Historical Figures Born in 1881

  • Jan 1 Carry van Bruggen [de Haan], Dutch author (Heleen, Eva), born in Smilde, Netherlands (d. 1932)
  • Jan 1 Vajiravudh, King of Thailand (d. 1925)
  • Jan 4 Wilhelm Lehmbruck, German painter, poet and sculptor (Seated Youth), born in Meiderich, Germany (d. 1919)
  • Jan 8 Henrik Shipstead, American politician (d. 1960)
  • Jan 9 Edouard Beaupré, horse lifter (d. 1904)
  • Jan 9 Giovanni Papini, Italian avant-garde writer (Il Diavolo), born in Florence, Italy (d. 1956)
  • Jan 9 Lascelles Abercrombie, English poet and critic (Revaluations), born in Ashton upon Mersey, England (d. 1938)
  • Jan 13 Essington Lewis, Australian industrialist (d. 1961)
  • Jan 17 Alfred Radcliffe-Browne, British anthropologist (Andaman Islanders), born in Birmingham, England (d. 1955)
  • Jan 17 Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician (d. 1941)
  • Jan 18 Gaston Gallimard, French publisher (Librairie Gallimard), born in Paris, France (d. 1975)
  • Jan 25 Emil Ludwig, German biographer (Diana, Son of Man), born in Wrocław, Poland (d. 1948)
  • Jan 31 Irving Langmuir, American chemist and engineer (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1932, invented gas-filled incandescent lamp), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1957)
  • Jan 31 Joseph Augustine Cushman, American palaentologist, born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts (d. 1949)
  • Feb 4 Fernand Léger, French painter (d. 1955)
  • Feb 4 Kliment Voroshilov, Russian politician and army officer (Marshal of the Soviet Union, President of the Supreme Soviet 1953-60), born in Bakhmut Russian Empire (d. 1969)
  • Feb 5 Frederick Lonsdale, British playwright (Balkan Princess), born in St Helier, Jersey (d. 1954)
  • Feb 13 Eleanor Farjeon, English writer (Martin Pippin)
  • Feb 14 Otto Selz, German psychologist, born in Munich, Germany (d. 1943)
  • Feb 14 William John Gruffydd, Welsh poet & scholar, born in Gorffwysfa, Bethel, Wales (d. 1954)
  • Feb 16 Maurits Uyldert, Dutch poet and writer (Youth of a Poet)
  • Feb 19 Evert Gorter, founder of Dutch medical child care
  • Feb 19 Paul Zech, German writer, born in Briesen, Western Prussia (d. 1946)
  • Feb 20 Pedro Munoz Seca, Spanish playwright (Vengeanza de Don Mendo)
  • Feb 22 Joseph B. Ely, American politician (d. 1956)
  • Feb 23 Titus [Anno S] Brandsma, Dutch philosopher
  • Feb 25 William Z. Foster, American labor organizer and Communist Presidential candidate (1924, 1928 and 1932), born in Taunton, Massachusetts (d. 1961)
  • Feb 27 Luitzen [Bertus] Brouwers, Dutch mathematician
  • Feb 27 Sveinn Bjornsson, 1st president of Iceland (1944-52)/poet (Figur ild)
  • Mar 4 Richard C. Tolman, American mathematical physicist (d. 1948)
  • Mar 4 Thomas Sigismund Stribling, American writer (Pulitzer Prize 1933), born in Clifton, Tennessee (d. 1965)
  • Mar 4 Todor Aleksandrov, Bulgarian revolutionary, army officer, Macedonian freedom fighter, and teacher, born in Novo Selo, Ottoman Empire (now Štip< North Macedonia) (d. 1924)
  • Mar 9 Ernest Bevin, British Minister of Labour (1940-45) and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1945-51), born in Winsford, Sommerset (d. 1951)
  • Mar 12 Daniel Webster Hoan, Wisc (Mayor-Socialist-Milwaukee)
  • Mar 12 Gunnar Nordström, Finnish physicist (d. 1923)
  • Mar 13 Balthazar Huibrecht Verhagen, Dutch dramatist and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1950)
  • Mar 17 Kristian Elster, Norwegian author (Less bror Harris)
  • Mar 17 Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • Mar 20 Eugène Schueller, French chemist, founder of L'Oréal, born in Paris, France (d. 1957)
  • Mar 23 Hermann Staudinger, German chemist/plastics researcher (Nobel '53)
  • Mar 23 Roger Martin du Guard, French novelist (Les Thibault-Nobel 1937)
  • Mar 25 Louis Dosfel, Flemish lawyer and writer (Assault!)
  • Mar 25 Mary Webb, English writer (Gone to Earth), born in Leighton, England (d. 1927)
  • Mar 26 Guccio Gucci, Italian founder of Gucci fashion house, born in Florence, Italy (d. 1953)
  • Apr 3 Alcide de Gasperi, 30th Prime Minister of Italy (1945-53), born in Pieve Tesino, Tyrol, Austria-Hungary (d. 1954)
  • Apr 3 Margaret "Daisy" Ashford, British child author who wrote "The Young Visiters" (Mister Salteena's Plan) aged 9, born in Petersham, Surrey (d. 1972)
  • Apr 4 Charles Earle Funk, American lexicographer (Funk & Wagnalls) (d. 1957)
  • Apr 16 Edward Frederick Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax and British ambassador to US (1940-46), born in Powderham Castle, Devon, England (d. 1959)
  • Apr 17 Anton Wildgans, Austrian poet and playwright (Armut), born in Vienna (d. 1932)
  • Apr 18 Max Weber, Polish-Russian-American painter, born in Białystok, Russian Empire (d. 1961)
  • Apr 21 Jules-Marie Canneel, Flemish painter and caricaturist (Rocks of Oran), born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1953)
  • Apr 22 Alexander Kerensky, Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government (1917), born in Simbirsk, Russian Empire (d. 1970)
  • Apr 25 Hans Windisch, German New Testament scholar, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1935)
  • May 1 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, French philosopher and paleontologist (The Phenomenon of Man), born in Orcines, Auvergne, France (d. 1955)
  • May 11 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian physicist (d. 1963)
  • May 14 G. Murray Hulbert, American politician (d. 1950)

Mustafa Kemal AtatürkMustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)

May 19 1st President of Turkey (1923-38) and founder of the Republic of Turkey, born in Salonica, Ottoman Empire

  • May 20 Władysław Sikorski, Polish World War II general and Prime Minister of Poland in exile (1939-43), born in Tuszów Narodowy, Austria-Hungary (d. 1943)
  • May 23 Artur de Sacadura Freire Cabral, Portuguese aviator (1st flight across the south Atlantic), born in Celorico da Beira, Portugal (d. 1924)
  • May 27 Rudolf Pannwitz, German writer and philosopher (Urblik), born in Crossen/Oder, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia (now in Poland) (d. 1969)
  • May 30 Georg von Küchler, German field marshal and WWII war criminal, born in Schloss Philippsruh, German Empire (d. 1968)
  • Jun 1 Charles Kay Ogden, English writer and linguist (d. 1957)
  • Jun 3 Mikhail Larionov, Russian painter (d. 1964)
  • Jun 4 Natalia Goncharova, Russian avant-garde artist and painter, born in Nagaevo, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1962)
  • Jun 7 Kanno Sugako, Japanese anarcho-feminist journalist, hanged for her role in the plot to assassinate Emperor Meiji, born in 881, Kita Ward, Osaka, Japan (d. 1911)
  • Jun 18 Eduard C "Edo" Fimmen, Dutch labor leader
  • Jun 26 Ya'akov Cahan, Hebrew poet and writer, born in Slutsk, Belarus (d. 1960)
  • Jul 1 Piet[er] L. Kramer, Influential Dutch architect (Amsterdam School), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1961)
  • Jul 2 Royal H. Weller, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York), born in Manhattan, New York (d. 1929)
  • Jul 4 Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1968)
  • Jul 5 August Hlond, Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, born in Brzęczkowice, German Empire (d. 1948)
  • Jul 6 Josef Winckler, German dentist and writer (Quadriga, Pumpernickel), born in Bentlage, Rheine (d. 1966)
  • Jul 12 Ludwig Rubiner, German poet and essayist, born in Berlin (d. 1920)
  • Jul 19 Friedrich Dessauer, German physicist (radiologist), born in Aschaffenburg, Germany (d. 1963)
  • Jul 20 Leon de Smet, Flemish painter
  • Jul 26 Alexander J. Kropholler, Dutch architect and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1973)

Hans FischerHans Fischer (1881-1945)

Jul 27 German organic chemist (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1930), born in Hoechst, Germany

  • Jul 30 Smedley Butler, American Marine general, born in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1940)
  • Aug 1 Rose Macaulay, English writer (The Towers of Trebizond), born in Rugby, Warwickshire, England (d. 1958)
  • Aug 2 Ethel M. Dell, English author (Storm Drift), born in London (d. 1939)

Hugh S. JohnsonHugh S. Johnson (1881-1942)

Aug 5 American head of the National Recovery Administration and member of FDR's Brain Trust, born in Fort Scott, Kansas

Alexander FlemingAlexander Fleming (1881-1955)

Aug 6 Scottish bacteriologist (invented penicillin; Nobel Prize 1945), born in Lochfield, Scotland

  • Aug 6 Louella Parsons, American gossip columnist, born in Freeport, Illinois (d. 1972)

François DarlanFrançois Darlan (1881-1942)

Aug 7 French Admiral of the Fleet during WWII and Vichy Prime Minister (1941-42), born in Nérac, France

  • Aug 8 Paul L E von Kleist, German general-fieldmarshal (Eastern Front)
  • Aug 10 Albrecht M Sprenger, landbuilder
  • Aug 13 Jacqueline Reyneke van Stuwe, Dutch author, born in Muntok, Indonesia (d. 1955)
  • Aug 15 Alfred Wagenknecht, German-born American activist, born in Görlitz, Imperial Germany (d. 1956)
  • Aug 20 Edgar Albert Guest, English-American poet and newspaperman, born in Birmingham, England (d. 1959)
  • Aug 23 Louis Schelfhout, Dutch painter and graphic artist, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1943)
  • Aug 29 Valery-Nicolas Larbaud, French novelist and translator (Enfantines), born in Vichy, France (d. 1957)
  • Sep 5 Otto Bauer, Austrian Social Democrat, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1938)
  • Sep 12 Daniel Jones, English phoneticist (English pronouncing dictionary), born in London (d. 1967)
  • Sep 15 Ettore Bugatti, Italian-French automobile designer and manufacturer (Automobiles E. Bugatti), born in Milan, Italy (d. 1947)
  • Sep 16 Clive Bell, English art critic, born in East Shefford, Berkshire (d. 1964)
  • Sep 17 Alfred Carpenter, English Royal Navy soldier, born in Barnes, Surrey (d. 1955)
  • Sep 25 Lu Xun, Chinese writer of modern Chinese literature, born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, Qing dynasty China (d. 1936)
  • Sep 26 Hiram Wesley Evans, American member of the Ku Klux Klan, born in Ashland, Alabama (d. 1966)
  • Sep 29 Ludwig von Mises, Austrian-American Economist (The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality), born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (d. 1973)

William BoeingWilliam Boeing (1881-1956)

Oct 1 American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company, born in Detroit, Michigan

  • Oct 4 Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1948)
  • Oct 5 Otto V. Kuusinen, Finnish politician (founder of the Finnish Communist Party), born in Laukaa, Finland (d. 1964)
  • Oct 7 Mikhail Drozdovsky, Russian general (d. 1918)
  • Oct 11 Hans Kelsen, Austrian legal philosopher and political philosopher, born in Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary (d. 1973)
  • Oct 11 Stark Young, American writer (So Red the Rose), born in Como, Mississippi (d. 1963)
  • Oct 12 William Nigh, American director (Ape, Doomed to Die, Mr Wong), born in Berlin, Wisconsin (d. 1955)
  • Oct 15 P. G. Wodehouse, British-American writer (Bertie Wooster novels), born in Guildford, England (d. 1975)
  • Oct 22 Clinton Davisson, American physicist (Nobel 1937- discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer experiment), born in Bloomington, Illinois (d. 1958)
  • Oct 24 Paul Basilius Barth, Swiss painter and lithographer, born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1955)

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso (1881-1973)

Oct 25 Spanish painter (The Three Dancers, Guernica) and sculptor who co-founded the Cubist movement, born in Malaga, Andalusia, Spain

  • Oct 30 Elizabeth Madox Roberts, American poet and novelist (The Time of Man), born in Perryville, Kentucky (d. 1941)
  • Oct 30 Lena Christ, German writer (The Rumplhanni), born in Glonn, Bavaria (d. 1920)
  • Nov 4 Milton Rosmer, British director (Murder in the Red Barn), born in Southport, Lancashire, England (d. 1971)
  • Nov 5 George A. Malcolm, American jurist (17th Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court) and educator, born in Concord, Michigan (d. 1961)
  • Nov 8 Frank Speck, American anthropologist (Algonquin Tribes and Eastern Woodland Native Americans), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1950)
  • Nov 8 Robert Esnault-Pelterie, French engineer and aviation pioneer who contributed to early heavier-than-air flight in Europe, born in Paris (d. 1957)
  • Nov 12 Maximilian von Weichs, German field marshal (d. 1954)
  • Nov 12 Olev Siinmaa, Estonian 'Functionalist' architect (Pärnu Beach Hotel), born in Pärnu< Governate of Estonia, Russian Empire (d. 1948)
  • Nov 15 Franklin P. Adams, American columnist (Information Please), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1960)

Enver PashaEnver Pasha (1881-1922)

Nov 22 Turkish general, Ottoman Minister of War during World War I and part of the dictatorial triumvirate known as the "Three Pashas", born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire

John XXIIIJohn XXIII (1881-1963)

Nov 25 Italian priest and 261st Pope (1958-63), born in Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy

  • Nov 28 Stefan Zweig, Austrian poet, essayist and dramatist (Beware of Pity), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1942)
  • Dec 4 Erwin von Witzleben, German fieldmarshal (July 20th plot), born in Wrocław, Poland (d. 1944)
  • Dec 8 Padraic Colum, Irish novelist and poet (Collected Poems), born in Columcille, County Longford, Ireland (d. 1972)
  • Dec 17 Jan Sluyters, Dutch painter (Moderne Kunstkring), born in s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands (d. 1957)
  • Dec 22 Enver Pasa, Turkish politician, born in Istanbul, Turkey (d. 1922)
  • Dec 24 Juan Ramon Jiménez, Spanish poet (Distant Gardens, Nobel 1956), born in Moguer, Spain (d. 1958)
  • Dec 31 Colin G. Fink, American chemist (electro chemistry), born in Hoboken, New Jersey (d. 1953) [1]
  • Dec 31 Jacob Israël de Haan, Dutch poet/writer (Pipelines, Jewish Song), born in Holland, Netherlands (d. 1924)
  • Dec 31 Max Pechstein, German "entartet" painter and graphic artist (The Bridge), born in Zwickau, Germany (d. 1955)