On This Day

1774 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 11 Messier adds M51 (spiral galaxy in Canes Venatici) to his catalog

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 30 Captain James Cook reaches 71°10' south, 1820km from south pole (record)

Explorer James Cook
Explorer
James Cook
  • Feb 10 Andrew Becker demonstrates diving suit
  • Feb 22 British House of Lords rules authors do not have perpetual copyright

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 4 First sighting of Orion nebula (William Herschel)

Astronomer William Herschel
Astronomer
William Herschel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 5 John Hancock delivers the fourth annual Massacre Day oration, a commemoration of the Boston Massacre, and denounces the presence of British troops in Boston, enhancing Hancock's stature as a leading Patriot

Statesman John Hancock
Statesman
John Hancock

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 7 King George III charges colonists in Boston with attempting to injure British commerce, paving the way for the closing of the port to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party

King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover George III
King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover
George III
  • Mar 20 The British parliament passes first of the Intolerable Acts: the Boston Port Act, which closed Boston harbor until colonists would pay for damages following the Boston Tea Party
  • Mar 28 Britain passes Coercive Act against Massachusetts
  • Apr 30 Pope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee for the second time

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 10 Louis XVI ascends to throne of France

King of France Louis XVI
King of France
Louis XVI
  • May 20 The British pass the second of the Intolerable Acts: the Massachusetts Government Act, giving British-appointed governor wide-ranging powers
  • May 23 Chestertown tea party occurs (tea dumped into Chester River)
  • Jun 1 Boston Port Act: Following the passage of the act, the British government orders Port of Boston closed to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party
  • Jun 2 Intolerable Acts: Amendment to original Quartering Act enacted, allows governors in colonial America to house British soldiers in uninhabited houses, outhouses, barns, or other buildings if suitable quarters not provided
  • Jun 11 Jews of Algiers escape attacking Spanish Army

  • Jun 13 Rhode Island becomes first colony to prohibit importation of slaves
  • Jun 16 Formation of Harrodsburg, Kentucky
  • Jun 22 British parliament accepts Quebec Act, which extends the province's territory and restores French civil law
  • Jul 4 Orangetown Resolutions adopted in the Province of New York, one of many protests against the British Parliament's Coercive Acts
  • Jul 12 Citizens of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, pass a symbolic declaration of independence
  • Jul 12 Cossack leader Emilian Pugachevs army occupies Kazan
  • Jul 17 Captain James Cook arrives in the New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
  • Jul 21 Russo-Turkish War, 1768-74: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the war

Historic InventionOxygen Discovered!

Aug 1 Joseph Priestley, English theologian, chemist and author discovers oxygen by isolating it in its gaseous state
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Illustration of Priestley's discovery of oxygen, by Henry Granger
Illustration of Priestley's discovery of oxygen, by Henry Granger

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 6 Founder of the Shaker Movement, Mother Ann Lee, arrives in NY

Founder of the Shakers Ann Lee
Founder of the Shakers
Ann Lee
  • Aug 10 1st Surinam newspaper (1st Wednesday Suriname) begins publishing
  • Sep 5 The 1st Continental Congress, a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that later became the United States, convenes at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia
  • Sep 5 Twelve of the thirteen American colonies adopt a trade embargo against Great Britain at the first Continental Congress at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Sep 5 With the meeting of the Continental Congress, Philadelphia becomes the 1st capital of United States
  • Sep 15 Cossack pretender to the Russian throne Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev captured
  • Oct 14 1st Continental Congress makes Declaration of Colonial Rights in Philadelphia
  • Oct 20 American Continental Congress orders discouragement of entertainment
  • Oct 21 First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
  • Oct 26 First Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia
  • Oct 26 Minutemen organized in US colonies
  • Nov 17 First City Troop Philadelphia City Cavarly formed at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia - oldest US military unit still in service

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 13 Paul Revere and Wentworth Cheswell ride to warn Portsmouth of the approach of British warships

American Patriot Paul Revere
American Patriot
Paul Revere
  • Dec 14 First incident of American Revolution - 400 attack Fort William and Mary, New Hampshire
  • Dec 14 Portsmouth, New Hampshire militiamen successfully attack arsenal of Ft William & Mary
  • Dec 18 Empress Maria Theresa expels Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 André Marie Constant Duméril, French zoologist (d. 1860)
  • Feb 11 Hans Järta, Swedish political activist (d. 1847)
  • Feb 15 Frederik, prince of Orange-Nassau, son of William V, born in the Hague, Netherlands (d. 1799)
  • Feb 17 Raphaelle Peale, American painter (After the Rain-1823)
  • Feb 24 Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge (d. 1850)
  • Mar 16 Matthew Flinders, English navigator/cartographer (coast Australia)
  • Apr 21 Jean-Baptiste Biot, French physicist (Biot-Savart law), born in Paris (d. 1862)
  • Apr 26 Christian Leopold von Buch, German geologist and paleontologist, born in Stolpe an der Oder, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Prussia (d. 1853)
  • Apr 28 Francis Baily, English astronomer and describer of "Baily's Beads" during solar eclipse, born in Newbury, Berkshire, England (d. 1844)
  • May 7 William Bainbridge, American naval officer, born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1833)
  • May 27 Francis Beaufort, Irish admiral and hydrographer (Beaufort wind force scale), born in Navan, County Meath, Ireland (d. 1857)
  • Jun 2 William Lawson, English born explorer of New South Wales, Australia, born in Finchley, England (d. 1850)
  • Jun 21 Daniel D. Tompkins, American politician, 6th US Vice President (1817-25), born in Scarsdale, New York (d. 1825)
  • Jun 23 Matthijs Siegenbeek, Dutch linguist (spelling)
  • Jun 24 François-Nicolas-Benoît Haxo, French Army general, born in Lunéville, France (d. 1838)
  • Jul 20 Auguste Marmont, French marshal, born in Châtillon-sur-Seine, France (d. 1852)
  • Aug 12 Robert Southey, English writer (The Story of the Three Bears), Poet Laureate (1813-43) and biographer (Nelson), born in Bristol, England (d. 1843)

Person of interestMeriwether Lewis

Aug 18 Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, soldier and public administrator who helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition, born in Ivy, Virginia (d. 1809)

Explorer and Leader of Lewis & Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis
Explorer and Leader of Lewis & Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis

Person of interestElizabeth Ann Bayley Seton

Aug 28 Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton, 1st American Catholic saint (1975), born in NYC, New York (d. 1821)

1st American-born Saint Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton
1st American-born Saint
Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton
  • Sep 8 Anna Katharina Emmerick, Roman Catholic Augustinian Canoness Regular of Windesheim, Marian visionary, ecstatic and stigmatist, born in Coesfeld, Westphalia, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1824)
  • Sep 14 Lord William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, British soldier and statesman (Governor-General of India, 1828-1835), born in Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1839)
  • Sep 17 Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti, Italian cardinal, linguist and hyperpolyglot (understood 70 languages), born in Bologna, Italy (d. 1849)
  • Sep 26 Johnny Appleseed [John Chapman], American pioneer nurseryman (introduced apple trees to Pennsylvania, Ontario, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois), born in Leominster, Massachusetts (d. 1845)
  • Oct 14 Hubert Matthijs Adriaan Jan van Asch van Wijck, Dutch lawyer and politician, born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1843)
  • Oct 18 Adolf Muller, German dramatist and critic, born near Weissenfels (d. 1829)
  • Nov 18 Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands (1815-37), born in Potsdam, Prussia (d. 1837)
  • Nov 24 Thomas Dick, Scottish scientific teacher and writer (d. 1857)
  • Dec 30 Pieter G Witsen Geysbeek, Dutch historian/literary [or Dec 31]

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Apr 28 Chief Justice John Jay (28) weds Sarah Van Brugh Livingston (17)

1st US Chief Justice John Jay
1st US Chief Justice
John Jay

Deaths in History

  • Jan 21 Mustafa III, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1717). Reigns 1757 to 1774. Dies at 56
  • Feb 4 Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (b. 1701)
  • Apr 4 Oliver Goldsmith, Irish novelist and dramatist (She Stoops to Conquer), dies at 45
  • Apr 23 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter, dies at 61
  • May 4 Anthony Ulrich II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, dies at 59
  • May 10 Louis XV, king of France (1715-74), dies at 64
  • Jul 1 Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, English corrupt politician (Chiswick), dies at 68
  • Jul 11 Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, Irish-born New York pioneer
  • Jul 14 James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley and Kilmaine, British field marshal (b. 1682)
  • Aug 11 Tiphaigne de la Roche, French writer (b. 1722)
  • Aug 14 Johann Jakob Reiske, German physician (b. 1716)
  • Sep 22 Pope Clement XIV [Giovanni Ganganelli], Pope (1769-74), dies at 68
  • Sep 25 John Bradstreet, Canadian-born soldier (b. 1714)
  • Oct 13 Willem Bentinck, mister of Rhoon/Pendrecht/Orangist, dies at 69
  • Oct 16 Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet (Scottish Poems), dies at 24
  • Oct 23 Michel Benoist, French Jesuit missionary and scientist, dies at 59
  • Dec 13 Susanne K von Klettenberg, German friend of Goethes mother, dies at 50
  • Dec 16 Francois Quesnay, French personal physician of Louis XIV, dies at 80