Birthdays in History on July 12

  • 1394 Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (1429-41) (d. 1441)
  • 1644 Arnold Moonen, Dutch vicar and linguist (David's holy saint graduals), born in Zwolle, Netherlands (d. 1711)
  • 1651 Margaret Theresa of Spain, daughter of Philip IV, wife and niece of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (the child in Velázquez Las Meninas, born in Madrid, Spain (d. 1673)

Josiah WedgwoodJosiah Wedgwood (1730-1795)

English pottery designer and manufacturer (Wedgwood), born in Burslem, Staffordshire, England

  • 1803 Peter Chanel, French priest and saint, born in Montrevel-en-Bresse, Ain, France (d. 1841)
  • 1807 Silas Casey, American Major General (Union Army), born in East Greenwich, Rhode Island (d. 1882)
  • 1813 Claude Bernard, French physiologist involved in the founding of modern physiology (blind experiments), born in Saint-Julien, Rhône (d. 1878)

Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

American naturalist and pacifist (Walden Pond), born in Concord, Massachusetts

  • 1821 Daniel Harvey Hill, Confederate General (American Civil War), born in York District, South Carolina (d. 1889)
  • 1824 Eugène Boudin, French painter (beach scenes), born in Honfleur, France (d. 1898)
  • 1828 N.G. [Nikolay Gavrilovich] Chernyshevsky, Russian philosopher (What Is to Be Done?), born in Saratov, Russia (d. 1889)
  • 1840 Abraham Goldfaden, Russian-born Jewish poet and playwright (Shulamis), born in Starokostiantyniv, Russian Empire (d. 1908)
  • 1849 William Osler, Canadian physician and author (circulatory system), born in Bond Head, Province of Canada (d. 1919)
  • 1850 Otto Schoetensack, German anthropologist, born in Stendal, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (d. 1912)

Hipólito YrigoyenHipólito Yrigoyen (1852-1933)

President of Argentina (1916-22, 1928-30), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina

George EastmanGeorge Eastman (1854-1932)

American inventor (Kodak camera, founder of the Eastman Kodak Company), born in Waterville, New York

  • 1863 Albert Calmette, French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), born in Nice, France (d. 1933)
  • 1863 Paul Karl Ludwig Drude, German physicist (optics), born in Brunswick, Germany (d. 1906)
  • 1864 George Washington Carver, African-American agricultural scientist (studied the peanut), born in Diamond Grove, Missouri [or Jan 10] (d. 1934)
  • 1868 Stefan George, German lyric poet (Algabal), born in Büdesheim, Germany (d. 1933)
  • 1870 Louis II [Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi], Prince of Monaco, born in Baden-Baden, Germany (d. 1949)

Emil HáchaEmil Hácha (1872-1945)

Czech politician (President of Czechoslovakia, 1938-9, State President of Bohemia and Moravia, 1939-1945), born in Trhové Sviny, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary

  • 1876 Max Jacob, French poet and writer, born in Quimper, Brittany, France (d. 1944)
  • 1879 Han Yong-woon, Korean Buddhist reformer and poet, born in Yucheon, Hongseong, South Korea (d. 1944)
  • 1881 Ludwig Rubiner, German poet and essayist, born in Berlin (d. 1920)
  • 1884 Amedeo Modigliani, Italian painter and sculptor (Reclining Nude), born in Livorno, Tuscany, Italy (d. 1920)
  • 1892 Bruno Schulz, Polish writer (The Street of Crocodiles), born in Drohobych, Austrian Galicia (d. 1942)
  • 1895 R. Buckminster Fuller, American architect and inventor (geodesic dome), born in Milton, Massachusetts (d. 1983)
  • 1900 Fjodor Godunov-Tcherdynchev, Russian poet (Life of Tchernyshevsky)
  • 1902 Günther Anders, German Jewish philosopher, born in Breslau, German Empire (d. 1992)

Pablo NerudaPablo Neruda (1904-1973)

Chilean poet (Residence on Earth-Nobel 1971), born in Parral, Chile

  • 1905 Prince John of the United Kingdom, youngest son of English King George V, born in York Cottage, Sandringham (d. 1919)
  • 1908 Ernest Burnelle, Belgian politician (Communist Party of Belgium (PCB)), born in Liège, Belgium (d. 1968)
  • 1909 Fritz Leonhardt, German structural engineer, born in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1999)
  • 1909 Seymour Berry, 2nd Viscount Camrose, British Conservative Lower house leader (1941-45), born in Surrey, England (d. 1995)
  • 1911 Johanna Moosdorf, German writer (Next Door), born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 2000)
  • 1912 Brodrick Haldane, Scottish photographer, born in Edinburgh (d. 1996)
  • 1913 Willis Lamb, American physicist (Nobel 1955), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 2008)
  • 1915 Michael Fenton Haddon, mining engineer (d. 1996)

Lyudmila PavlichenkoLyudmila Pavlichenko (1916-1974)

Soviet sniper during World War II known as 'Lady Death' - the most successful female sniper in history with 309 confirmed kills, born in Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, Russian Empire

  • 1917 Andrew Wyeth, American realist painter (Christina's World), born in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania (d. 2009)
  • 1920 Honoré Desmond Sharrer, American artist (Tribute to the American Working People), born in West Point, New York (d. 2009)

Pierre BertonPierre Berton (1920-2004)

Canadian author (War of 1812), born in Whitehorse, Yukon

  • 1922 Clark MacGregor, American Republican politician (involved in Watergate), born in Minneapolis, Minnesota (d. 2003)
  • 1922 Mark Hatfield, American politician (29th Governor of Oregon), born in Dallas, Oregon (d. 2011)
  • 1922 Michael Ventris, English architect who deciphered Linear B, born in Wheathampstead, England (d. 1956)
  • 1923 James E. Gunn, American sci-fi author (The Listeners, Station in Space, Immortal), born in Kansas City, Missouri
  • 1925 Roger Smith, CEO (General Motors), born in Colombus, Ohio (d. 2007)
  • 1927 Gualberto T. Hernandez, Minister for Health and Environmental Hygiene of the Netherlands Antilles, born in Curaçao
  • 1928 Elias James Corey, American organic chemist (Nobel 1990), born in Methuen, Massachusetts
  • 1928 Hayden White, American "literary criticism" historian (Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe), born in Martin, Tennessee (d. 2018)
  • 1931 J. Bob Traxler, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Michigan), born in Kawkawlin, Michigan
  • 1932 Harold William Woolhouse, British botanist, born in Sheffield (d. 1996)
  • 1933 Donald E. Westlake, American author (The Hunter), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2008)
  • 1935 Barrie Wilson, British religious scholar (How Jesus Became Christian) (d. 1995)
  • 1937 Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France (1997-2002), born in Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine, France
  • 1937 Mickey Edwards, American Republican congressman (Chairman of the House Republican Policy Committee), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1937 Robert McFarlane, American Marine Corps veteran and civil servant (National Security Adviser, 1983-85), involved in the Space Defense Initiative, and Iran-Contra Affair, born in Washington, D.C. (d. 2022)
  • 1938 Eiko Ishioka, Costume Designer (Academy Award, Bram Stoker’s Dracula), born in Tokyo, Japan (d. 2012)
  • 1944 Bill McCollum Jr., American lawyer and politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Florida), born in Brooksville, Florida
  • 1947 Richard C. McCarty, American professor of psychology, born in Portsmouth, Virginia
  • 1948 Ben Burtt Jr., American sound designer, born in Jamesville, New York
  • 1948 Richard Simmons, American exercise guru (CHiPs, Deal-a-Meal), born in New Orleans, Louisiana
  • 1952 Voja Antonić, Serbian inventor and writer, born in Šabac, Serbia
  • 1957 Rick Douglas Husband, Amarillo Texas, USAF mjr/astronaut
  • 1959 Rolonda Watts, talk show hostess (Rolanda)
  • 1959 Tupou VI, King of Tonga (2012-), born in Nukuʻalofa, Tonga
  • 1970 Juba Kalamka, American artist/activist
  • 1976 Kyrsten Sinema, American politician (Senator-D-Arizona 2019-), born Tucson, Arizona

Malala YousafzaiMalala Yousafzai (25 years old)

1997 Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize recipient, born in Mingora, North-West Frontier Province