On This Day

Birthdays in History in 1881

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Carry van Bridges, [de Haan], Dutch author (Heleen, Eva)
  • Jan 1 Vajiravudh, King of Thailand (d. 1925)
  • Jan 4 Wilhelm Lehmbruck, German painter/poet/sculptor (Seated Youth)
  • Jan 8 Henrik Shipstead, American politician (d. 1960)
  • Jan 9 Giovanni Papini, Italian writer (Il Diavolo)
  • Jan 9 Lascelles Abercrombie, English poet/critic (Revaluations)
  • Jan 9 Edouard Beaupré, horse lifter (d. 1904)
  • Jan 13 Essington Lewis, Australian industrialist (d. 1961)
  • Jan 17 Alfred Radcliffe-Browne, British anthropologist (Andaman Islanders), born in Birmingham, England (d. 1955)
  • Jan 17 Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician (d. 1941)
  • Jan 18 Gaston Gallimard, French publisher (Librairie Gallimard) [or 1908]
  • Jan 25 Emil Ludwig, German biographer (Diana, Son of Man), born in Wrocław, Poland (d. 1948)
  • Jan 31 Irving Langmuir, inventor (tungsten filament lamp/Nobel 1932)
  • Jan 31 Joseph A Cushman, American palaentologist
  • Feb 4 Kliment J Woroshilov, marshal/president USSR (1953-60)
  • Feb 4 Fernand Léger, French painter (d. 1955)

  • Feb 5 Frederick Leonard Lonsdale, British playwright (Balkan Princess)
  • Feb 13 Eleanor Farjeon, English writer (Martin Pippin)
  • Feb 14 Otto Selz, German psychologist, born in Munich, Germany (d. 1943)
  • Feb 14 William John Gruffydd, Welsh poet and scholar, born in Gorffwysfa, Bethel, Wales (d. 1954)
  • Feb 16 Maurits H E Uyldert, Dutch poet/writer (Youth of a Poet)
  • Feb 19 Evert Gorter, founder of Dutch medical child care
  • Feb 19 Paul Zech, German writer, born in Briesen, Western Prussia (d. 1946)
  • Feb 20 Pedro Munoz Seca, Spanish playwright (Vengeanza de Don Mendo)
  • Feb 22 Joseph B. Ely, American politician (d. 1956)
  • Feb 23 Titus [Anno S] Brandsma, Dutch philosopher
  • Feb 25 William Foster, Mass, Communist Presidential candidate (1924,28,32)
  • Feb 27 Luitzen [Bertus] Brouwers, Dutch mathematician
  • Feb 27 Sveinn Bjornsson, 1st president of Iceland (1944-52)/poet (Figur ild)
  • Mar 4 Todor Aleksandrov, 19th century Bulgarian revolutionary (d. 1924)
  • Mar 4 Thomas Sigismund Stribling, American writer (d. 1965)
  • Mar 4 Richard C. Tolman, American mathematical physicist (d. 1948)
  • Mar 9 Ernest Bevin, British Minister of Labour (1940-45) and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1945-51), born in Winsford, Sommerset (d. 1951)
  • Mar 10 Thomas Quinlan (impresario) (d. 1951)
  • Mar 12 Daniel Webster Hoan, Wisc (Mayor-Socialist-Milwaukee)
  • Mar 12 Gunnar Nordström, Finnish physicist (d. 1923)
  • Mar 13 Balthazar Huibrecht Verhagen, Dutch dramatist and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1950)
  • Mar 17 Kristian Elster, Norwegian author (Less bror Harris)
  • Mar 17 Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • Mar 20 Eugène Schueller, French chemist, founder of L'Oréal, born in Paris, France (d. 1957)
  • Mar 23 Hermann Staudinger, German chemist/plastics researcher (Nobel '53)

  • Mar 23 Roger Martin du Guard, French novelist (Les Thibault-Nobel 1937)
  • Mar 25 Louis Dosfel, Flemish lawyer/writer (Assault!)
  • Mar 25 Mary Gladys Webb, English writer (d. 1927)
  • Mar 26 Guccio Gucci, Italian founder of Gucci fashion house, born in Florence (d. 1953)
  • Apr 3 Alcide de Gasperi, 30th Prime Minister of Italy (1945-53), born in Pieve Tesino, Tyrol, Austria-Hungary (d. 1954)
  • Apr 3 Margaret "Daisy" Ashford, British child author who wrote "The Young Visiters" (Mister Salteena's Plan) aged 9, born in Petersham, Surrey (d. 1972)
  • Apr 4 Charles Earle Funk, American lexicographer (Funk & Wagnalls) (d. 1957)
  • Apr 16 Edward Frederick Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax and British ambassador to US (1940-46), born in Powderham Castle, Devon, England (d. 1959)
  • Apr 17 Anton Wildgans, Austrian poet and playwright (Armut), born in Vienna (d. 1932)
  • Apr 18 Max Weber, Polish-Russian-American painter, born in Białystok, Russian Empire (d. 1961)
  • Apr 21 Jules-Marie Canneel, Flemish painter and caricaturist (Rocks of Oran), born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1953)
  • Apr 22 Alexander Kerensky, Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government (1917), born in Simbirsk, Russian Empire (d. 1970)
  • Apr 25 Hans Windisch, German New Testament scholar, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1935)
  • May 1 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, French philosopher and paleontologist (The Phenomenon of Man), born in Orcines, Auvergne, France (d. 1955)
  • May 11 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian physicist (d. 1963)
  • May 14 G. Murray Hulbert, American politician (d. 1950)

Person of interestMustafa Kemal Atatürk

May 19 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of Turkey (1923-38) and founder of the Republic of Turkey, born in Salonica, Ottoman Empire (d. 1938)

President and founder of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
President and founder of the Republic of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
  • May 20 Władysław Sikorski, Polish World War II general and Prime Minister of Poland in exile (1939-43), born in Tuszów Narodowy, Austria-Hungary (d. 1943)
  • May 27 Rudolf Pannwitz, German writer and philosopher (Urblik), born in Crossen/Oder, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia (now in Poland) (d. 1969)
  • May 30 Georg von Küchler, German field marshal and WWII war criminal, born in Schloss Philippsruh, German Empire (d. 1968)
  • Jun 1 Charles Kay Ogden, English writer and linguist (d. 1957)
  • Jun 3 Mikhail Larionov, Russian painter (d. 1964)
  • Jun 4 Natalia Goncharova, Russian avant-garde artist and painter, born in Nagaevo, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1962)
  • Jun 18 Eduard C "Edo" Fimmen, Dutch labor leader
  • Jun 26 Ya'akov Cahan, Hebrew poet and writer, born in Slutsk, Belarus (d. 1960)
  • Jul 1 Piet[er] L. Kramer, Influential Dutch architect (Amsterdam School), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1961)
  • Jul 2 Royal H. Weller, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York), born in Manhattan, New York (d. 1929)
  • Jul 4 Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1968)
  • Jul 5 August Hlond, Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, born in Brzęczkowice, German Empire (d. 1948)
  • Jul 6 Josef Winckler, German dentist and writer (Quadriga, Pumpernickel), born in Bentlage, Rheine (d. 1966)
  • Jul 12 Ludwig Rubiner, German poet and essayist, born in Berlin (d. 1920)
  • Jul 19 Friedrich Dessauer, German physicist (radiologist), born in Aschaffenburg, Germany (d. 1963)
  • Jul 20 Leon de Smet, Flemish painter
  • Jul 26 Alexander J. Kropholler, Dutch architect and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1973)

Person of interestHans Fischer

Jul 27 Hans Fischer, German organic chemist (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1930), born in Hoechst, Germany (d. 1945)

Physicist and Nobel Laureate Hans Fischer
Physicist and Nobel Laureate
Hans Fischer
  • Jul 30 Smedley Butler, American Marine general, born in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1940)
  • Aug 1 Rose Macaulay, English writer (The Towers of Trebizond), born in Rugby, Warwickshire, England (d. 1958)
  • Aug 2 Ethel M. Dell, English author (Storm Drift), born in London (d. 1881)

Person of interestHugh S. Johnson

Aug 5 Hugh S. Johnson, American head of the National Recovery Administration and member of FDR's Brain Trust, born in Fort Scott, Kansas (d. 1942)

Member of FDR's Brain Trust Hugh S. Johnson
Member of FDR's Brain Trust
Hugh S. Johnson

Person of interestAlexander Fleming

Aug 6 Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist (invented penicillin; Nobel Prize 1945), born in Lochfield, Scotland (d. 1955)

  • Aug 6 Louella Parsons, American gossip columnist, born in Freeport, Illinois (d. 1972)
  • Aug 8 Paul L E von Kleist, German general-fieldmarshal (Eastern Front)
  • Aug 10 Albrecht M Sprenger, landbuilder
  • Aug 13 Jacqueline Reyneke van Stuwe, Dutch author, born in Muntok, Indonesia (d. 1955)
  • Aug 15 Alfred Wagenknecht, German-born American activist, born in Görlitz, Imperial Germany (d. 1956)
  • Aug 20 Edgar Albert Guest, English-American poet and newspaperman, born in Birmingham, England (d. 1959)
  • Aug 23 Louis Schelfhout, Dutch painter and graphic artist, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1943)
  • Aug 29 Valery-Nicolas Larbaud, French novelist and translator (Enfantines), born in Vichy, France (d. 1957)
  • Sep 5 Otto Bauer, Austrian Social Democrat, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1938)
  • Sep 12 Daniel Jones, English phoneticist (English pronouncing dictionary), born in London (d. 1967)
  • Sep 15 Ettore Bugatti, Italian-French automobile designer and manufacturer (Automobiles E. Bugatti), born in Milan, Italy (d. 1947)
  • Sep 16 Clive Bell, English art critic, born in East Shefford, Berkshire (d. 1964)
  • Sep 17 Alfred Carpenter, English Royal Navy soldier, born in Barnes, Surrey (d. 1955)
  • Sep 25 Lu Xun, Chinese writer of modern Chinese literature, born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, Qing dynasty China (d. 1936)
  • Sep 26 Hiram Wesley Evans, American member of the Ku Klux Klan, born in Ashland, Alabama (d. 1966)
  • Sep 29 Ludwig von Mises, Austrian Economist

Person of interestWilliam Boeing

Oct 1 William Boeing, American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company, born in Detroit, Michigan (d. 1956)

Aviation Pioneer William Boeing
Aviation Pioneer
William Boeing
  • Oct 4 Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1948)
  • Oct 5 Otto V. Kuusinen, Finnish politician (founder of the Finnish Communist Party), born in Laukaa, Finland (d. 1964)
  • Oct 7 Mikhail Drozdovsky, Russian general (d. 1918)
  • Oct 11 Stark Young, American writer (So Red the Rose), born in Como, Mississippi (d. 1963)
  • Oct 11 Hans Kelsen, Austrian legal philosopher and political philosopher, born in Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary (d. 1973)
  • Oct 12 William Nigh, American director (Ape, Doomed to Die, Mr Wong), born in Berlin, Wisconsin (d. 1955)
  • Oct 15 P. G. Wodehouse, British-American writer (Bertie Wooster novels), born in Guildford, England (d. 1975)
  • Oct 22 Clinton Davisson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
  • Oct 24 Paul Basilius Barth, Swiss painter and lithographer, born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1955)

Person of interestPablo Picasso

Oct 25 Pablo Picasso, Spanish artist (3 Dancers, Guernica), born in Malaga, Andalusia, Spain (d. 1973)

Painter Pablo Picasso
Painter
Pablo Picasso
  • Oct 30 Lena Christ, German writer (The Rumplhanni), born in Glonn, Bavaria (d. 1920)
  • Oct 30 Elizabeth Madox Roberts, American poet and author (d. 1941)
  • Nov 4 Milton Rosmer, Southport England, director (Murder in the Red Barn)
  • Nov 5 George A. Malcolm, American jurist & educator (d. 1961)
  • Nov 8 Frank Speck, American Anthropologist (Algonquin Tribes and Eastern Woodland Native Americans), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • Nov 8 Robert Esnault-Pelterie, French Engineer and aviation pioneer who contributed to early heavier-than-air flight in Europe, born in Paris, France
  • Nov 12 Olev Siinmaa, Estonian architect (d. 1948)
  • Nov 12 Maximilian von Weichs, German field marshal (d. 1954)
  • Nov 15 Franklin P Adams, columnist (Information Please), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • Nov 17 Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, 1st Baron Hesketh, British peer, soldier, and politician

Person of interestEnver Pasha

Nov 22 Enver Pasha, Turkish general and politician, born in Constantinople (d. 1922)

Leader of the Ottoman Empire Enver Pasha
Leader of the Ottoman Empire
Enver Pasha

Person of interestJohn XXIII

Nov 25 Pope John XXIII [Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli], 261st Pope (1958-63), born in Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy (d. 1963)

  • Nov 28 Stefan Zweig, Austrian poet, essayist and dramatist (Beware of Pity), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1942)
  • Dec 4 Erwin von Witzleben, German fieldmarshal (July 20th plot), born in Wrocław, Poland (d. 1944)
  • Dec 8 Padraic Colum, Irish poet/novelist/poet (Collected Poems)
  • Dec 17 Johannes CB "Jan" Sluyters, Dutch painter
  • Dec 22 Enver Pasa, Turkish politician, born in Istanbul, Turkey (d. 1922)
  • Dec 24 Juan Ramon Jiménez, Spanish poet (Distant Gardens, Nobel 1956), born in Moguer, Spain (d. 1958)
  • Dec 31 Colin G Fink, American chemist (electro chemistry), born in Hoboken, New Jersey
  • Dec 31 Jacob Israël de Haan, Dutch poet/writer (Pipelines, Jewish Song), born in Holland, Netherlands (d. 1924)
  • Dec 31 Max Pechstein, German "entartet" painter and graphic artist (The Bridge), born in Zwickau, Germany (d. 1955)