On This Day

Birthdays in History in 1883

  • Jan 1 Federigo Tozzi, Italian writer/journalist (La Torre, Tre Croci)
  • Jan 1 Ichirō Hatoyama, Japanese politician, Prime Minister (1954-56), born in Tokyo, Japan (d. 1959)

Person of interestClement Attlee

Jan 3 Clement Attlee, British Prime Minister (L-1945-51), born in Putney, London (d. 1967)

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
British Prime Minister
Clement Attlee
  • Jan 4 Johanna Westerdijk, botanist/Neth 1st female prof (Utrecht, 1917-52)
  • Jan 4 Max Eastman, American critic/essayist and editor of The Masses (d. 1969)
  • Jan 6 Khalil Gibran, Lebanese mystic & poet (The Prophet, Broken Wings), born in Bsharri, Lebanon (d. 1931)
  • Jan 7 Andrew Browne, Irish/British admiral (WWII)
  • Jan 8 Pavel Filonov, Russian painter (d. 1941)
  • Jan 8 Patrick J. Hurley, United States Secretary of War (d. 1963)
  • Jan 10 Aleksei Tolstoi, Russian poet/writer (Pjotr Peroyj), born in Pugachyov, Russia (d. 1945)
  • Jan 20 Betram Home Ramsay, English admiral/Commander Allied Naval Forces
  • Jan 21 Olav Aukrust, Norwegian poet
  • Jan 21 Amang Rodriguez, Filipino politician (d. 1964)
  • Jan 26 Bindo Maserati, Italian auto engineer and businessman (manager Maserati Racing; founder O.S.C.A. Racing), born in Voghera, Italy (d. 1980)
  • Feb 3 Clarence Mulford, Ill, western writer (Hopalong Cassidy)
  • Feb 7 Paul de Backer, Belgian radiologist

  • Feb 8 Joseph A Schumpeter, Austria/US economist/minister of finance
  • Feb 15 Sax Rohmer [Arthur Henry Sarsfield Ward], English author (Dr Fu Manchu novels), born in Birmingham, England (d. 1959)
  • Feb 16 Elizabeth Craig, British writer (d. 1980)
  • Feb 18 Níkos Kazantzákis, prominent Greek writer and philosopher (Zorba the Greek, The Last Temptation of Christ), born in Kandiye, Ottoman Empire (d. 1957)
  • Feb 20 Shiga Naoya, Japan, novelist (Road Through Dark Night)
  • Feb 22 Alfred Wikenhauser, German RC exegetist (John-Apokalyps)
  • Feb 23 Karl Jaspers, Oldenburg Germany, existentialist philosopher
  • Feb 25 Princess Alice of Albany, Countess of Athlone (d. 1981)
  • Feb 26 Erich R Jaensch, German psychologist (eidetism)
  • Mar 3 Cyril Burt, educational psychologist (d. 1971)
  • Mar 5 Marius Barbeau, French Canadian ethnographer and folklorist (d. 1969)
  • Mar 9 Umberto Saba, Italian writer, born in Trieste, Austria-Hungary (d. 1957)
  • Mar 12 Zoltán Meskó, Hungarian Nazi (d. 1959)
  • Mar 16 Ethel Anderson, Australian poet (d. 1958)
  • Mar 17 Urmuz, Romanian writer (d. 1923)
  • Mar 19 Joseph W Stilwell, US general (China)
  • Mar 23 Faisal I ibn Hussein ibn Ali, 1st king of Iraq/Syria
  • Mar 24 James I Wedgwood, British theosophist and bishop (Liberal Catholic Church), born in London (d. 1951)
  • Mar 27 Marie Under, Estonian author and poet, born in Tallinn, Russian Empire (d. 1980)
  • Mar 29 Donald Dexter Van Slyke, American chemist (Micromanometric analysis), born in Pike, New York (d. 1971)

  • Mar 30 Jo Davidson, American sculptor (Woodrow Wilson, Walt Whitman)
  • Apr 6 Mien Labberton, Dutch poetress
  • Apr 7 Gino Severini, Italian painter (d. 1966)
  • Apr 8 R. P. Keigwin, English academic, born in Lexden, Essex (d. 1972)
  • Apr 9 Frank King, American cartoonist (Gasoline Alley), born in Cashton, Wisconsin (d. 1969)
  • Apr 12 Imogen Cunningham, American photographer (1965 ASMP award), born in Portland, Oregon (d. 1976)
  • Apr 13 Demjan Bednyi, Russian writer and satirist, born in Hubivka, Ukraine (d. 1945)
  • Apr 15 Stanley Bruce, 8th Prime Minister of Australia, born in St Kilda, Victoria, Australia (d. 1967)

Person of interestGetulio Vargas

Apr 19 Getulio Vargas, President of Brazil (1930-45, 1951-54), modernizer and dictator, born in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilian Empire (d. 1954)

President and Dictator of Brazil Getulio Vargas
President and Dictator of Brazil
Getulio Vargas
  • Apr 19 Richard von Mises, Austrian scientist and mathematician (probability theory), born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (d. 1953)
  • Apr 24 Jaroslav Hašek, Czech writer (Brave soldier Schweik), born in Prague, Austria-Hungary [or April 30]
  • Apr 27 Hubert Harrison, West Indian-American writer and freedom fighter, born in St. Croix, Danish West Indies (d. 1927)
  • May 5 Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, British general, born in Colchester, Essex, England (d. 1950)
  • May 6 José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher and author (The Revolt of the Masses), born in Madrid, Spain (d. 1955)
  • May 7 Martin Albertz, German theologist (Jesus Christ's Church) and resistance fighter against the Nazi regime, born in Halle (Saale), Germany (d. 1956)
  • May 13 Henk JFM Sneevliet, leader RSAP/editor Spartacus (Dutch-Indies)
  • May 13 Georgios Papanikolaou, Greek doctor, inventor of the Pap smear (d. 1962)
  • May 14 Jan Olieslagers, Belgian aviation pioneer (Antwerp Devil)
  • May 14 Julian Eltinge, American vaudeville star, female impersonator, born in Newtownville, Massachusetts (d. d. 1941)
  • May 18 Walter Gropius, architect (Bauhaus school of design), born in Berlin, Germany
  • May 19 Henricus WJM Keuls, Dutch lawyer/poet (Dancing Lamp)
  • May 20 Paul Arntzenius, Dutch painter, graphic artist and etcher, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1965)
  • May 25 Elsa Maxwell, American writer (Jack Paar Show), born in Keokuk, Iowa (d. 1963)
  • May 28 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Indian independence activist and writer (The Indian War of Independence), born in Bhagur, India ( (d. 1966)
  • May 28 Clough Williams-Ellis, British architect known chiefly as the creator of the Italianate village of Portmeirion in North Wales, born in Gayton, Northamptonshire, England (d. 1978)
  • May 31 Lauri Kristian Relander, 2nd President of Finland (1925-31), born in Kurkijoki, Finland (d. 1942)
  • Jun 2 Bokke R S Pollema, Dutch Frisian journalist/author (Lock of Hair)

Person of interestJohn Maynard Keynes

Jun 5 John Maynard Keynes, English economist whose ideas changed the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, born in Cambridge, England (d. 1946)

  • Jun 7 Sylvanus Morley, American archaeologist and spy, born in Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1948)
  • Jun 14 Lucien Cerfaux, Belgian New Testament scholar, born in Presles, Belgium (d. 1968)
  • Jun 21 Feodor Gladkov, Russian socialist writer (Cement), born in Bolshaya Chernavka, Saratov Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1958)

Person of interestPierre Laval

Jun 28 Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France (1931-32 and 1935-36) and Head of Vichy France (1942-44), born in Châteldon, France (d. 1945)

Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France Pierre Laval
Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France
Pierre Laval
  • Jul 1 Arthur Borton, English soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross, born in Cheveney, Kent (d. 1933)

Person of interestFranz Kafka

Jul 3 Franz Kafka, Czech author (Metamorphosis, Trial, Amerika), born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (d. 1924)

Writer Franz Kafka
Writer
Franz Kafka

Person of interestRube Goldberg

Jul 4 Rube Goldberg, American cartoonist who made the easy outrageously difficult (Pulitzer Prize 1948), born in San Francisco, California (d. 1970)

Cartoonist Rube Goldberg
Cartoonist
Rube Goldberg
  • Jul 10 Johann Blaskowitz, German general (surrendered at Wageningen), born in Peterswalde, Germany (d. 1948)
  • Jul 17 Bart de Ligt, anti militarist theologist (Acting Peace)
  • Jul 23 Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, British field marshal, born in Bragnieres-de-Bigorre, France (d. 1963)

Person of interestBenito Mussolini

Jul 29 Benito Mussolini [Il Duce], Fascist Italian dictator (1922-43), born in Predappio, Forlì, Italy (d. 1945)

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • Jul 29 Porfirio Barba-Jacob, Colombian poet and writer (d. 1942)
  • Aug 5 Frank Nelson, English politician and civil servant (head of the Special Operations Executive, 1940-42), born in Gloucestershire (d. 1966)
  • Aug 6 Scott Nearing, American sociologist, pacifist and author (The Good Life), born in Morris Run, Pennsylvania (d. 1983)
  • Aug 7 Joachim Ringelnatz [Hans Bötticher], German writer and artist, born in Wurzen, Saxony (d. 1934)
  • Aug 11 Ernst Stadler, German poet (Der Aufbruch), born in Colmar, Alsace-Lorraine (d. 1914)
  • Aug 12 Jan Schouten, Dutch co-founder (Daily Trouw)/chairman (ARP)
  • Aug 14 Ernest Everett Just, African-American embryologist known for his pioneering work in the physiology of development, especially fertilization and cell division, born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1941)
  • Aug 15 Ivan Meštrović, Croatian sculptor and architect, born in Vrpolje, Croatia (d. 1962)

Person of interestCoco Chanel

Aug 19 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, French fashion designer (Chanel), born in Saumur, France (d. 1971)

Fashion Designer Coco Chanel
Fashion Designer
Coco Chanel
  • Aug 19 José Mendes Cabeçadas, 95th Prime Minister of Portugal and 9th President of Portugal (d. 1965)
  • Aug 19 Leonid Kulik, Russian Minerologist who led the first research expedition to study the Tunguska meteor site, the largest impact event in recorded history, born in Tartu, Estonia, Imperial Russia (d. 1942)
  • Aug 23 Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV, American army officer, born in Fort Walla Walla, Washington (d. 1953)
  • Aug 30 Theo Van Doesburg [Christian Emil Marie Küpper], Dutch painter and architect (Style), born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1931)
  • Sep 2 Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria, "The Red Archduchess" (d. 1963)
  • Sep 10 Euphemia "Phemia" Molkenboer, Dutch author/poster artist
  • Sep 11 Grigory Zinoviev [Hirsch Apfelbaum], Russian revolutionary, born in Yelizavetgrad, Russian Empire (d. 1936)

  • Sep 14 Martin Dibelius, German theologist (Die Lade Jahwes), born in Dresden, Germany (d. 1947)
  • Sep 15 Esteban Terradas i Illa, Spanish mathematician, scientist and engineer, born in Barcelona (d. 1950)
  • Sep 16 T. E. Hulme, English writer and poet, born in Endon, Shaffordshire (d. 1917)
  • Sep 17 William Carlos Williams, American physician and poet, born in Rutherford, New Jersey (d. 1963)
  • Sep 20 Johannes Gerard van Dillen, Dutch economic historian (Of Wealth & Oligarchists), born in Amsterdam (d. 1969)
  • Sep 20 Maria Baers, Flemish social worker and founder of the Christian Workers' Women's Movement (KAV), born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1959)
  • Sep 30 Robert Lightfoot, English theologist and exegetist (St John's Gospel) (d. 1953)
  • Sep 30 Bernhard Rust, Nazi education minister (d. 1945)
  • Oct 8 Otto Heinrich Warburg, German physician (Nobel-1931), born in Freiburg, Baden, Germany (d. 1970)
  • Oct 22 Adolph Joffe, Russian Communist revolutionary and writer (Brest-Litovsk), born in Simferopol, Russian Empire (d. 1927)
  • Oct 26 Napoleon Hill, American writer and philosopher (Think and Grow Rich), born in Pound, Virginia (d. 1970)
  • Oct 31 Marie Laurencin, French painter, born in Paris (d. 1956)
  • Nov 2 Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, French cardinal and Archbishop of Quebec, born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 1947)
  • Nov 7 Lightfoot Solomon Michaux, African-American TV preacher, born in Newport News, Virginia (d. 1968)
  • Nov 14 Nikolaos Plastiras, Greek premier (1945, 50, 51-52)
  • Nov 18 Carl Vinson, American politician (38th Dean of the United States House of Representatives, 1961-65), born in Baldwin County, Georgia (d. 1981)
  • Nov 23 Herman Baccaert, Flemish philological/writer (Along the water front)
  • Nov 23 Jose Clemente Orozco, Mexican painter (Epic of Culture in New World)
  • Nov 25 Harvey Spencer Lewis, American Rosicrucian author and mystic, born in Frenchtown, New Jersey (d. 1939)
  • Dec 4 Katharine Susannah Prichard, Australian novelist (Black Opal), born in Levuka, Fiji (d. 1969)
  • Dec 9 Alexander Papagos, Greek fieldmarshal and supreme commander, born in Athens, Greece (d. 1955)
  • Dec 9 Nikolai Luzin, Russian mathematician, born in Irkutsk, Russian Empire (d. 1950)
  • Dec 10 Andrej J. Vysjinski, Russian lawyer and UN ambassador, born in Odessa, Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1954)
  • Dec 13 Belle da Costa Greene, American librarian, bibliographer and archivist, born in Washington, D.C. (d. 1950)
  • Dec 14 Morihei Ueshiba, Japanese martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, born in Tanabe, Wakayama, Japan (d. 1883)
  • Dec 19 Louis Davids, [Simon David], Dutch cabaret performer/chorus performer
  • Dec 19 [Francis] Barry Byrne, architect, born in Chicago, Illinois
  • Dec 22 Arthur James Cook, British trade union leader (coal miners), born in Wookey, Somerset (d. 1931)
  • Dec 23 Hubert M E Pierlot, Belgian advocate/premier (1939-45)
  • Dec 25 Maurice Utrillo, French painter (Port St Martin, Montmartre)
  • Dec 26 Frank Debenham, Australian geographer/geologist

Person of interestCyrus Eaton

Dec 27 Cyrus Eaton, Canadian-American financier, industrialist and steel magnate, born in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia (d. 1979)

Steel Magnate Cyrus Eaton
Steel Magnate
Cyrus Eaton
  • Dec 28 Alfred Wolfenstein, German writer (d. 1945)