On This Day

1765 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 11 Frisia bans Voltaire's "Traité sur la tolérance"

Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire
Enlightenment Philosopher

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 16 Charles Messier catalogs M41 (galactic cluster in Canis Major)

Astronomer Charles Messier
Charles Messier
  • Mar 9 After a public campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son had actually committed suicide.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 22 Stamp Act passed; 1st direct British tax on American colonists, organized by Prime Minister George Grenville

British Prime Minister George Grenville
British Prime Minister
George Grenville
  • Mar 24 Britain enacts Quartering Act, required colonists to provide temporary housing to British soldiers
  • May 3 1st North American medical college opens in Philadelphia
  • May 7 HMS Victory launched; Admiral Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, 40 years later
  • May 18 Fire destroys a large part of Montreal, Quebec

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 29 Patrick Henry's historic speech against the Stamp Act, answering a cry of "Treason!" with, "If this be treason, make the most of it!"

American Revolutionary and Founding Father Patrick Henry
American Revolutionary and Founding Father
Patrick Henry
  • Aug 14 Massachusetts colonists challenge British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree)
  • Sep 21 Antoine de Beauterne announces he has killed the Beast of Gévaudan, but was later proved wrong by more attacks
  • Oct 7 Stamp Act Congress (First Congress of the American Colonies) convenes in New York City to devise a unified protest against new British taxation
  • Oct 19 Stamp Act Congress meets in New York City, writes the Declaration of Rights and Grievances
  • Nov 1 Stamp Act goes into effect in British colonies
  • Nov 23 People of Frederick County, Maryland, refuse to pay British Stamp tax

Birthdays in History

  • Mar 6 Jan Kops, Dutch agronomist/vicar
  • Mar 7 Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor of photography (d. 1833)
  • Mar 18 David H Chasse, Dutch baron/general (fought Napoleon at Waterloo)
  • Mar 21 Henry Fagel, Dutch/English baron/diplomat
  • Mar 27 Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher and theologist, born in Munich (d. 1841)
  • Apr 1 Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (d. 1810)
  • Apr 28 Sylvestre François Lacroix, French mathematician, born in Paris (d. 1843)
  • Jun 1 Christiane Vulpius, wife of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Jun 5 Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger, German mathematician, born in Simmozheim (d. 1831)
  • Jun 6 Cornelis Loots, Dutch accountant and poet (Dwingelandij), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1834)
  • Aug 21 William IV, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1830-37), born in Buckingham House, London (d. 1837)
  • Sep 18 Gregory XVI [Bartolomeo Alberto Mauro Cappellari], Pope (1831-1846), born in Belluno, Venetia, Austrian Empire (d. 1846)
  • Sep 22 Paolo Ruffini, Italian mathematician (d. 1822)
  • Sep 30 José María Morelos, Mexican revolutionary (d. 1815)
  • Oct 8 Harman Blennerhassett, Irish lawyer, born in Hampshire, England (d. 1831)
  • Nov 4 Pierre-Simon Girard, French mathematician and engineer (fluid mechanics), born in Caen, France (d. 1836)

Person of interestRobert Fulton

Nov 14 Robert Fulton, American inventor and engineer (first commercial steamboat), born in Little Britain, Pennsylvania (d. 1815)

Commercial Steamboat Inventor Robert Fulton
Commercial Steamboat Inventor
Robert Fulton
  • Nov 17 Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald, French marshal (d. 1840)
  • Nov 20 Thomas Fremantle, British naval officer, born in Aston Abbotts, Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1819)

Person of interestEli Whitney

Dec 8 Eli Whitney, American inventor (Cotton Gin), born in Westborough, Massachusetts (d. 1825)

Inventor of the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney
Inventor of the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney
  • Dec 10 Alexander Gogel, Dutch minister of Finance, born in Vught, Netherlands (d. 1821)
  • Dec 22 Johann Friedrich Pfaff, German mathematician, born in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1825)

Deaths in History

  • Mar 3 William Stukeley, English physician and archaeologist (pioneered investigation of Stonehenge and Avebury), dies at 77
  • Apr 5 Edward Young, English poet (Love of Fame), dies at 81
  • Apr 15 Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scholar & poet, dies at 53
  • Apr 20 Abigail Williams, American accuser in the Salem witch trials (b. 1674)
  • May 17 Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician (Clairaut's theorem), dies at 52
  • Jul 15 Charles-André Van Loo, French Rococo painter, dies at 60
  • Aug 18 Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1745-65) dies at 56
  • Aug 19 Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Swedish Chemist who discovered nickel and tungsten, dies at 42
  • Sep 2 Henry Bouquet, Swiss-born British army officer (b. 1719)
  • Sep 10 Jacob Gilles, GRand Pensionary of Holland, dies at about 74
  • Oct 10 Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, dies at 77
  • Oct 20 William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, dies at 44
  • Oct 21 Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Italian painter and architect, dies at 73
  • Oct 31 Duke of Cumberland, English politician/uncle of George III, dies
  • Nov 30 George Glas, British merchant and adventurer (b. 1725)
  • Dec 16 Peter Frederick Haldimand, Swiss military officer and surveyor
  • Dec 25 Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech theologian and natural scientist, dies at 67