On This Day

1777 in History

Events in History


Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Jan 3 General George Washington's revolutionary army defeats British forces at Battle of Princeton, New Jersey

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • Jan 12 Mission Santa Clara de Asis founded in California
  • Jan 15 People of New Connecticut (Vermont) declare independence from England
  • Jan 16 Vermont declares independence from New York
  • Jan 18 San Jose in California founded
  • Feb 5 Georgia becomes 1st US state to abolish both entail and primogeniture

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 13 Marquis de Sade arrested without charge, imprisoned in Vincennes fortress

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 14 US Congress commissions Benjamin Lincoln a major general in the Continental Army

Military Leader Benjamin Lincoln
Military Leader
Benjamin Lincoln
  • Feb 16 Messier adds M53 to his catalog (globular cluster in Coma Berenice)
  • Feb 21 British ambassador Joseph Yorke demands dismissal of Governor John de Graaff for saluting US flag
  • Mar 8 Regiments from Ansbach and Bayreuth, sent to support Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, mutiny in the town of Ochsenfurt
  • Apr 20 New York adopts new constitution as an independent state
  • Apr 26 Sybil Ludington aged 16, rides 40 miles in New York to warn her father's militia of the approach of the British
  • May 1 RB Sheridan's "School for Scandal" premieres in London
  • May 12 1st ice cream advertisement (Philip Lenzi in the NY Gazette)
  • May 13 University library at Vienna opens

  • Jun 13 Leonard Norcross patents a submarine diving suit

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 13 Marquis de Lafayette lands in US

French General and Aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette
French General and Aristocrat
Marquis de Lafayette

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 14 US Continental Congress adopts the Stars & Stripes flag, designed by Francis Hopkinson, replacing the Grand Union flag

Designer of the American Flag Francis Hopkinson
Designer of the American Flag
Francis Hopkinson
  • Jul 6 British General Burgoyne captures Fort Ticonderoga from Americans
  • Jul 7 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Hubbardton
  • Jul 8 Independent Vermont introduces a new constitution, prohibiting slavery
  • Jul 31 Marquis de Lafayette, 19, made major-general of Continental Army
  • Aug 16 American militiamen defeat British forces at the Battle of Bennington near Vermont, during the American Revolutionary War
  • Aug 28 American Revolutionary War - Battle of Cooch's Bridge takes place near Newark, Delaware.
  • Sep 3 Flag of the United States flown in battle for the 1st time at Cooch's Bridge, Delaware, a skirmish during American Revolutionary War

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Sep 11 Battle of Brandywine, Pennysylvania; Americans lose to the British, Polish soldier Casimir Pulaski saves life of George Washington

Military Leader Casimir Pulaski
Military Leader
Casimir Pulaski
First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • Sep 15 George Washington on authorisation of Congress appoints Casimire Pulaski brigadier general in Continental Army cavalry
  • Sep 19 Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights) or 1st Battle of Saratoga

BattleBattle of Interest

Sep 20 Battle of Paoli; British forces under Major General Charles Grey attacks Brigadier General Anthony Wayne's encampment. Claims the British gave no quarter leads to engagement becoming known as the "Paoli Massacre"

Military Leader Anthony Wayne
Military Leader
Anthony Wayne

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 26 British General William Howe occupies Philadelphia during American Revolution

Military Leader William Howe
Military Leader
William Howe
  • Sep 30 Continental Congress, flees to York, Pa, as British forces advance
  • Oct 4 Battle of Germantown: Gen George Washington's troops attack and are defeated by the British at Germantown, Pennsylvania
  • Oct 7 Americans beat British in Second Battle of Saratoga & Battle of Bemis Heights
  • Oct 15 Mjr James Graves Simcoe appointed commandant of Queen's Rangers (Penn)
  • Oct 17 British General John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga during the American Revolutionary War

USAArticles of Confederation

Nov 15 Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, is approved by the Continental Congress
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The Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States of America
The Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States of America
  • Dec 2 British General Howe plots attack on Washington's army for Dec 4

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 8 Captain James Cook leaves Society Islands

Explorer James Cook
Explorer
James Cook
  • Dec 16 Articles of Conferation (US 1st constitution) ratified by 1st state Virginia
  • Dec 17 France recognizes independence of British colonies in America
  • Dec 17 George Washington's army returns to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
  • Dec 18 1st national Thanksgiving Day, commemorating Burgoyne's surrender
  • Dec 19 Washington settles his troops at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania for the winter
  • Dec 24 Kiritimati, also called Christmas Island, is discovered by James Cook

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 2 Christian D Rauch, German sculptor (d. 1857)
  • Jan 3 M A Elisa Bonaparte, Corsican monarch of Lucca/Piombino
  • Jan 25 Elias Canneman, Dutch politician, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1861)
  • Feb 12 Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, German poet (d. 1843)
  • Mar 9 Aleksander Orłowski, Polish painter, cartoonist and graphic artist, born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 1832)
  • Mar 17 Roger Brooke Taney, Calvert Md, 5th Chief Justice (Dred Scott dec)
  • Mar 19 Anton R Falck, Dutch minister of Education/diplomat
  • Mar 31 Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist (d. 1859)

Person of interestHenry Clay

Apr 12 Henry Clay, American politician known as "the Great Compromiser", born in Hanover County, Virginia (d. 1852)

Legislator and Orator Henry Clay
Legislator and Orator
Henry Clay

Person of interestCarl Friedrich Gauss

Apr 30 Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician considered one of the greatest of all time (Gaussian distribution, fundamental theorem of algebra), born in Brunswick, Germany (d. 1855)

Mathematician, Astronomer and Physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss
Mathematician, Astronomer and Physicist
Carl Friedrich Gauss
  • Jun 12 Robert Clark, American politician, U.S. House of Representatives from New York (1819-21), born in Washington County, New York (d. 1837)
  • Jun 24 John Ross, British naval officer and explorer, born in Balsarroch, Scotland (d. 1856)
  • Jul 9 Henry Hallam, British lawyer and historian (d. 1859)
  • Jul 23 Philipp Otto Runge, German Romantic painter, born in Wolgast, West Pomerania (d. 1810)
  • Jul 27 Thomas Campbell, Scottish poet (Hohenlinden, Battle of the Baltic), born in Glasgow, Scotland (d. 1844)

Person of interestHans Christian Ørsted

Aug 14 Hans Christian Ørsted, Danish physicist and chemist (View of Chemical Law), born in Rudkøbing, Denmark (d. 1851)

Physicist, Chemist Hans Christian Ørsted
Physicist, Chemist
Hans Christian Ørsted
  • Aug 14 Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies (1825-30), born in Naples, Kingdom of Naples (d. 1830)
  • Aug 29 Hyacinth [Nikita Yakovlevich Bichurin], Founder of Sinology (d. 1853)
  • Oct 18 Heinrich von Kleist, German dramatist/poet (Penthesilea)
  • Nov 2 Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom, 5th daughter of King George III, born in Buckingham House, London (d. 1848)
  • Nov 8 Désirée Clary, Queen of Sweden and Norway (1818-44), born in Marseille, France (d. 1860)
  • Nov 28 Augsut Kestner, German art collector and diplomat, born in Hanover, Germany (d. 1853)
  • Dec 2 Henry Doeff, colonialist (wrote Dutch-Japanese dictionary)
  • Dec 4 Juliette Récamier, French socialite, born in Lyon, Kingdom of France (d. 1849)
  • Dec 14 Juan Nicasio Gallego, Spanish poet and interpreter (El dos the mayo), born in Zamora, Spain (d. 1853)
  • Dec 23 Aleksandr I P Romanov, tsar of Russia (1801-25)

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Jun 15 First American flag seamstress Betsy Ross (25) weds mariner Joseph Ashburn

Seamstress Credited with Creating the First American Flag Betsy Ross
Seamstress Credited with Creating the First American Flag
Betsy Ross

LoveWedding of Interest

Oct 25 Governor of Virginia Patrick Henry (41) weds second wife Dorothea Dandridge

American Revolutionary and Founding Father Patrick Henry
American Revolutionary and Founding Father
Patrick Henry

Deaths in History

  • Jan 12 Hugh Mercer, Scottish military officer (fought in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War), dies of his wounds at the Battle of Princeton at 50
  • Feb 9 Seth Pomeroy, American gunsmith and soldier (b. 1706)
  • Feb 24 Joseph, King of Portugal (1750-77), dies at 62
  • May 11 George Pigot, Baron Pigot, British governor of Madras, dies at 58
  • May 16 Button Gwinnet, US revolutionary leader, dies from wounds
  • Jun 16 Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset, French poet and dramatist (b. 1709)
  • Jun 22 Josef Christian, German sculptor, dies at 71
  • Jul 13 Guillaume Coustou Jr, French sculptor (Apollo/Mars/Venus), dies at 61
  • Sep 22 John Bartram, naturalist and explorer, father of American botany, dies at 77
  • Sep 25 Johann Heinrich Lambert, mathematician, dies at 49
  • Oct 5 Ján Andrej Segner, Slovak and German mathematician, physicist, and physician, dies at 72
  • Oct 7 Simon Fraser, English general, dies in battle
  • Nov 10 Cornstalk, Shawnee chief
  • Dec 12 Albrecht von Haller, Swiss experimental physiologist, biologist and author (Acadamy of Science), dies at 69
  • Dec 12 Reverend Benjamin Russen, executed at Tyburn England for rape
  • Dec 30 Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bayern (1745-77), dies at 50