On This Day

1644 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 18 Perplexed Pilgrims in Boston reported America's 1st UFO sighting
  • Jan 24 Parliamentary army wins battle of Nantwich, Cheshire, English Civil War
  • Feb 5 1st US livestock branding law passed, by Connecticut
  • Mar 7 Massachusetts establishes 1st two-chamber legislature in colonies
  • Mar 14 England grants patent for Providence Plantations (now Rhode Island)
  • Mar 19 200 members of Peking imperial family and court commit suicide in loyalty to the Emperor
  • Mar 31 Pope Urbanus VIII and Duke of Parma sign Peace of Ferrara

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 25 Last Ming Emperor Chongzhen hangs himself from a tree on Jing Mountain, Beijing, rather than be captured by forces of Li Zicheng

Chinese Emperor Chongzhen
Chinese Emperor
  • Apr 29 Farm leader Li Zicheng becomes Emperor of China and flees Peking
  • May 6 Johan Mauritius resigns as governor of Brazil
  • May 23 Johan Mauritius van Nassau resigns as head of Civil rights activists
  • May 28 Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of the Earl of Derby (English Civil War)
  • Jun 11 Florentine scientist Evangelista Torricelli describes his invention of the mercury barometer in 1643 in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci
  • Jul 2 Battle of Marston Moor, North Yorkshire: Parliamentary forces under Lords Fairfax and Manchester defeat royalists led by Prince Rupert
  • Sep 2 Robert Devereux's Parliamentarian infantry surrenders to Royalist forces in Battle of Lostwithiel, Cornwall, during English Civil War

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Sep 5 Prince Frederick Henry conquers Sas of Gent

Prince of Orange Frederick Henry
Prince of Orange
Frederick Henry
  • Sep 15 Giambattista Pamfili replaces Pope Urban VIII as Innocent X
  • Sep 17 French troops occupy Mainz
  • Oct 23 Sea battle of Fehmarn Sont: Adm Thijssen beats Denen

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Oct 27 Second Battle of Newbury: King Charles I beats parliamentary armies

King of England Charles I
King of England
Charles I
  • Nov 19 First protestant ministry society in New England

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Nov 23 "Areopagitica", a pamphlet by John Milton decrying censorship, is published

  • Dec 4 First European peace congress opens in Munster

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 10 Louis Boufflers, French soldier & marshal of France, born in Crillon, Oise, France (d. 1711)
  • Mar 20 Ivan Mazepa, Cossack Hetman of the Hetmanate (d. 1709)
  • Apr 7 François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French soldier (d. 1730)
  • Apr 17 Abraham Jansz Storck, Dutch painter, baptized in Amsterdam (d. 1708)
  • Jun 16 Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess of Scotland, England and Ireland and Duchess of Orléans (d. 1670)
  • Jul 2 Abraham a Santa Clara [Johann Ulrich Megerle], German Augustinian friar and preacher, born in Kreenheinstetten, Germany (d. 1709)
  • Jul 12 Arnold Moonen, Dutch vicar and linguist (David's holy saint graduals), born in Zwolle, Netherlands (d. 1711)
  • Aug 6 Louise de La Vallière, French mistress of Louis XIV (1661-67), born in Tours, France (d. 1710)
  • Sep 5 Gillis Schey, Dutch admiral (battle at Lowestoft) (D. 1703)
  • Sep 14 Gisbert Cuper, Dutch classicist and historian, born in Hemmen, Gelderland, Netherlands (d. 1716)
  • Sep 25 Ole Rømer, Danish astronomer, born in Aarhus, Denmark (d. 1710)
  • Oct 2 François-Timoléon de Choisy, French writer (Quatre dialogues sur l'immortalité de l'âme), born in Paris (d. 1724)

Person of interestWilliam Penn

Oct 14 William Penn, English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania, born in London, England (d. 1718)

English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania
William Penn
  • Dec 30 Philips van Almonde, Dutch Zeeuws lt-admiral

Deaths in History

  • Jan 30 William Chillingworth, English religious leader, dies at 41
  • Mar 5 Louise Juliana of Nassau, Regent of Bohemia by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, dies at 73
  • Mar 24 Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria, Queen of Poland, dies at 32

Person of interestChongzhen

Apr 25 Chongzhen, last Ming Emperor of China, commits suicide at 33

Chinese Emperor Chongzhen
Chinese Emperor
  • Jun 16 John of Saint Thomas [Juan Poinset], Portuguese theologist, dies at 54
  • Jul 2 William Gascoigne, introduced telescopic sights, is killed at 24
  • Jul 29 Urban VIII [Maffeo Barberini], Pope (1623-44), dies
  • Aug 5 J Henry Alting, German theologist (Statenvertaling), dies at 61
  • Sep 4 John Wtenbogaert, theologist (Kerckelicke history), dies at 87
  • Sep 7 Guido Bentivoglio, Italian statesman (b. 1579)
  • Sep 8 Francis Quarles, English poet (Enchiridion), dies at 52
  • Oct 6 Elisabeth of France, Queen consort of Philip IV of Spain (1621-44), dies at 41
  • Nov 10 Luís Vélez de Guevara, Spanish writer (El diablo cojuelo), dies at 65
  • Dec 30 Jan Baptist van Helmont, Flemish chemist (b. 1577)