On This Day

1780 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 4 Snowstorm hits George Washington's army at Morristown, New Jersey

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • Jan 15 American Continental Congress establishes court of appeals
  • Jan 16 Battle of Cape St Vincent: British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney defeats Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lángara
  • Mar 1 Pennsylvania becomes 1st US state to abolish slavery (for newborns only)
  • Mar 26 1st British Sunday newspaper appears (British Gazette & Sunday Monitor)
  • Apr 16 The University of Münster in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is founded

DiscoveryHistoric Discovery

May 2 William Herschel discovers 1st binary star, Xi Ursae Majoris

Astronomer William Herschel
William Herschel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 4 American Academy of Arts & Science founded in Boston, James Bowdoin, John and Samuel Adams founding members

US Revolutionary Samuel Adams
US Revolutionary
Samuel Adams
  • May 4 Charles Bunbury on Diomed wins 1st Epsom Derby

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

May 12 American General Benjamin Lincoln surrenders Charleston to the British (Revolutionary War)

Military Leader Benjamin Lincoln
Military Leader
Benjamin Lincoln
  • May 19 About midday, near-total darkness descends on New England, now known to be caused by forest fires in Canada
  • May 29 Battle of Waxhaw Creek: alleged massacre of 113 of Colonel Abraham Buford's continentals by Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton's troops after the continentals raised a white flag
  • Jun 2 Anti-Catholic demonstration attacks parliament in London
  • Jun 7 Anti-Catholic riot in London, hundreds die
  • Jun 23 American Revolution: Battle of Springfield fought in and around Springfield, New Jersey (including Short Hills, formerly of Springfield, now of Millburn Township
  • Jul 9 Denmark declares neutrality

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 10 The Comte de Rochambeau and his French force of 7,000 land at Newport, Rhode Island, to join the American Revolutionary War

Military Leader Comte de Rochambeau
Military Leader
Comte de Rochambeau
  • Aug 1 Sweden declares neutrality
  • Aug 16 British decisively defeat Americans in Battle of Camden, South Carolina
  • Aug 22 HMS Resolution, without Captain James Cook, returns to England

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 21 Benedict Arnold gives British Major John André plans to West Point

US General and Turncoat Benedict Arnold
US General and Turncoat
Benedict Arnold
  • Sep 23 British Major John Andre reveals Benedict Arnold's plot to betray West Point
  • Sep 25 Benedict Arnold joins the British
  • Oct 7 British defeated by American militia near Kings Mountain, SC
  • Oct 10 Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000 to 30,000 in the Caribbean, hitting Barbados first. Atlantic's deadliest recorded hurricane.
  • Oct 16 Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont last major raid of the American Revolutionary War

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 25 John Hancock becomes the first Governor of Massachusetts

Statesman John Hancock
John Hancock
  • Oct 27 Samuel Williams and the first U.S. astronomical expedition to record an eclipse of the sun observes the event at Penobscot Bay
  • Nov 5 French-American force under Colonel LaBalme is defeated by Miami Chief Little Turtle
  • Dec 20 Britain declares war on Holland

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 10 Heinrich Lichtenstein, German physician & explorer, born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1857)
  • Jan 12 Wilhelm M L de Wette, German exegetist/theologist
  • Feb 2 Johannes van den Bosch, gov-gen (Neth East Indies)
  • Feb 19 Friedrich H von der Hagen, German germanist (Nibelungenlied)
  • Feb 19 Richard McCarty, American politician, born in Coeymans, New York (d. 1844)
  • Mar 1 Leonard PJ du Bus de Gisignies, gov-general of Neth Indies (1826-30)
  • Mar 17 Thomas Chalmers, Scottish minister and 1st moderator (Free Church of Scotland 1843-47), born in Anstruther, Scotland (d. 1847)
  • Mar 18 Milos Obrenovic, Leader of The Second Serbian Uprising and Prince of Serbia (d. 1860)
  • Mar 27 August Leopold Crelle, German inventor and mathematician (1st Prussian Railway), born in Eichwerder, Brandenburg, Germany (d. 1855)
  • Apr 7 William Ellery Channing, American Unitarian clergyman
  • Apr 13 Alexander Mitchell, Irish engineer (inventor of the screw-pile lighthouse), born in Dublin (d. 1868)
  • Apr 29 Charles Nodier, French writer (History du chien the Brisquet), born in Besançon, France (d. 1844)

Person of interestElizabeth Fry

May 21 Elizabeth Fry, English prison reformer, social reformer and Quaker Minister, born in Norwich, England (d. 1845)

English Social Reformer Elizabeth Fry
English Social Reformer
Elizabeth Fry
  • Jun 3 William Hone, English author and bookseller (Every-Day Book)
  • Jul 1 Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian general and strategist, born in Burg bei Magdeburg, Prussia (d. 1831)
  • Aug 21 Jernej Kopitar, Slovene philologist and linguist (Slovenian Grammar), born in Repnje, Slovenia (d. 1844)
  • Aug 29 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, French painter (Valpincon Bather), born in Montauban, France (d. 1867)
  • Sep 25 Jason Fairbanks, American murderer, born in Dedham, Massachusetts (d. 1801)
  • Sep 28 Élie, Duke Decazes, French Bourbon Restoration politician (4th Prime Minister of France), born in Sainte-Martin-de-Laye, France (d. 1860)
  • Oct 10 John Abercrombie, Scottish physician, born in Aberdeen (d. 1844)
  • Oct 20 M Pauline Bonaparte, Corsican duchess of Parma/Guastalla
  • Nov 22 José Cecilio del Valle, Honduran philosopher and politician, born in Choluteca, Honduras (d. 1834)
  • Dec 14 Karl Robert von Nesselrode, German-Russian diplomat, born in Lisbon, Portugal (d. 1862)
  • Dec 23 Charles-Louis Panckoucke, French publisher and editor (Bibliothèque latine-française) (d. 1844)
  • Dec 26 Mary Fairfax Somerville, British mathematician (d. 1872)

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

Dec 14 US founding father Alexander Hamilton (25) weds Elizabeth Schuyler (23) at Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York

1st US Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton
1st US Secretary of Treasury
Alexander Hamilton

Deaths in History

Person of interestWilliam Blackstone

Feb 14 William Blackstone, English jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries), dies at 56

  • Feb 17 Andreas Felix von Oefele, German historian and librarian, dies at 73
  • Feb 18 Kristijonas Donelaitis, Lithuanian poet (b. 1714)
  • Feb 22 Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena & Reggio, dies at 81
  • Mar 20 Sir Benjamin Truman - English brewer (b. 1699/1700)
  • Mar 26 Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, dies at 66
  • May 18 Charles Hardy, British governor of Newfoundland, dies at 66
  • Jun 3 Thomas Hutchinson, Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, dies at 68
  • Jul 4 Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, Imperial Army field marshal, dies at 67
  • Jul 14 Charles Batteux, French philosopher, dies at 67
  • Aug 3 Etienne B de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism), dies at 64
  • Aug 29 Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect (b. 1713)
  • Sep 1 Reynier de Klerk, governor-general of Dutch-Indies (1777-1800), dies at 69
  • Sep 4 John Fielding, English magistrate and social reformer (b. 1721)

Person of interestWilliam Allen

Sep 6 William Allen, American loyalist, Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania and Mayor of Philadelphia, dies at 76

Mayor of Philadelphia William Allen
Mayor of Philadelphia
William Allen
  • Sep 8 Enoch Poor, American Continental Army general (b. 1736)
  • Oct 2 John Andre, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, hanged by Americans (spied with B Arnold) at 30
  • Oct 7 Patrick Ferguson, Scottish army officer and rifle inventor (Ferguson flintlock rifle), dies in battle at 36
  • Oct 17 William Cookworthy, English chemist, dies at 75
  • Nov 14 Jacobus Houbraken, engraver/illustrator, dies at 81
  • Nov 17 Bernardo Bellotto, Italian painter (b. 1720)
  • Nov 26 James [Denham] Steuart, 4th Baronet, British economist (b. 1712)
  • Nov 29 Maria Theresa Hapsburg, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Croatia (1740-1780), dies following illness at 63
  • Dec 26 John Fothergill, English physician, dies at 68