On This Day

1775 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 11 Francis Salvador becomes 1st Jew elected to office in America (SC)
  • Jan 17 9 old women burnt as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland
  • Jan 17 Richard Brinsley Sheridan's play "The Rivals" premieres in London
  • Jan 22 Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expels Jews from Warsaw, Poland
  • Jan 25 Americans drag cannon up hill to fight British (Gun Hill Road, Bronx)
  • Feb 9 British Parliament declares Massachusetts colony is in rebellion
  • Feb 15 Angelo Braschi chosen as Pope Pius VI
  • Feb 22 1st US joint stock company (to make cloth) offers shares at 10 cents
  • Feb 22 Jews expelled from outskirts of Warsaw, Poland
  • Mar 6 1st Negro Mason in north America initiated, Boston
  • Mar 17 Transylvania Land Company, headed by Richard Henderson, buys most of Kentucky through treaty signed with Cherokee chiefs at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River (later declared illegal)
  • Mar 19 4 people buried by avalanche for 37 days, 3 survive (Italy)
  • Mar 19 Poland & Prussia sign trade agreement
  • Mar 22 Edmund Burke presents his 13 articles to the Westminster Parliament

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 23 Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death" in speech in favour of Virginian troops joining US Revolutionary war

American Revolutionary and Founding Father Patrick Henry
American Revolutionary and Founding Father
Patrick Henry
  • Apr 14 1st abolitionist society in US organizes in Philadelphia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 18 Paul Revere and William Dawes ride from Charlestown to Lexington warning the "regulars are coming!"

American Patriot Paul Revere
American Patriot
Paul Revere
  • Apr 19 Minutemen Capt John Parker orders not to fire unless fired upon

USAThe Shot Heard Round the World

Apr 19 American Revolution begins in Lexington, Massachusetts. The "Shot Heard Round the World" took place in Concord later that day
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'Battle on Lexington Green' as painted by William Barnes Wollen
'Battle on Lexington Green' as painted by William Barnes Wollen
  • Apr 19 New England militiamen begin the siege of Boston, hemming in the British army garrison
  • Apr 19 Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott are captured by British troops riding from Lexington to Concord, Prescott escapes to warn Concord
  • May 7 Turkish state of Bukovina secedes from Austria
  • May 10 Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and issues paper currency for 1st time

AppointmentAppointment of Interest

May 10 Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia names George Washington Supreme Commander

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • May 10 American Revolution: Green Mountain Boys capture Fort Ticonderoga, New York
  • May 17 American Revolutionary War: the Continental Congress bans trade with Canada
  • May 20 Citizens of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina declare independence from Britain

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

May 24 John Hancock is unanimously elected President of the Continental Congress

Statesman John Hancock
Statesman
John Hancock
  • Jun 12 1st naval battle of Revolution-Unity (US) captures Margaretta (Br)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 14 US Army first forms as the Continental Army to fight American Revolutionary War

US General Nathanael Greene
US General
Nathanael Greene
  • Jun 15 George Washington appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, the day after Congress establishes the force
  • Jun 17 Battle of Bunker Hill (actually it was Breed's Hill)
  • Jun 22 1st Continental currency issued ($3,000,000)
  • Jun 23 1st regatta held on river Thames, England
  • Jul 3 George Washington takes command of Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 5 Second Continental Congress drafts the Olive Branch Petition to King George III

King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover George III
King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover
George III

  • Jul 6 Congress issues "Declaration of the Causes & Necessity of Taking up Arms", listing grievances but denying intent to be independent

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 10 Horatio Gates issues order excluding blacks from Continental Army

Military Leader Horatio Gates
Military Leader
Horatio Gates
  • Jul 17 1st military hospital approved

Historic PublicationMagna Carta

Jul 25 Maryland issues currency depicting George III trampling Magna Carta
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The Magna Carta, written in iron gall ink on parchment in medieval Latin
The Magna Carta, written in iron gall ink on parchment in medieval Latin

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 26 US Continental Congress creates United States Post Office (U.S.P.O.) in Philadelphia under Benjamin Franklin

United States Founding Father Benjamin Franklin
United States Founding Father
Benjamin Franklin

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 30 Captain James Cook with Resolution returns to England

Explorer James Cook
Explorer
James Cook
  • Aug 5 1st Spanish ship, San Carlos, enters San Francisco Bay
  • Aug 22 King George III proclaims colonies to be in open rebellion
  • Sep 13 Gotthold Lessing's "Die Juden," premieres in Frankfurt-am-Main

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 25 American Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen captured

American Revolutionary War Patriot Ethan Allen
American Revolutionary War Patriot
Ethan Allen
  • Oct 8 Officers decide to bar slaves & free blacks from Continental Army
  • Oct 13 First US Navy forms when Continental Congress orders construction of a naval fleet
  • Oct 16 Portland, Maine burned by British

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 18 African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery

  • Oct 27 US Navy forms as the Continental Navy
  • Nov 7 Lord Dunmore promises freedom to male slaves who join British army
  • Nov 10 The Second Continental Congress forms Continental Marines, precursor to the United States Marine Corps

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 11 Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant goes to London to solicit more support from the government and to persuade the Crown to address past Mohawk land grievances in exchange for their participation as allies in the impending war

Mohawk Military Leader Joseph Brant
Mohawk Military Leader
Joseph Brant
  • Nov 12 General Washington forbids recruiting officers enlisting blacks
  • Nov 13 American Revolutionary forces capture Montreal
  • Nov 14 -15] Floods ravage Dutch coast provinces
  • Nov 24 Continental Congress approves resolution barring blacks from army
  • Nov 28 Second Continental Congress formally establishes the Continental Navy
  • Nov 29 Sir James Jay invents invisible ink
  • Dec 3 First official US flag raised (Grand Union Flag) aboard naval vessel USS Alfred
  • Dec 5 At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox begins his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

InventionHistoric Invention

Dec 16 Englishman Richard Arkwright receives a patent for his carding machine for use in cotton mills

Industrialist and Inventor Richard Arkwright
Industrialist and Inventor
Richard Arkwright
  • Dec 22 Continental navy organized with 7 ships
  • Dec 25 Pope Pius VI encyclical on the problems of the pontificate
  • Dec 31 Battle of Quebec in American Revolutionary War; Americans defeated trying to take British stronghold

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 20 André-Marie Ampère, French physicist (d. 1836)

Person of interestFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Jan 27 Friedrich von Schelling, German philosopher (Views on Christianity), born in Leonberg, Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1854)

  • Jan 30 Walter Savage Landor, English poet & writer (Imaginary Conversations), born in Warwick, England (d. 1864)
  • Feb 5 Margaretha J de Neufville, author (Small Pligten)
  • Feb 9 Farkas/Wolfgang Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (parallel axiom)
  • Feb 10 Charles Lamb, British critic/poet/essayist (Essays of Elia), born in London, England (d. 1834)
  • Feb 12 Louisa Adams, US First Lady (1825-29), born in London (d. 1852)
  • Feb 18 Thomas Girtin, artist/watercolorist, born in London, England
  • Apr 7 Francis C Lowell, founded 1st raw cotton-to-cloth textile mill
  • Apr 8 Adam A earl von Neipperg, Austrian general and Napoleon's wife Marie lover, born in Vienna (d. 1829)
  • Apr 21 Alexander Anderson, American engraver and illustrator (Shakespeare), born in NYC, New York (d. 1870)
  • Apr 22 Georg Hermes, German philosopher and theologist (Hermenianen), born in Dreierwalde, Münster (d. 1831)

Person of interestJ. M. W. Turner

Apr 23 J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter (Shipwreck, Rain, Steam and Speed), born in Covent Garden, London (d. 1851)

Romantic Painter J. M. W. Turner
Romantic Painter
J. M. W. Turner
  • May 10 Robert Gray, Sea Captain (d. 1806)
  • May 21 Lucien Bonaparte, prince of Canino/Musignano
  • Jun 12 Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal, born in Halle, Germany (d. 1851)
  • Jul 9 Matthew Lewis, English novelist (The Monk), born in London (d. 1818)
  • Jul 23 Étienne-Louis Malus, French physicist (Polarization of light), born in Paris (d. 1812)
  • Jul 24 Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal and police detective, born in Arras, France (d. 1857)
  • Jul 25 Anna Symmes Harrison, 9th 1st lady (1841), born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1864)
  • Aug 6 Louis Antoine, French Duke of Angoulême and General of France, born in Palace of Versailles, France (d. 1844)
  • Aug 6 Daniel O'Connell, Irish politician, born in Cahersiveen, County Kerry, Ireland (d. 1847)
  • Aug 26 William Joseph Behr, German writer (d. 1851)
  • Sep 5 Juan Martín Díez, El Empecinado (The Undaunted), Spanish guerrillero, born in Valladolid, Spain (d. 1825)

Person of interestLaura Secord

Sep 13 Laura Secord, Canadian war heroine, born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts Bay (d. 1868)

Canadian War Heroine Laura Secord
Canadian War Heroine
Laura Secord
  • Oct 12 Lyman Beecher, US Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, born in New Haven, Connecticut (d. 1863)
  • Nov 27 Joachim le Sage ten Broek, Dutch notary and publicist, born in Groningen, Netherlands (1847)
  • Dec 14 Philander Chase, American Episcopal Church bishop and founder of Kenyon College, born in Cornish, New Hampshire (d. 1852)
  • Dec 14 Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, British admiral , born in Annsfield, Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1860)

Person of interestJane Austen

Dec 16 Jane Austen, English novelist (Pride and Prejudice), born in Steventon, England (d. 1817)

Novelist Jane Austen
Novelist
Jane Austen

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Aug 28 Statesman John Hancock (38) weds hostess Dorothy Quincy (28) in Fairfield, Connecticut

Statesman John Hancock
Statesman
John Hancock

Deaths in History

  • Jan 8 John Baskerville, English printer/type designer, dies at 68
  • Jan 10 Jemeljan Pugatshov, Russian kosak leader/"Tsar Peter III", dies
  • Jan 11 Yemelyan Pugachov, Don Cossack rebel, executed by tsarist Russia
  • Jan 11 Prithvi Narayan Shah, began the unification of modern Nepal (b. 1723)
  • Jan 13 Johann Georg Walch, German theologian, dies at 81
  • Feb 5 Eusebius Amort, German Roman Catholic theologian, dies at 82
  • Feb 6 William Dowdeswell, English politician (b. 1721)
  • Feb 15 Peter Dens, Flemish Catholic theologian, dies at 84
  • May 10 Caroline Matilda of Great Britain, Queen consort of Denmark and Norway, dies at 23
  • Jun 17 Major John Pitcairn, British marine (killed in battle) (b. 1722)
  • Jun 17 Joseph Warren, American physician and soldier, dies at 34
  • Jun 23 Karl Ludwig, Freiherr von Pöllnitz, German adventurer and writer (b. 1692)
  • Jul 3 Colonel Thomas Gardner, American heroic political figure and soldier, dies at 51
  • Jul 11 Simon Boerum, American Continental Congressman (b. 1724)
  • Sep 16 Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, English privy councillor (b. 1684)
  • Sep 18 Andrew Foulis, bookseller/printer, dies
  • Oct 2 Chiyo-ni, Japanese poet (b. 1703)
  • Oct 18 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)
  • Oct 21 Peyton Randolph, American president of the Continental Congress (b. 1721)
  • Nov 21 John Hill, British writer
  • Nov 24 Lorenzo Ricci, Italian Jesuit leader (18th & last Superior General of the Society of Jesus), dies at 72
  • Dec 7 Charles Saunders, British admiral, First Lord of the Admiralty, dies at about 60
  • Dec 28 Peter A van de Parra, gov-gen of Neth Indies, dies at 61
  • Dec 31 Richard Montgomery, Irish General in Continental Army during American Revolutionary War, dies in attack on Quebec at 37