-Arctic oceanic drift, born in NYC, New York (d. 1881)
  • Aug 29 Edward Carpenter, English poet and philosopher (Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure), born in Hove, Sussex, England (d. 1929)
  • Aug 30 Friedrich Ratzel, German social-geographer (Lebensraum), born in Karlsruhe, Germany (d. 1904)
  • Sep 10 Abel Hoadley, Australian confectioner (Violet Crumble), born in East Sussex, England (d. 1918)
  • Sep 20 William H. Illingworth, English-American photographer, born in Leeds, England (d. 1893)
  • Sep 28 Robert Stout, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1884-87), born in Lerwick, Shetland, Scotland (d. 1930)
  • Oct 3 Patrick Manson, Scottish physician and parasitologist (Father of tropical medicine), born in Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (d. 1922)
  • Oct 5 Francis William Reitz, 5th State President of the Orange Free State, born in Swellendam, Cape Colony (d. 1934)

Henry John HeinzHenry John Heinz (1844-1919)

Oct 11 German-American entrepreneur who founded prepared-foods company (H.J. Heinz Company-57 varieties), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

  • Oct 12 George W. Cable, American writer (Northampton Years), born in New Orleans, Louisiana (d. 1925)

Friedrich NietzscheFriedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

Oct 15 German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia

  • Oct 18 Harvey W. Wiley, American chemist known for leadership in the passage of the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, born in Kent, Indiana (d. 1930)

Louis RielLouis Riel (1844-1885)

Oct 22 Canadian politician, founder of the province of Manitoba and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies, born in Red River Colony, Rupert's Land, British North America

  • Oct 23 Robert Bridges, English poet (Testament of beauty) and British Poet Laureate (1913-30), born in Walmer, Kent (d. 1930)
  • Oct 24 Karl Lueger, Austrian politician, cofounder and leader of the Austrian Christian Social Party, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1910)
  • Oct 27 Klas Arnoldson, Swedish politician and pacifist (Nobel Peace 1908), born in Gothenburg, Sweden (d. 1916)
  • Oct 29 Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild, Austrian banker and member of the Rothschild banking family of Austria, born in Vienna, Austrian Empire (d. 1911)
  • Nov 2 Mehmed V, 35th Ottoman Sultan (1909-18), born in Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (d. 1918)
  • Nov 10 Henry Eyster Jacobs, American Lutheran theologian, born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (d. 1932)

Karl BenzKarl Benz (1844-1929)

Nov 25 German inventor, engine designer and automobile manufacturer (Mercedes-Benz), born in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg

  • Dec 1 Alexandra, Danish princess, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, born in Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1925)
  • Dec 4 Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus, born in Rottweil, Württemberg (d. 1914)
  • Dec 18 Lujo [Ludwig J von] Brentano, German economist