On This Day

1768 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 9 Philip Astley stages the world's first modern circus in London

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 11 Samuel Adams letter, circulates around American colonies, opposing Townshend Act taxes

US Revolutionary Samuel Adams
US Revolutionary
Samuel Adams
  • Feb 15 1st mustard manufactured in America advertised, Philadelphia
  • Feb 20 1st American chartered fire insurance company opens in Pennsylvania

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 29 Polish nobleman Casimir Pulaski joins the Bar Confederation to defend the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence

Military Leader Casimir Pulaski
Military Leader
Casimir Pulaski
  • Apr 5 1st US Chamber of Commerce forms (NYC)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 9 John Hancock refuses to allow two British customs agents to go below deck of his ship, considered by some to be the first act of physical resistance to British authority in the colonies

Statesman John Hancock
John Hancock
  • May 9 John Hancock pays duties on 25 pipes of wine, only one fourth of his ship's carrying capacity. British officials accuse him of unloading the rest during the night to avoid paying duties on the entire cargo.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 10 John Wilkes is imprisoned for writing an article for "The North Briton" severely criticizing King George III. This action provokes rioting in London.

King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover George III
King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover
George III
  • Jun 10 British customs officials seize John Hancock's ship, "The Liberty", on the suspicion that Hancock had illegally unloaded cargo without paying duties a month earlier
  • Jun 21 1st medical diploma in America is granted to Dr John Archer from the College of Philadelphia
  • Jul 7 Firm of Johann Buddenbrook founded, in Thomas Mann's novel
  • Jul 18 Boston Gazette publishes "Liberty Song", America's 1st patriotic song
  • Aug 19 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 25 Captain James Cook departs from Plymouth, England, on his first voyage on board the Endeavour, bound for the Pacific Ocean

Explorer James Cook
James Cook
Botanist and explorer Joseph Banks
Botanist and explorer
Joseph Banks
  • Oct 1 British troops under General Thomas Gage land in Boston
  • Oct 30 First Methodist church in North American colonies initiated (Wesley Chapel, NYC)
  • Dec 1 The slave ship Fredensborg sinks off Tromøy in Norway.
  • Dec 6 1st edition of "Encyclopedia Brittanica" published in Scotland
  • Dec 10 First part (number) of the Encyclopedia Britannica published in Edinburgh, Scotland

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 7 Joseph Bonaparte, King of Naples (d. 1844)
  • Jan 10 James Varicick, founder and first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, born in Newburgh, New York (d. 1827)
  • Jan 28 Frederick VI, Danish king (1808-39); lost Norway to Sweden (1814)
  • Feb 4 Maurits C van Hall, Dutch ruler of Heicop & Boeicop, lawyer/politician
  • Feb 12 Francis II, Florence Italy, last Holy Roman emperor (1792-1806)
  • Feb 13 Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, French marshal (d. 1835)
  • Feb 15 Jozef B Cannaert [Olim], Flemish lawyer
  • Mar 13 Charles Louis Willem Josef van Keverberg, Dutch civil servant, born in Haelen, Netherlands (d. 1841)
  • Mar 21 Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier, mathematician/Egyptologist
  • Mar 30 Maria Reynolds, American mistress of Alexander Hamilton and part of America's 1st political sex scandal (Reynolds Pamphlet), born in NYC, Province of New York, British Empire (d. 1828)
  • Apr 19 Adrian Hardy Haworth, English entomologist and botanist, born in Hull, England (d. 1833)
  • May 2 Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert, French dermatologist, born in Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Aveyron, France (d. 1837)
  • May 3 Charles Tennant, Scottish chemist and industrialist, born in Laigh Corton, Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland (d. 1838)
  • May 17 Caroline of Brunswick, Queen Consort of King George IV (1820-21), born in Brunswick, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1821)
  • May 17 Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey, English general, born in London (d. 1854)
  • May 20 Dolley Dandridge Payne Madison, 1st lady (1809-17)
  • Jun 9 Samuel Slater, American industrialist (d. 1835)
  • Jun 30 Elizabeth Kortright Monroe, First Lady of the United States (1817-25) as the wife of the fifth President James Monroe, born in NYC, New York (d. 1830)
  • Jul 27 Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary who murdered Jean-Paul Marat in a bath, born in Saint-Saturnin, France (d. 1793)
  • Aug 17 Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French general (d. 1800)
  • Aug 27 Anne François Mellinet, French-Belgian general (Maastricht), born in Corbeil-Essonnes, France (d. 1852)
  • Sep 4 Francois René de Chateaubriand, French novelist (Atala), born in Saint-Malo, France (d. 1848)
  • Sep 23 William Wallace, Scottish mathematician (Rights of Wallace)
  • Oct 2 William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, British general and politician, born in Bedgebury, Kent, England (d. 1854)
  • Oct 11 Adriaan van den Ende, Dutch vicar and educationalist, born in Delft, Netherlands (d. 1846)
  • Oct 26 Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko, Polish general and politician, born in Radzyń Podlaski, Poland (d. 1844)
  • Nov 8 Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom, 6th child and second daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte, born in London (d. 1840)
  • Nov 21 Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologist and philosopher, born in Breslau, Prussian Silesia (d. 1834)
  • Nov 30 Jędrzej Śniadecki, Polish writer, physician, chemist (creation of modern Polish terminology in the field of chemistry), born in Żnin, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (d. 1838)
  • Dec 22 John Crome (Old Crome), English landscape artist, born in Norwich, England (d. 1821)

Deaths in History

  • Jan 10 Charles Cressent, French court furniture maker, dies at 82
  • Feb 1 Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, British cavalry officer, dies at 82
  • Feb 2 Robert Smith, English mathematician (b. 1689)
  • Feb 8 George Dance the Elder, English architect (b. 1695)
  • Feb 17 Arthur Onslow, English politician (Speaker of the House of Commons 1728-61), dies at 76
  • Mar 1 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher & writer, dies at 74
  • Mar 18 Lawrence Sterne, writer (Sentimental Journey France & Italy), dies
  • Mar 21 Jan Jacob Mauricius, Dutch governor-general of Suriname (1742-51), dies at 75
  • Apr 9 Sarah Fielding, English writer (The Adventures of David Simple), dies at 58
  • Apr 19 Filippo della Valle, Italian sculptor, dies at about 70
  • Apr 19 Giovanni Antonio Canal [Canaletto], Italian painter and printmaker (Rialto), dies at 70
  • Apr 29 Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and minerologist, dies at 73
  • May 16 Cornelis Writer, fleet supervisor, dies at about 81
  • May 27 Johann M Fleischmann, German/Dutch stamp/letter designer, dies
  • Jun 8 Johann Winckelmann, German archaeologist (History of Ancient Art), dies at 50
  • Jun 15 James Short, Scottish mathematician and manufacturer of telescopes, dies at 57
  • Jun 19 Benjamin Tasker, Governor of Maryland (b. 1690)
  • Jul 4 Willem van Hairs, Fries nobleman and poet (Suicide), dies at 58
  • Jul 24 Nathanial Lardner, English theologian (b. 1684)
  • Aug 17 Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky, Russian poet (b. 1703)
  • Sep 2 Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician, dies at 64
  • Oct 1 Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician (Simson line), dies at 80
  • Nov 4 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist, philosopher and astronomer, dies at 57

Person of interestThomas Pelham-Holles

Nov 17 Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, British Prime Minister (Whig: 1757-62), dies at 75

British Prime Minister Thomas Pelham-Holles
British Prime Minister
Thomas Pelham-Holles
  • Dec 8 Jean Denis Attiret, French Jesuit missionary and painter, dies at 66
  • Dec 20 Carlo Innocenzio Maria Frugoni, Italian poet (b. 1692)
  • Dec 20 Carlo Innocenzo Fragoni, Italian poet, dies at 76