Historical Figures Born in 1856

  • Jan 9 Anton Aškerc, Slovenian poet and priest (Primoz Trubar), born near Rimske Toplice, Austrian Empire (d. 1912)
  • Jan 9 Lizette Woodworth Reese, American poet (Branch of May, Tears), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1935)
  • Jan 12 John Singer Sargent, American painter (Wyndham Sisters), born in Florence, Italy (d. 1925)
  • Jan 14 J. F. Archibald, Australian journalist & publisher, born in Sydney, Australia (d. 1919)
  • Feb 5 Otto Brahm, German critic, theatre director (founded Neue Deutsche Rundschau), born in Hamburg (d. 1912)
  • Feb 14 Frank Harris, Irish-American journalist and writer (My Life & Loves), born in Galway, Ireland (d. 1931)
  • Feb 15 Emil Kraepelin, German psychiatrist who developed a classification system for mental illness, born in Munich, Germany (d. 1926)
  • Feb 16 Rudolph Karstadt, German entrepreneur and owner of chain of shops (Karstadt Warenhaus AG) (d. 1944)
  • Feb 21 Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Dutch architect (Stock exchange Amsterdam), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1934)
  • Mar 1 Florimond Fonteyne, Flemish priest/politician (Volkseeuw)
  • Mar 4 Alfred William Rich, English painter (d. 1921)
  • Mar 4 Toru Dutt, English and French poet and author (d. 1877)
  • Mar 7 Matilde Serao [Tuffolina], Italian writer (Land of Cockayne)
  • Mar 8 Bramwell Booth, 2nd General of The Salvation Army, born in Halifax, England (d. 1929)
  • Mar 8 Tom Roberts, British-Australian artist (Shearing the Rams), born in Dorchester, Dorset, England (d. 1931)
  • Mar 16 Napoléon IV, Prince Imperial, Head of the House of Bonaparte (1873-79), born in Paris, French Empire (d. 1879)
  • Mar 17 Mikhail Vrubel, Russian painter (d. 1910)

Frederick Winslow TaylorFrederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)

Mar 20 American mechanical engineer and the father of scientific management, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • Mar 20 Sir John Lavery, Irish artist (d. 1941)

Henry Ossian FlipperHenry Ossian Flipper (1856-1940)

Mar 21 American soldier, former slave and first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1877, born in Thomasville, Georgia

  • Mar 26 David Alfred Thomas, 1st Viscount Rhondda, Welsh coal-mining entrepreneur, born in Ysgyborwen, Wales (d. 1918)
  • Apr 1 Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician who identified the plague in Bombay, born in Apora, Portuguese India (d. 1933)

Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington (1856-1915)

Apr 5 American education pioneer and 1st African American on a US stamp, born in Hale's Ford, Virginia

  • Apr 11 Constantly Lievens, Flemish missionary in India, born in Moorslede, Belgium (d. 1893)
  • Apr 12 William Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington, English historian and explorer (Spitzbergen), born in Rochester, Kent (d. 1937)

Philippe PétainPhilippe Pétain (1856-1951)

Apr 24 French marshal and Chief of the French State (1940-44), born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour, France

  • Apr 26 Joseph Ward, 17th Prime Minister of New Zealand (1906-12), born in Melbourne, Victoria Colony (d. 1930)

Robert PearyRobert Peary (1856-1920)

May 6 American arctic explorer who claimed to have 1st reached geographic North Pole (Apr 6 1909), born in Cresson, Pennsylvania

Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud (1856-1939)

May 6 Austrian neurologist and father of psychology, born in Freiberg, Austrian Empire

  • May 13 Peter Henry Emerson, British writer and photographer (1st to promote photography as an independent art), born on La Palma Estate plantation, Cuba (d. 1936)
  • May 15 (Lyman) L. Frank Baum, American children's book author (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), born in Chittenango, New York (d. 1919)
  • May 20 Henri E Cross [Delacroix], French painter
  • May 25 Louis Franchet d'Espèrey, French general during WWI, born in Mostaganem, French Algeria (d. 1942)
  • Jun 14 Andrey Markov, Russian mathematician (Markov Chain), born in Ryazan, Russian Empire (d. 1922)
  • Jun 19 Elbert Hubbard, American editor, publisher and author (Message to Garcia), born in Bloomington, Illinois (d. 1915)
  • Jun 22 Henry Rider Haggard, British author (King Solomon's Mines, She, Dawn), born in Bradenham, England (d. 1925)
  • Jun 30 Gerrit Kalff, Dutch professor (history of Dutch writers), born in Zwolle, Netherlands (d. 1923)
  • Jul 6 Edward Anseele, Belgian socialist politician, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1938)
  • Jul 9 Daniel Guggenheim, American mining magnate and philanthropist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1930)

Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla (1856-1943)

Jul 10 Serbian-American physicist, electrical engineer and inventor who developed alternating current and the Tesla Coil, born in Smiljan, Austrian Empire (now Croatia)

  • Jul 21 Harry A P Eyres, British diplomat (Constantinople, Albania)
  • Jul 21 Louise Blanchard Bethune, 1st American woman architect, born in Waterloo, New York (d. 1915)
  • Jul 23 Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Indian early nationalist leader, born in Ratnagiri, British India (d. 1920)
  • Jul 24 Charles Émile Picard, French mathematician, born in Paris (d. 1941)

George Bernard ShawGeorge Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)

Jul 26 Irish dramatist (Pygmalion, Nobel Prize for Literature 1925), born in Dublin, Ireland

  • Jul 30 Richard Haldane, British viscount and lord-chancellor (Life of A Smith), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1928)

Alfred DeakinAlfred Deakin (1856-1919)

Aug 3 Second Prime Minister of Australia (3 terms between 1903-10), born in Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

Edward L. DohenyEdward L. Doheny (1856-1935)

Aug 10 American oil tycoon who drilled the 1st successful oil well in Los Angeles and set off the California oil boom, born in Fond du lac, Wisconsin

  • Aug 10 William Willett, British inventor of Daylight Saving Time, born in Farnham, Surrey, England
  • Aug 12 "Diamond Jim" Brady, American financier (d. 1917)
  • Aug 15 J. Keir Hardie, Scottish politician and 1st Labour representative in British Parliament, born in Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1915)
  • Aug 17 Violet Paget [Vernon Lee], British author (Satan the master)
  • Aug 20 Jakub Bart-Ćišinski, Sorbian writer, born in Panschwitz-Kuckau, Germany (d. 1909)
  • Aug 27 Iwan Franko, Ukrainian writer and political activist, born in Nahuievychi, Galicia (d. 1916)
  • Aug 30 Carle David Tolmé Runge, German mathematician and physicist, born in Bremen, Germany (d. 1927)
  • Sep 1 Sergei Winogradsky, Russian scientist (d. 1953)
  • Sep 2 Yang Hsiu-ch'ing, commander in chief of Taiping Rebellion

Louis SullivanLouis Sullivan (1856-1924)

Sep 3 American architect (father of skyscrapers), born in Boston, Massachusetts

  • Sep 23 William Archer, Scotland, writer (Green Goddess)
  • Sep 28 Edward Herbert Thompson, American diplomat and archaeologist (Mayan civilization), born in Worcester, Massachusetts (d. 1935)
  • Sep 28 Kate Douglas Wiggin, American author (Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1923)

Timothy Thomas FortuneTimothy Thomas Fortune (1856-1928)

Oct 3 American orator, civil rights leader, writer and publisher (New York Age), born in Marianna, Florida

  • Oct 15 Robert Nivelle, French military officer, born in Tulle, France (d. 1924)
  • Oct 25 Dragutin Gorjanovic-Kramberger, Croatian paleontologist (discovery and descriptions of the Neandertal remains from the Huŝnjakova rock shelter at Krapina in northwestern Croatia), born in Zagreb, Croatia (d. 1936)
  • Nov 6 Nikolaĭ Nikolaevich, Grand Duke of Russia, born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire (d. 1929)
  • Nov 13 Louis Brandeis, American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1941)
  • Nov 18 Nicholas Nikolaevich Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia and general in World War I (1914-18), born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire (d. 1929)
  • Nov 22 Heber J. Grant, 7th President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, born in Salt Lake City, Utah (d. 1945)
  • Nov 29 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor of the German Empire (1909-17), born in Hohenfinow, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1921)
  • Dec 11 Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary theorist, born in Gudalovka, Russia (d. 1918)
  • Dec 13 Svetozar Boroević, Austro-Hungarian field marshal, born in Umetić, Croatian Military Frontier, Austrian Empire (d. 1920)
  • Dec 18 Graciano López Jaena, Filipino journalist (La Solidaridad), orator, social reformist, and national hero, born in Jaro, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Spanish Empire (d. 1896)

J. J. ThomsonJ. J. Thomson (1856-1940)

Dec 18 English physicist who discovered the electron (Nobel 1906), born in Manchester, England

Frank KelloggFrank Kellogg (1856-1937)

Dec 22 American politician and diplomat (US Secretary of State, 1925-29), tried to outlaw war (Kellogg–Briand Pact: Nobel Peace Prize, 1929), born in Potsdam, New York

  • Dec 25 Hans von Bartels, German painter (d. 1913)

Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

Dec 28 28th President of the United States (Democrat: 1913-21) and 1919 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, born in Staunton City, Virginia

  • Dec 29 Thomas J Stieltjes, Dutch mathematician (Stieltjes integral), born in Zwolle, Netherlands (d. 1894)