Historical Figures Born in 1854

  • Jan 1 James Frazer, Britain, anthropologist/author (The Golden Bough)

Alice Mary Robertson

Jan 2 Alice Mary Robertson, American educator, social worker and 2nd woman in US Congress, born in Tullahassee Mission, Indian Territory (d. 1931)

  • Jan 6 Sherlock Holmes, Mycroft, fictional detective (via Arthur Conan Doyle)
  • Jan 9 Jennie Jerome, American society beauty and mother of Winston Churchill (d. 1921)
  • Jan 18 Thomas A. Watson, American inventor, assistant to Alexander Graham Bell in inventing the telephone, born in Salem, Massachusetts (d. 1934)
  • Jan 22 Luke Short, American Old West gunslinger and saloon owner, born in Polk County, Arkansas (d. 1893)
  • Jan 29 Willem Knuttel, Dutch bibliographer and librarian
  • Feb 9 Aletta Jacobs, 1st Dutch female physician and women's suffrage activist, born in Sappemeer, Netherlands (d. 1929)
  • Feb 9 Edward Carson, 1st Baron Carson, lawyer/leader (Irish Unionist Party)
  • Feb 17 Friedrich A. Krupp, German steel and arms manufacturer (Krupp AG. - supplied the German Navy)
  • Feb 24 Franz Courtens, Flemish painter (Golden Rain)
  • Feb 25 Charles Lang Freer, American industrialist and art collector; endowed Smithsonian's Freer Gallery of Art, born in Kingston New York (d. 1919)
  • Mar 4 Sir Napier Shaw, British meteorologist (d. 1945)
  • Mar 14 Alexandru Macedonski, Romanian writer, born in Bucharest (d. 1920)
  • Mar 14 John Lane, British publisher (The Bodley Head), born in Devon (d. 1925)
  • Mar 14 Paul Ehrlich, German bacteriologist and physician (Chemotherapy, Nobel Prize 1908), Strehlen, Lower Silesia, German Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1915)
  • Mar 14 Thomas Riley Marshall, 28th Vice President of U.S. (1913-21), born in North Manchester, Indiana (d. 1925)
  • Mar 15 Emil Adolf von Behring, German physician; Nobel laureate (d. 1917)
  • Mar 23 Alfred Milner, Giessen Germany, British governor (Cape colony)
  • Mar 31 Dugald Clerk, inventor (2-stroke motorcycle engine)
  • Apr 1 Bill Traylor, American artist (d. 1949)
  • Apr 13 Richard T. Ely, American economist and author (Hard Times), born in Ripley, New York (d. 1943)
  • Apr 21 Eusapia Palladino, Italian spiritual medium, born in Minervino Murge, Apulia (d. 1918)
  • Apr 21 William Stang, German Roman Catholic Bishop, born in Bad Schönborn, Germany (d. 1907)
  • Apr 22 Henri La Fontaine, Belgian international lawyer (1st Socialist to win Nobel Peace Prize 1913), born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1943)
  • Apr 29 Henri Poincaré, French mathematician (Poincaré conjecture), born in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France (d. 1912)
  • May 11 Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-American inventor who invented the linotype machine that revolutionized printing, born in Hachtel, Kingdom of Württemberg (d. 1899)
  • May 24 John Riley Banister, American law officer and cowboy, born in Banister Hollow, Camden County, Missouri (d. 1918)
  • May 24 Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, admiral (WWI), born in Graz, Austrian Empire (d. 1921)
  • May 27 Georges Eekhoud, Belgian writer (Jeune Belgium), born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1927)
  • Jun 8 Douglas Colin Cameron, Canadian politician, born in Hawkesbury, Ontario (d. 1921)
  • Jun 9 Gerard Bolland, Dutch philosopher (Bolland Society), born in Groningen, Netherlands (d. 1922)
  • Jun 13 Charles Algernon Parsons, British inventor (steam turbine), born in London (d. 1931)
  • Jun 18 Edward Wyllis Scripps, American publisher who organized 1st major chain of newspapers in the US, born in Rushville, Illinois
  • Jul 4 Victor Babeş, Romanian physician and bacteriologist, born in Vienna, Austrian Empire (d. 1926)

George Eastman

Jul 12 George Eastman, American inventor (Kodak camera, founder of the Eastman Kodak Company), born in Waterville, New York (d. 1932)

  • Jul 19 Daniel Josephus Jitta, Dutch High Court lawyer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1925)
  • Jul 29 Georg Kerschensteiner, German educator (Theory of Education)
  • Jul 31 Jose Canalejas, premier of Spain (1910-12), born in El Ferrol, Spain (d. 1912)
  • Aug 2 F. Marion Crawford, American author (Mr. Isaacs), born in Bagni de Lucca, Italy (d. 1909)
  • Aug 10 J Scott Lidgett, theologist, born in London, England
  • Aug 12 Alfred Gilbert, sculptor/goldsmith
  • Aug 22 Milan I, King of Serbia, born in Mărășești, Romania (d. 1901)
  • Sep 2 Hans Jæger, Norwegian writer and political activist (d. 1910)
  • Sep 8 Willem Marinus van Rossum, Dutch cardinal and prefect of Propaganda File, born in Zwolle, Overijssel, Netherlands (d. 1932)
  • Sep 10 Anton Dreesmann, German-Dutch manufacturer (Vroom & Dreesman), born in Haselünne, Germany (d. 1934)
  • Sep 17 David Dunbar Buick, Scottish-American automobile pioneer (Buick Motor Company), born in Arbroath, Angus, Scotland (d. 1929)
  • Sep 23 Cornelis W Lely, Dutch engineer/Governor of Suriname (1902-05)
  • Sep 28 Adam Sedgwick, English zoologist (Peripatus), born in Norwich, England (d. 1913)
  • Oct 2 Patrick Geddes, Scottish biologist and town planner who coined the term conurbation, born in Ballater, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (d. 1932)
  • Oct 3 William Crawford Gorgas, American physician and 22nd Surgeon-General of the U.S. Army (help cure yellow fever), born in Toulminville, Alabama (d. 1920)
  • Oct 7 Christiaan R de Wet, South African rebel leader, politician and general in the Boer War
  • Oct 16 Karl J Kautsky, Austrian marxist/socialist

Oscar Wilde

Oct 16 Oscar Wilde, Irish playwright and novelist (Importance of Being Earnest, The Picture of Dorian Gray), born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1900)

  • Oct 18 Charles Scribner II, American magazine and book publisher, born in New York City (d. 1930)
  • Oct 18 Salomon August Andrée, Swedish engineer, balloonist and polar explorer, born in Gränna, Sweden (d. 1897)

Arthur Rimbaud

Oct 20 Arthur Rimbaud, French poet and adventurer (Illuminations), born in Charleville, France (d. 1891)

  • Oct 24 Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom, Dutch chemist (Heterogenen Gleichgewichte), born in Alkmaar, Netherlands (d. 1907)
  • Oct 26 C. W. Post, American manufacturer of breakfast cereals, born in Springfield, Illinois (d. 1914)
  • Oct 27 Sir William Alexander Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys' Brigade, born in Pennyland House, Thurso, Scotland (d. 1914)
  • Oct 31 Adolf Erman, German Egyptologist (Grammar of Ancient Egypt), born in Berlin (d. 1937)
  • Nov 3 Jokichi Takamine, Japanese-American biochemist who isolated adrenaline (epinephrine), which causes the body to respond to emergencies, the first pure hormone isolated from natural sources, born in Takaoka, Toyama, Japan (d. 1922)
  • Nov 5 Alphonse Desjardins, founder of the Caisses populaires Desjardins, born in Lévis, Quebec (d. 1920)
  • Nov 5 Paul Sabatier, French chemist (Nobel 1912 - improving the hydrogenation of organic species in the presence of metals), born in Carcassonne, France (d. 1941)
  • Nov 8 Johannes Rydberg, Swedish physicist (Rydberg formula), born in Halmstad, Sweden (d. 1919)
  • Nov 16 Jules van den Heuvel, Belgian lawyer and politician, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1926)
  • Nov 17 Louis Lyautey, French general and colonial administrator (Indochina, Morocco) Minister of Defense (1916-17), born in Nancy, France (d. 1934)

Benedict XV

Nov 21 Benedict XV [Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa], Italian 258th Pope (1914-22), born in Pegli, Genoa, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (d. 1922)

  • Nov 27 Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal, Austrian diplomat (Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary 1906-12), born in Groß Skal, Bohemia, Austrian Empire (d. 1912)
  • Nov 28 Gottlieb Haberlandt, Austrian botanist, born in Mosonmagyaróvár (d. 1945)
  • Dec 23 Henry B. Guppy, British botanist who studied in the Pacific, born in Falmouth, England (d. 1926)