On This Day

Birthdays in History in 1878

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4 Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4 Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6 Carl Sandburg, American poet & biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes), born in Galesburg, Illinois (d. 1967)
  • Jan 9 John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11 Theodoros Pangalos, Greek general and dictator (1926), born in Salamis, Greece (d. 1952)
  • Jan 12 Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13 Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist, born in Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14 Victor A D Segalen, French naval doctor & writer, born in Brest, France (d. 1919)
  • Jan 16 Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 18 Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 23 Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom), born in Vinica, Črnomelj, Slovenia (d. 1949)
  • Jan 25 Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-American television pioneer (Alexanderson alternator), born in Uppsala, Sweden (d. 1975)
  • Jan 30 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (Truth and Justice), born in Vetepere, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31 Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1 Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate

  • Feb 1 Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2 Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 3 Joseph Gordon Coates, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1925-28), born in Ruatuna, New Zealand (d. 1943)
  • Feb 5 André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 8 Martin Buber, Austrian-Israeli dialogue philosopher and theologist (Ich und Du), born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary (d. 1965)
  • Feb 14 Julius Nieuwland, Belgian-American chemist (inventor of neoprene), born in Hansbeke, Belgium (d. 1936)
  • Feb 21 Mirra Richard [The Mother], French-born Indian spiritual leader (Sri Aurobindo), born in Paris, France (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22 Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23 Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27 Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28 Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Mar 2 Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2 William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4 Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7 Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10 Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 14 Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet and writer (Forces of the Future), born in Middelburg, Netherlands (d. 1950)
  • Mar 15 Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41), born in Alasht, Savad Kooh, Mazandaran, Persia (d. 1944)
  • Mar 16 Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi

  • Mar 24 Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Apr 1 Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2 Émilie Charmy, French avant-garde artist, born in Saint-Etienne, France (d. 1974)
  • Apr 6 Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7 Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 12 Richard B Goldschmidt, German-American zoologist (butterflies), born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (d. 1958)
  • Apr 15 Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • Apr 21 Albert Weisgerber, German painter and graphic artist, born in Sankt Ingbert, Germany (d. 1915)
  • Apr 22 Kitty Gordon, English entertainer, born in Folkestone, Kent (d. 1974)
  • Apr 24 Jean Crotti, Swiss-French artist, born in Bulle, Fribourg, Switzerland (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26 Rafael Guízar y Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop (cared for the wounded, sick, and dying during the Mexican Revolution), born in Cotija, Michoacán, Mexico (d. 1938)
  • May 10 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel Peace Prize 1926), born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1929)
  • May 11 Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 21 Glenn Hammond Curtiss, American inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21 Louis de Visser, Dutch politician (CPN)
  • May 24 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, American psychologist and industrial engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954), born in Oakland, California (d. 1972)
  • May 28 Paul Pelliot, French Sinologist and Orientalist best known for his explorations of Central Asia and his discovery of many important Chinese texts among the Dunhuang manuscripts, born in Paris (d. 1945)
  • Jun 1 John Masefield, British writer and poet (Salt-Water Ballads), Poet Laureate (1930-67), born in Ledbury, Herefordshire (d. 1967)
  • Jun 4 Frank Buchman, American theologist (Moral Re-Armament), born in Pennsburg, Pennsylvania (d. 1961)
  • Jun 5 Pancho Villa [José Doroteo Arango Arámbula], Mexican revolutionary general and guerrilla leader, born in La Coyotada, San Juan del Río, Durango, Mexico (d. 1923)
  • Jun 6 Vincent de Moro-Giafferi, French criminal attorney, born in Paris (d. 1956)
  • Jun 12 James Oliver Curwood, American journalist and writer (Kazan the wolfdog), born in Owosso, Michigan (d. 1927)
  • Jun 17 Albert Thomas, French socialist politician (Minister of Armament WW1), born in Champigny-sur-Marne (d. 1932)
  • Jun 27 Jean François van Royen, Dutch bibliophile, secretary-general of PTT, born in Arnhem, Netherlands (d. 1942)
  • Jul 6 Eino Leino, Finnish poet, born in Paltamo, Finland (d. 1926)
  • Jul 15 Willem Paerels, Neth/Belgian painter and graphic artist
  • Jul 19 Robert Herman Woltjer, Dutch Minister of Education, born in Groningen, Netherlands (d. 1955)
  • Jul 22 Lucien Febvre, French historian (Un destin: Martin Luther)
  • Jul 22 Janusz Korczak [Henryk Goldszmit], Polish-Jewish educator and pedagogue (ran an orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto), born in Warsaw, Congress Poland (or in 1879, d. 1942)
  • Jul 24 Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany, Irish sci-fi writer (Time & Gods), born in London (d. 1957)
  • Jul 29 Don Marquis, Ill, journalist/poet (archy & mehitabel) (d. 1937)
  • Aug 2 Aino Kallas, Finnish writer (White Ship, Estonian Tales), born in Kiiskilä, Viipuri Province, Grand Duchy of Finland (d. 1956)
  • Aug 2 Princess Ingeborg of Sweden, wife of Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland, born in Charlottenlund Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1958)
  • Aug 10 Alfred Döblin, German writer (d. 1957)
  • Aug 13 Salomon "Sam" de Wolff, Dutch zionist and socialist theorist, born in Sneek, Netherlands (d. 1960)
  • Aug 14 Harald Kidde, Danish writer (Aage og Else), born in Vejle, Denmark (d. 1918)
  • Aug 15 Pyotr Nikolayevich, Baron Wrangel, Russian baron general (White Armies, WW II), born in Novalexandrovsk, Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1928)

Person of interestManuel L. Quezon

Aug 19 Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, Second President of the Philippines (1935-42), born in Baler, Aurora, Philippines (d. 1944)

2nd President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon
2nd President of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon
  • Aug 28 George Whipple, American physician and biomedical researcher (Nobel-1934), born in Ashland, New Hampshire (d. 1976)
  • Aug 30 Paul Hazard [Paul-Gustave-Marie-Camille Hazard], French critic and literature historian, born in Nordpeene, France (d. 1944)
  • Sep 1 Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1942)
  • Sep 2 Werner von Blomberg, German minister of Reichswehr
  • Sep 9 Adelaide Crapsey, American poet (d. 1914)
  • Sep 9 Sergio Osmeña, 4th President of the Philippines (d. 1961)
  • Sep 16 Karl Albiker, German sculptor (German Art, female nudes), born in Ühlingen-Birkendorf, Germany (d. 1961)

Person of interestUpton Sinclair

Sep 20 Upton Beall Sinclair, American writer (Jungle), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1968)

  • Sep 22 Shigeru Yoshida, Japanese Prime Minister (1946-54), born in Yokosuka (d. 1967)
  • Sep 24 Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz, Swiss writer (Le Petit Village), born in Lausanne, Switzerland (d. 1947)
  • Oct 1 Othmar Spann, Austrian economist and sociologist (Geschichtsfilosofie), born in Vienna (d. 1950)
  • Oct 2 François Conrad Schlumberger, French physicist, born in Guebwiller, Upper Rhine (d. 1936)
  • Oct 12 Karl Buresch, Austrian lawyer and politician, born in Groß-Enzersdorf, Austria (d. 1936)
  • Oct 13 Patrick Joseph Hartigan, Australian Roman Catholic priest, born in O'Connell Town, Yass, New South Wales (d. 1952)
  • Oct 15 Paul Reynaud, Premier of France (May-June 1940), born in Barcelonette, France (d. 1966)
  • Oct 18 James Truslow Adams, historian (Pul-1921, Founding of New England)
  • Oct 19 Hermann Claudius, German folk poet (Meister Bertram), born in Langenfelde near Hamburg (d. 1980)

  • Oct 25 Nico van Suchtelen, Dutch writer and publisher, born in Amsterdam (d. 1949)
  • Oct 29 Alex von Falkenhausen, German general (China, WW II), born in Gut Blumenthal, Province of Silesia, German Empire (d. 1966)

Person of interestCarlos Saavedra Lamas

Nov 1 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentine politician (Nobel Peace Prize 1936), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1959)

Nobel Peace Laureate Carlos Saavedra Lamas
Nobel Peace Laureate
Carlos Saavedra Lamas
  • Nov 1 Konrad Mägi, Estonian painter, born in Hellenurme Manor, Elva Parish, Governorate of Livonia (d. 1925)
  • Nov 7 Lise Meitner, Austrian-Swedish physicist (discovered the nuclear fission of uranium), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1968)
  • Nov 13 John C Kielstra, Dutch economist and governor of Suriname (1933-44)
  • Nov 13 Max Dehn, German mathematician (Dehn’s lemma), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1952)
  • Nov 14 Leopold Staff, Polish poet (d. 1957)
  • Nov 14 Julie Manet, French painter, daughter of Berthe Morisot (d. 1966)
  • Nov 17 Grace Abbott, Grand Island Neb, social worker (US Children Bureau)
  • Nov 21 Gustav Radbruch, German lawyer/minister of Justice
  • Nov 23 Ernest J King, US fleet admiral/Chief of Naval Operations (WWII)
  • Nov 24 Mark N Tod, English classicist/historian
  • Nov 25 Georg Kaiser, German playwright (The Burghers of Calais), born in Magdeburg (d. 1945)
  • Nov 27 Jatindramohan Bagchi, Indian (Bengali) poet (d. 1948).
  • Nov 28 Jozef van Mierlo, Belgian Jesuit/literary (Hadewych)
  • Dec 1 Arthur B Spingarn, US NAACP-chairman (1940-65)
  • Dec 7 Akiko Yosano, Japanese poet (Tangled Hair), born in Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan (d. 1942)
  • Dec 10 C. Rajagopalachari, India's freedom fighter and the first Governor General of independent India, born in Thorapalli, Madras Presidency, British India (d. 1972)
  • Dec 15 Hans Carossa, German writer, born in Tölz, Bavaria (d. 1956)

Person of interestJoseph Stalin

Dec 18 Joseph Stalin, Dictator and General Secretary of the Soviet Union (1922-53), born in Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1953)

Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Soviet General Secretary
Joseph Stalin
  • Dec 21 Jan Łukasiewicz, Polish logician and philosopher, born in Lviv, Ukraine (d. 1956)
  • Dec 23 Stephen Timoshenko, Ukrainian-born mechanical engineer (d. 1972)
  • Dec 26 Isaiah Bowman, American geography/co-founder (Geographical Review)
  • Dec 30 William Aberhart, Canadian politician (d. 1943)
  • Dec 31 Horacio Quiroga, Uruguayan playwright, poet, and short story writer (Anaconda, El Crimen del Otro), born in Salto, Uruguay (d. 1937)
  • Dec 31 Elizabeth Arden, Canadian businesswoman, born in Woodbridge, Ontario (d. 1966)