On This Day

Historical Figures Born in 1874

  • Jan 1 Gustave Whitehead, German inventor (d. 1927)
  • Jan 1 Frank Knox, American politician (Republican VP candidate 1936), newspaper editor and Secretary of the Navy during World War II, born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1944)
  • Jan 4 Svend Fleuron, Danish writer, born on Good Katrinedal (d. 1966)

Joseph Erlanger

Jan 5 Joseph Erlanger, American physiologist (shock therapy-Nobel 1944), born in San Francisco, California (d. 1965)

  • Jan 13 Jozef E van Roey, Flemish cardinal/archbishop of Mechlin
  • Jan 14 Thornton W. Burgess, American conservationist & author (The Bedtime Story-Books; Now I Remember: Autobiography of an Amateur Naturalist), born in Sandwich, Massachusetts (d. 1965)
  • Jan 16 Robert W. Service, English-Canadian poet (Cremation of Sam McGee), born in Lancashire, England (d. 1958)
  • Jan 22 Wincenty Witoz, Galicia, Prime Minister of Poland (1920-21, 1923, 1926)
  • Jan 22 Edward Harkness, American philanthropist (d. 1940)
  • Jan 24 Arthur Schomburg (Arturo Alfonso), Puerto Rican archivist of African American history and culture, born in Santurce, Puerto Rico (d. 1938)
  • Jan 25 Hewlett Johnson [Red Dean of Canterbury], English bishop, born in Salford, Greater Manchester (d. 1966)
  • Jan 25 W. Somerset Maugham, British novelist & poet (Of Human Bondage), born in Paris, France (d. 1965)
  • Jan 28 Ernst Rabel, Austrian-American lawyer, human rights activist, and author (The Conflict of Laws: A Comparative Study), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1955)
  • Feb 1 Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian poet/dramatist/essayist
  • Feb 3 Gertrude Stein, Penn, author (Autobiography of Alice B Toklas)
  • Feb 6 Milton Bennett Medary, American architect (Washington Chapel), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1929)
  • Feb 9 Amy Lowell, American poet and critic (Patterns, Sword Blades & Poppy Seed), born in Brookline, Massachusetts (d. 1925)
  • Feb 11 Elsa Beskow [Maartman], Swedish children's book/fairy tales author
  • Feb 13 Hendrik Spiekman, Dutch journalist and politician (social-democratic)

Ernest Shackleton

Feb 15 Ernest Shackleton, British-Irish polar explorer (Endurance, Antarctica), born in Kilkea, Ireland (d. 1922)

Thomas J. Watson

Feb 17 Thomas J. Watson, Sr., American businessman (Chairman and CEO of IBM, 1914-1956), born in Campbell, New York (d. 1956)

  • Feb 23 Konstantin Päts, Estonian Prime Minister (1921-23, 1932-33) and dictator (1933-40), born in Tahkuranna Parish, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire (d. 1956)
  • Mar 1 Jean de Merode [Marie-Louise B Courtenay], Princess of Netherlands (d. 1955)
  • Mar 5 Arthur van Schendel, Dutch writer (The World a Dancing Party)
  • Mar 14 Anton Philips, Co-Founder of Royal Philips Electronics N.V., born in Zaltbommel, Gelderland, Netherlands (d. 1951)
  • Mar 15 Harold L Ickes, social activist, New Deal politician
  • Mar 15 Eugène Fiset, Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (d. 1951)
  • Mar 17 Stephen Samuel Wise, American Rabbi and President of Zionist Org of America, born in Budapest, Hungary (d. 1949)
  • Mar 18 Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian philosopher, born in Kiev, Russian Empire (d. 1948)
  • Mar 20 Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (d. 1945)
  • Mar 22 Ellen Glasgow, American novelist (Nobel Prize for Literature 1942), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 1945)

Harry Houdini

Mar 24 Harry Houdini [Erich Weiss], Famous magician and escape artist, born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (d. 1926)

  • Mar 24 Luigi Einaudi, economist/1st president of Italy (1948-55)

Robert Frost

Mar 26 Robert Frost, American poet (Mending Wall, Road Not Taken), born in San Francisco, California (d. 1963)

  • Mar 29 Lou Henry Hoover, US First Lady (1929-33) and wife of the 31st President, Herbert Hoover, born in Waterloo, Iowa (d. 1944)
  • Apr 8 Stanisław Taczak, Polish general, commander-in-chief of the Greater Poland Uprising, born in Mieszków, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland (d. 1960)
  • Apr 14 Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and Canada, born in Kensington Palace, London (d. 1957)
  • Apr 15 Johannes Stark, German physicist (Stark effect, Nobel 1919), born in Schickenhof, German Empire (d. 1957)
  • Apr 15 George Harrison Shull, American plant geneticist, born in Clark County, Ohio (d. 1954)
  • Apr 18 Oskar Ernst Bernhardt, German author (In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message), born in Bischofswerda, Kingdom of Saxony, German Empire (d. 1941)
  • Apr 19 Firmin Baes, Flemish painter, born in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Belgium (d. 1943)
  • Apr 19 Ernst Rüdin, Swiss-German psychiatrist, geneticist, and eugenicist, born in St. Gallen, Switzerland (d. 1952)
  • Apr 19 Jane Poupelet, French sculptor and graphic artist (la bande à Schnegg), born in Saint-Paul-Lizonne, France (d. 1932)
  • Apr 24 John Russell Pope, American architect (Jefferson Memorial, National Archives and Records Administration), born in NYC, New York (d. 1937)
  • Apr 24 Willem Roelofs, Dutch painter and cartoonist (d. 1940)

Guglielmo Marconi

Apr 25 Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor and electrical engineer who pioneered work on long distance radio transmission (Nobel 1909), born in Bologna, Italy (d. 1937)

  • Apr 28 Karl Kraus, Austrian satirical writer, born in Jičín, Austrian-Hungarian Empire (d. 1936)
  • Apr 30 Cyriel Verschaeve, Belgian priest and writer (Maria Magdalena - 1928), born in Ardooie, West Flanders, Belgium (d. 1949)
  • May 1 Romaine Brooks [Beatrice Romaine Goddard], American painter, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1970)
  • May 3 François Coty, French perfume manufacturer, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, France (d. 1934)
  • May 3 V. Walfrid Ekman, Swedish oceanographer, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1954)
  • May 10 Moses Schorr, Polish rabbi, senator, historian and orientalist (d. 1941)
  • May 12 Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet, Austrian physician (Reaction of Pirquet)
  • May 20 Folkert E Posthuma, Dutch minister of Agriculture/Industry
  • May 22 Daniel François Malan, Prime Minister of South Africa (1948-54) who began the implementation of apartheid, born in Riebeek-Wes, Cape Colony (d. 1959)

Henri Farman

May 26 Henri Farman, British-French aviator who broke several aviation records, born in Paris (d. 1958)

  • May 27 Richard von Schaukal, Moravian-Austria poet and writer (Eros Thanatos), born in Brno, Czech Republic (d. 1942)
  • May 29 G. K. Chesterton [Gilbert Keith], English writer (Man Who Made Gold), born in London, England
  • Jun 13 Leopoldo Lugones, Argentine poet (Las montañas del oro), born in Villa Maria del Rio Seco, Argentina (d. 1938)
  • Jun 14 Edward Bowes, American radio host (Major Bowes Amateur Hour), born in San Francisco, California (d. 1946)
  • Jun 19 Peder Oluf Pedersen, Danish engineer and physicist, born in Sig, Varde, Denmark (d. 1941)
  • Jul 3 Āpirana Ngata, Māori New Zealand politician and lawyer known for promoting and protecting Māori culture and language, born in Te Araroa, New Zealand (d. 1950)

Eugen Fischer

Jul 5 Eugen Fischer, Nazi physician (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute), born in Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany (d. 1967)

  • Jul 7 Erwin Bumke, German jurist (d. 1945)
  • Jul 10 Sergey Konenkov, Russian sculptor, born in Verkhniye Karakovichi, Russia (d. 1971)
  • Jul 14 Abbas Hilmi II, last khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt (1892-1914), born in Alexandria, Egypt (d. 1944)
  • Jul 14 Andre Debierne, French chemist and physicist (Actinium)
  • Jul 24 Oswald Chambers, Scottish Baptist and Holiness Movement minister and writer (My Utmost for His Highest), born in Aberdeen, Scotland (d. 1917)
  • Jul 25 Sergey Vasilyevich Lebedev, Russian Chemist who invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced synthetic rubber, born in Lublin, Poland (d. 1934)
  • Jul 28 Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher and educator (Essay on Man), born in Silesia, Prussia (d. 1945)
  • Jul 29 August Stramm, German poet and playwright, born in Cathedrals (d. 1915)
  • Jul 29 James Shaver Woodsworth, Canadian politician (d. 1942)
  • Aug 3 Eugène Baie, Belgian author (Sub rosa et sub umbra), born in Anderlecht, Belgium (d. 1963)
  • Aug 6 Charles Fort, American writer and researcher (specialized in anomalous phenomena), born in Albany, New York (d. 1932)

Herbert Hoover

Aug 10 Herbert Hoover, 31st US President (R: 1929-1933), born in West Branch, Iowa (d. 1964)

  • Aug 14 Mustafa Kamil Pasha, Egyptian lawyer, journalist and nationalist activist, born in Cairo, Egypt (d. 1908)
  • Aug 15 Joseph Klausner, Polish-Israeli new testament expert, born in Valkininkai, Lithuania (d. 1958)
  • Aug 21 Herman Adriaan van Karnebeek, Dutch minister of Foreign affairs (1918-27), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1942)
  • Aug 22 Max Scheler, German philosopher (Vom Umsturz der Werte), born in Munich, Germany (d. 1928)
  • Aug 26 Zona Gale, American novelist and playwright, 1st woman to win Pulitzer Prize for Drama (1921), born in Portage, Wisconsin (d. 1938)
  • Aug 27 Carl Bosch, German chemist (BASF, Nobel 1931), born in Cologne, German Empire (d. 1940)
  • Aug 31 Edward Thorndike, American psychologist (father of modern educational psychology), born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts (d. 1949)
  • Sep 1 Ismar Elbogen, German/US rabbi (Encyclopedia Judaica)
  • Sep 13 Henry F. Ashurst, American Democratic politician (U.S. Senator from Arizona), born in Winnemucca, Nevada (d. 1962)
  • Sep 17 Ben Turpin, American comic (Uncle Tom Without the Cabin), born in New Orleans, Louisiana (d. 1940)
  • Sep 18 Johannes Anker Larsen, Danish writer (Vises Sten), born in Langeland, Denmark (d. 1957)

Charles Vyner Brooke

Sep 26 Charles Vyner Brooke, 3rd and last White Rajah of Sarawak (1917-46), born in London, England (d. 1963)

  • Oct 6 Frank G. Allen, 51st Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1950)
  • Oct 9 Nicholas Roerich, Russian painter, born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 1947)
  • Oct 14 Margarete Susman, German-Jewish writer, born in Hamburg (d. 1966)
  • Oct 15 Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, grandson of Queen Victoria, born in Buckingham Palace, London (d. 1899)
  • Oct 21 Albert Aftalion, Bulgaria/French economist
  • Oct 26 Martin Lowry, English chemist (Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory), born in Low Moor, Bradford (d. 1936)

Owen D. Young

Oct 27 Owen D. Young, American industrialist (RCA) and diplomat (Young Plan), born in Stark, New York (d. 1962)

  • Nov 4 Aleksandr Vasilevich Kolchak, Russian military commander, born in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire (d. 1920)
  • Nov 9 Albert Francis Blakeslee, American botanist, born in Geneseo, New York (d. 1954)

August Krogh

Nov 15 August Krogh [Schack], Danish zoophysiologist (arterioles and capillaries, Nobel 1920), born in Grenaa, Jutland, Denmark (d. 1949)

  • Nov 18 Carrie White, oldest US woman (dies Nov 1990 at 116), born in Havana, Florida (d. 1991)
  • Nov 18 Clarence Day, American author (Life with Father), born in NYC, New York (d. 1935)
  • Nov 20 James Michael Curley, American politician (53rd Governor of Massachusetts, 1935-37), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Nov 22 Herman Harrell Horne, American philosopher (idealism), born in Clayton, North Carolina (d. 1946)
  • Nov 26 Edmond Fleg[enheimer], Swiss-French author (Ecoute Israel), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1963)

Chaim Weizmann

Nov 27 Chaim Weizmann, Israeli statesman and Zionist leader (1st President of Israel 1949-52), born in Motal, Russian Empire (d. 1952)

  • Nov 27 Charles A. Beard, American historian (American Continentalism), born in Knightstown, Indiana (d. 1948)
  • Nov 29 Antonio Egas Moniz, Portuguese neurosurgeon (Nobel Prize 1949 for developing lobotomy procedure), born in Avanca, Portugal (d. 1955)
  • Nov 29 Francis Dodd, British artist, born in Holyhead, Wales (d. 1949)

Winston Churchill

Nov 30 Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1940-45, 1951-55) during World War II, and writer (Nobel Prize in Literature, 1953), born in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (d. 1965)

Lucy Maud Montgomery

Nov 30 Lucy Maud Montgomery, Canadian author (Anne of Green Gables), born in Clifton, Prince Edward Island (d. 1942)

  • Dec 8 Ernst Moro, Austrian physician and pediatrician (Moro reflex), born in Laibach, Duchy of Carniola, Austria-Hungary (d. 1951)
  • Dec 12 Volter Kilpi, Finnish writer (Alastalon salissa), born in Kustavi, Finland (d. 1939)
  • Dec 13 Ludwig Curtius, German archaeologist (Die antike Kunst), born in Augsburg, Germany (d. 1954)

Mackenzie King

Dec 17 Mackenzie King, 10th Prime Minister of Canada (1921-30, and 1935-48), born in Berlin, Ontario (d. 1950)

  • Dec 21 Juan Bautista Sacasa, President of Nicaragua (1932-36), born in León, Nicaragua