Birthdays in History on March 31

  • 250 Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor (305-306 AD), born in Dacia Ripensis, Northen Balkans (d. 306)
  • 1360 Philippa of Lancaster, Queen of Portugal as wife of King John I (1387-1415), born in Leicester Castle, Leicester, England (d. 1415)
  • 1425 Bianca Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan (1450-68), born in Settimo Pavese, Lombardy, Italy (d. 1468)
  • 1499 Pius IV [Gianangelo de' Medici], Italian lawyer and Pope (1559-65), born in Milan (d. 1565)
  • 1504 Guru Angad Dev, second Sikh guru, born in Matte Di Sarai, Muktsar, Panjab (d. 1552)

Henry IIHenry II (1519-1559)

King of France (1547-59), born in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris

  • 1536 Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese 13th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate (1546-65), born in Nanzen-ji Temple, Kyoto, Japan (d. 1565)
  • 1576 Louise Juliana of Nassau, Regent of Bohemia by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, born in Delft, Netherlands (d. 1644)

René DescartesRené Descartes (1596-1650)

French philosopher (he thought, therefore he was), born in Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France

  • 1621 Andrew Marvell, English poet (To His Coy Mistress), born in Winestead, England (d. 1678)
  • 1651 Karl II, Elector Palatine (d. 1685)
  • 1675 Benedict XIV [Prospero L Lambertini], Italian Pope (1740-58)
  • 1718 Marianne Victoria of Borbón, queen regent of Portugal (d. 1781)
  • 1723 Frederik V, King of Denmark/Norway (1746-66)
  • 1730 Étienne Bézout, French mathematician (d. 1783)
  • 1777 Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist (d. 1859)
  • 1778 Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch zoologist (d. 1858)
  • 1794 Thompson McKennan, American politician who served as the 2nd United States Secretary of the Interior (d. 1852)
  • 1809 Edward FitzGerald, British poet, writer, and translator (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam), born in Bredfield, Sussex, England (d. 1883)
  • 1819 Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1901)
  • 1823 Ernest Doudart de Lagrée, French naval officer and entomologist (led the Mekong River expedition 1866-68), born in Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze, France (d. 1868)
  • 1831 Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist
  • 1835 John La Farge, American painter
  • 1837 Robert Ross McBurney, 1st paid secretary of the YMCA
  • 1838 Leon Dierx, French poet
  • 1839 Nikolay Przhevalsky, naturalist, explorer of east central Asia (OS)
  • 1840 Benjamin Baker, English civil engineer who designed the bridge over the Firth of Forth, Scotland and the London underground, born in Frome, England (d. 1907)
  • 1840 John Herbert Kelly, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1864)
  • 1844 Andrew Lang, Scottish poet, novelist, literary critic, and anthropologist (Andrew Lang's Fairy Books), born in Selkirk, Scottish Borders, Scotland (d. 1912)
  • 1847 Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (d. 1878)
  • 1854 Dugald Clerk, inventor (2-stroke motorcycle engine)
  • 1855 Alfred E. Hunt, founder of Alcoa (d. 1899)
  • 1860 Isidor Traube, Hildesheim Hanover, German Chemist (founded capillary chemistry, research on liquids)
  • 1868 Karl Bonhoeffer, German psychiatrist/neurologist

Arthur GriffithArthur Griffith (1871-1922)

Irish writer and politician who founded Sinn Féin (President of Ireland 1922), born in Dublin, Ireland, United Kingdom

  • 1876 Borisav "Bora" Stanković, Serbian writer (d. 1927)
  • 1884 Adriaan van Maanen, Dutch-American astronomer (d. 1946)
  • 1885 Jules Pascin [Julius Pincas], Bulgarian/American painter/cartoonist
  • 1890 William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1891 Andy Varipapa, American ten-pin bowler (BPAA All-Star champion 1947-48), born in Carfizzi, Italy (d. 1984)
  • 1891 Ion Pillat, Romaniams poet/senator (Umbra timpului)
  • 1892 Stanislav Wladyslaw Maczek, Polish/British general-major/commandant
  • 1895 John Jay McCloy, US lawyer and banker (Secretary of War 1941-45, chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank)
  • 1895 Vardis Fisher, American author (Darkness & Deep), born in Annis, Idaho (d. 1968)
  • 1900 Henry WFA, English duke of Gloucester/earl of Ulters
  • 1909 Pieter Jongeling, Dutch author (under Piet Prins) and politician
  • 1909 Robert Brasillach, French author/nazi collaborator
  • 1912 Wilhelmus Berkelmans, civil servant/resistance fighter
  • 1914 Octavio Paz, Mexican writer/diplomat (Salamandra, Topoemas)
  • 1915 Jack Perry, English businessman and the 1st Western business person to visit Communist China, born in London (d. 1996) [1]
  • 1915 Shoichi Yokoi, Japanese military man (d. 1997)
  • 1916 John H. Wood, Jr., American federal judge (d. 1979)
  • 1918 Ted Post, Dir (Peacemaker, Beneath the Planet of the Apes)
  • 1920 Deborah "Debs" Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire and the Chatsworth estate, one of the Mitford sisters, born in Gloucestershire (d. 2014)
  • 1920 Marga Minco [Sara Menco], Dutch journalist and writer (Bitter Herb), born in Ginneken, Netherlands
  • 1924 Leo Buscaglia, American psychologist known as "Dr Love" (Love), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 1998)
  • 1926 John Fowles, British novelist (Collector, French Lieutenant's Woman), born in Leigh-on-Sea, Southend-on-Sea, England (d. 2005)

Cesar ChavezCesar Chavez (1927-1993)

American farm labor leader (United Farm Workers), born in Yuma, Arizona

  • 1929 Bertram Fields, American lawyer

Liz ClaiborneLiz Claiborne (1929-2007)

American fashion designer, entrepreneur and founder of Liz Claiborne Inc, born in Brussels, Belgium

  • 1932 John Jakes, writer (Sir Scoundrel, Great Women Reporters), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1932 Nagisa Oshima, director (Town of Love & Hope), born in Kyoto, Japan (d. 2013)
  • 1933 Nichita Stănescu, Romanian poet (d. 1983)
  • 1934 Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov, Russian cosmonaut (Vostok 1 backup)
  • 1934 Wim H Sinnige, Dutch alderman of finance (social democratic)
  • 1935 Judith Rossner, American writer (August)
  • 1936 Marge Piercy, author (Small Changes, Gone for Soldiers)
  • 1938 Bill Hicke, Canadian NHL right wing (3-time NHL All Star), born in Regina, Saskatchewan (d. 2005)
  • 1938 David Steel, Scottish politician
  • 1938 Sheila Dikshit, Chief Minister of Delhi
  • 1939 Zviad Gamsakhurdia, first President of Georgia (d. 1993)
  • 1940 Barney Frank, American politician (Rep-D-MA, 1981-2013), born in Bayonne, New Jersey
  • 1940 Patrick Leahy, American politician (Senator-D-Vermont, 1975-), born in Montpelier, Vermont
  • 1942 Michael Savage [Michael A Wiener], American talk radio host and commentator, born in The Bronx, New York
  • 1942 Ulla Hoffmann, Swedish politician
  • 1947 Caesar Gaviria Trujillo, president (Colombia, 1990-94)
  • 1947 Jon-Jon Poulos, rocker (Buckinghams), born in Chicago, Illinois

Al GoreAl Gore (74 years old)

1948 American politician and environmentalist (Vice President: 1993-2001), born in Washington, D.C.

  • 1948 David Eisenhower, author and grandson of President Eisenhower (married Julie Nixon), born in West Point, New York
  • 1950 Alison McCartney, pathologist/Breast Cancer campaigner
  • 1957 Patrick G Forrester, Army Lt Colonel and astronaut, born in El Paso, Texas
  • 1965 Jean-Christophe Lafaille, French mountaineer best known for his solo self-rescue on Annapurna with a broken arm, born in Gap, Hautes-Alpes (d. 2006)
  • 1968 Brett Deubner, American violist, born in San Francisco, California
  • 1969 Nyamko Sabuni, Swedish politician
  • 1987 Baby M [Melissa Elizabeth Stern], American infant born to a surrogate mother but later awarded to her dad William Stern
  • 1990 Lyra McKee, Northern Irish journalist, killed by the New IRA in a terrorist attack, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland (d. 2019)